Increase in newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes in youth during the COVID-19 pandemic in the US: A multi-center analysis
BACKGROUND:An increase in newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes (T1D) has been posited during the COVID-19 pandemic, but data are conflicting. We aimed to determine trends in newly diagnosed T1D and severity of presentation at diagnosis for pediatric and adolescent patients during COVID-19 (2020) as compared to the previous year (2019) in a multi-center analysis across the United States. METHODS:This retrospective study from seven centers in the T1D Exchange Quality Improvement Collaborative (T1DX-QI) included data on new onset T1D diagnosis and proportion in DKA at diagnosis from January 1 to December 31, 2020, compared to the prior year. Chi-square tests were used to compare differences in patient characteristics during the pandemic period compared to the prior year. RESULTS:Across seven sites, there were 1399 newly diagnosed T1D patients in 2020, compared to 1277 in 2019 (p=0.007). A greater proportion of newly diagnosed patients presented in DKA in 2020 compared to 2019 (599/1399(42.8%) v. 493/1277(38.6%), p=0.02), with a higher proportion presenting with severe DKA (p=0.01) as characterized by a pH<7.1 and/or bicarbonate of <5mmol/L. Monthly data trends demonstrated a higher number of new T1D diagnoses over the spring and summer months (March to September) of 2020 compared to 2019 (p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS:We found an increase in newly diagnosed T1D and a greater proportion presenting in DKA at diagnosis during the COVID-19 pandemic compared to the prior year. Future longitudinal studies are needed to confirm these findings with population level data and determine the long-term impact of COVID-19 on diabetes trends. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Longitudinal associations of pre-pregnancy BMI and gestational weight gain with maternal urinary metabolites: an NYU CHES study
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:Excessive gestational weight gain (GWG) and pre-pregnancy obesity affect a significant portion of the US pregnant population and are linked with negative maternal and child health outcomes. The objective of this study was to explore associations of pre-pregnancy body mass index (pBMI) and GWG with longitudinally measured maternal urinary metabolites throughout pregnancy. SUBJECTS/METHODS/METHODS:Among 652 participants in the New York University Children's Health and Environment Study, a longitudinal pregnancy cohort, targeted metabolomics were measured in serially collected urine samples throughout pregnancy. Metabolites were measured at median 10 (T1), 21 (T2), and 29 (T3) weeks gestation using the Biocrates AbsoluteIDQÂ® p180 Urine Extension kit. Acylcarnitine, amino acid, biogenic amine, phosphatidylcholine, lysophosphatidylcholine, sphingolipid, and sugar levels were quantified. Pregnant people 18 years or older, without type 1 or 2 diabetes and with singleton live births and valid pBMI and metabolomics data were included. GWG and pBMI were calculated using weight and height data obtained from electronic health records. Linear mixed effects models with interactions with time were fit to determine the gestational age-specific associations of categorical pBMI and continuous interval-specific GWG with urinary metabolites. All analyses were corrected for false discovery rate. RESULTS:Participants with obesity had lower long-chain acylcarnitine levels throughout pregnancy and lower phosphatidylcholine and glucogenic amino acids and higher phenylethylamine concentrations in T2 and T3 compared with participants with normal/underweight pBMI. GWG was associated with taurine in T2 and T3 and C5 acylcarnitine species, C5:1, C5-DC, and C5-M-DC, in T2. CONCLUSIONS:pBMI and GWG were associated with the metabolic environment of pregnant individuals, particularly in relation to mid-pregnancy. These results highlight the importance of both preconception and prenatal maternal health.
Cardiovascular health in emerging adults with type 1 diabetes
AIMS/OBJECTIVE:Individuals with type 1 diabetes (T1D) face increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Controlling individual cardiovascular risk factors can prevent or slow the onset of CVD. Ideal cardiovascular health is associated with a lower incidence of CVD. Identifying areas of suboptimal cardiovascular health can help guide CVD prevention interventions. To assess cardiovascular health and explore the barriers and facilitators to achieving ideal cardiovascular health in a sample of young adults with T1D. METHODS AND RESULTS/RESULTS:We used a sequential mixed-method design to assess the seven factors of cardiovascular health according to American Heart Association. Qualitative interviews, guided by Pender's Health Promotion Model, were used to discuss participant's cardiovascular health results and the barriers and facilitators to achieving ideal cardiovascular health. We assessed the frequency of ideal levels of each factor. The qualitative data were analysed using content analysis. Qualitative and quantitative data were integrated in the final analysis phase. The sample (n = 50) was majority female (70%), White (86%), with a mean age of 22 Â± 2.4 and diabetes duration of 10.7 Â± 5.5 years. Achievement of the seven factors of cardiovascular health were: non-smoking (96%); cholesterol <200 mg/dL (76%); body mass index <25 kg/m2 (54%); blood pressure <120/<80 mmHg (46%); meeting physical activity guidelines (38%); haemoglobin A1c <7% (40%); and healthy diet (14%). Emerging qualitative themes related to the perceived benefits of action, interpersonal influences on their diabetes self-management, and perceived self-efficacy. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:We found areas of needed improvement for cardiovascular health. However, these young adults expressed a strong interest in healthy habits which can be supported by their healthcare providers.
