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Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

Chapter by: Zweig, Susan B; Tolentino, Marsha C; Strizhevsky, Manina; Poretsky, Leonid
in: Principles of diabetes mellitus by Poretsky, Leonid [Eds]
New York : Springer, 2010
pp. 515-530
ISBN: 0387098410
CID: 2246722

Octreotide therapy for recurrent refractory hypoglycemia due to sulfonylurea in diabetes-related kidney failure [Case Report]

Gonzalez, Rita R; Zweig, Susan; Rao, Jyoti; Block, Romy; Greene, Loren W
OBJECTIVE: To describe a patient with kidney insufficiency from diabetes treated with glyburide, who presented with prolonged and recurrent hypoglycemia unresponsive to large intravenous doses of glucose, which was treated successfully with intravenously administered octreotide, and to review the therapeutic options for hypoglycemia. METHODS: We present a case report of a 66-year-old man with diabetes causing chronic kidney disease, who was treated with orally administered glyburide, 7.5 mg twice a day. He initially presented to another hospital because of hypoglycemia and was treated with intravenously administered glucose and discharged. The next day, his family brought him to our emergency department because of recurring low blood glucose levels and symptoms of sweating, fever, and nightmares. Laboratory tests revealed a blood glucose level of 33 mg/dL and a creatinine concentration of 6.2 mg/dL. RESULTS: The patient was treated with a 5% dextrose and, subsequently, a 10% dextrose infusion without any sustained improvement. The blood glucose level remained low despite the additional administration of 3 ampules of 50% dextrose in water. The patient was given a bolus of octreotide (50 mug subcutaneously) 14 hours after his second presentation. He received another 50-mug dose of octreotide 6 hours later. After this bolus, the hypoglycemia resolved, and he no longer required intravenous administration of glucose to maintain euglycemia. CONCLUSION: Patients with diabetes and kidney disease frequently have persistent and difficult-to-treat hypoglycemia, unresponsive to conventional therapy. Octreotide is an effective and safe treatment for patients with refractory hypoglycemia attributable to sulfonylureas
PMID: 17669721
ISSN: 1530-891x
CID: 73812

High prevalence of adrenal suppression during acute illness in hospitalized patients receiving megestrol acetate

Chidakel, A R; Zweig, S B; Schlosser, J R; Homel, P; Schappert, J W; Fleckman, A M
INTRODUCTION: Megestrol acetate (MA) is a progestational agent used for palliation of breast and endometrial cancer. The drug promotes weight gain via appetite stimulation. This property has led to widespread use in patients with wasting illnesses. Increasing numbers of reports suggest glucocorticoid activity. OBJECTIVE: Unrecognized adrenal suppression may result from MA use. This is the first study to examine the prevalence of adrenal suppression in hospitalized patients treated with MA. SUBJECTS AND DESIGN: This is a cross-sectional study of hospitalized patients receiving MA compared to control subjects. Morning cortisol levels, endocrine signs and symptoms, and duration of MA therapy were evaluated in 28 hospitalized medical patients treated with MA, and 21 control patients admitted to the same hospital service during the study period. RESULTS: Median cortisol levels were significantly lower in patients using MA vs controls (160 vs 386 nmol/l, p=0.003). Forty-three percent of subjects on MA demonstrated morning cortisol levels below the normal range (138-690 nmol/l), compared with 10% of controls (p=0.013). Ninety-three percent of subjects taking MA had morning cortisol levels below the level that excludes adrenal insufficiency in hospitalized patients (497 nmol/l) vs 71% of controls (p=0.06). CONCLUSIONS: MA use is associated with significant adrenal suppression in acutely ill individuals. This should alert physicians to the possibility of adrenal insufficiency and the need to assess for signs or symptoms of adrenal insufficiency, and mandates a low threshold for testing adrenal function in hospitalized patients taking MA.
PMID: 16610239
ISSN: 0391-4097
CID: 2472582

Rectal administration of propylthiouracil in suppository form in patients with thyrotoxicosis and critical illness: case report and review of literature [Case Report]

Zweig, Susan B; Schlosser, Jonathan R; Thomas, Sylvia A; Levy, Carol J; Fleckman, Adrienne M
OBJECTIVE: To report the successful management of thyrotoxicosis in a seriously ill 47-year-old man with a perforated gastric ulcer in whom oral intake was contraindicated. METHODS: Our patient was treated with 400 mg of propylthiouracil (PTU) every 6 hours in the form of specially prepared suppositories for rectal administration, together with intravenously infused esmolol. RESULTS: We were able to demonstrate substantial absorption of PTU administered by means of rectal suppositories. Serum levels of PTU were maintained within the high therapeutic range for 5 days until the patient was able to tolerate orally administered therapy. The patient improved clinically during this treatment. CONCLUSION: This case strongly supports the rectal administration of PTU in suppository form as an appropriate alternative route in any patient with thyrotoxicosis, including the critically ill patient, when oral administration is not possible
PMID: 16524862
ISSN: 1530-891x
CID: 111847