Trends in type 1 diabetic ketoacidosis during COVID-19 surges at seven US centers: highest burden on non-Hispanic Blacks
OBJECTIVE:We examined United States (US) trends in diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) among individuals with type 1 diabetes (T1D) during the COVID-19 pandemic at seven large US medical centers and factors associated with these trends. METHODS:We compared DKA events among children and adults with T1D during COVID-19 surge 1 (March-May 2020) and COVID-19 surge 2 (August-October 2020) to the same periods in 2019. Analysis was performed using descriptive statistics and Chi-square tests. RESULTS:We found no difference in the absolute number of T1D patients experiencing DKA in 2019 vs 2020. However, a higher proportion of non-Hispanic Blacks (NHB) experienced DKA in 2019 than non-Hispanic Whites (NHW) (44.6% vs 16.0%; p<0.001), and this disparity persisted during the COVID-19 pandemic (48.6% vs 18.6%; p<0.001). DKA was less common among patients on continuous glucose monitor (CGM) or insulin pump in 2020 compared to 2019 (CGM: 13.2% vs 15.0%, p<0.001; insulin pump: 8.0% vs 10.6%, p<0.001). In contrast to annual DKA totals, a higher proportion of patients had DKA during COVID-19 surges 1 and 2 compared to the same months in 2019 (surge 1: 7.1% vs 5.4%, p<0.001; surge 2: 6.6% vs 5.7%, p=0.001). CONCLUSIONS:DKA frequency increased among T1D patients during COVID-19 surges with highest frequency among NHB. DKA was less common among patients using CGM or insulin pumps. These findings highlight the urgent need for improved strategies to prevent DKA among patients with T1D-not only under pandemic conditions, but under all conditions-especially among populations most affected by health inequities.
Analysis of 19 urinary biomarkers of oxidative stress, nitrative stress, metabolic disorders, and inflammation using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry
Environmental chemicalÂ exposures have been associated with cancer, diabetes, hormonal and immunological disorders, and cardiovascular diseases. Some direct effects of chemical exposure that are precursors to adverse health outcomes, including oxidative stress, nitrative stress, hormonal imbalance, neutrophilia, and eosinophilia, can be assessed through the analysis of biomarkers in urine. In this study, we describe aÂ novel methodology for the determination of 19 biomarkers of health effects: malondialdehyde (MDA), 8-isoprostaglandin-F2Î± (8-PGF2Î±), 11-Î²-prostaglandin-F2Î± (11-PGF2Î±), 15-prostaglandin-F2Î± (15-PGF2Î±), 8-iso-15-prostaglandin-F2Î± (8,15-PGF2Î±), 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), 8-hydroxyguanosine (8-HdG), 8-hydroxyguanine (8-HG), dityrosine (diY), allantoin (Alla), and two metabolic products of 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE), namely 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal glutathione (HNE-GSH) and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal mercapturic acid (HNE-MA) (in total, 12 oxidative stress biomarkers, OSBs); 8-nitroguanosine (8-NdG), 8-nitroguanine (8-NG), and 3-nitrotyrosine (NY) (3 nitrative stress biomarkers, NSBs); chlorotyrosine (CY) and bromotyrosine (BY) (2 inflammatory biomarkers); and the advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) NÎµ-carboxymethyllysine (CML) and NÎµ-carboxyethyllysine (CEL) (2 metabolic disorder biomarkers). Since these biomarkers are trigged by a variety of environmental insults and produced by different biomolecular pathways, their selective and sensitive determination in urine would help broadly elucidate the pathogenesis of diseases mediated by environmental factors.
The clinical impact of the Covid-19 pandemic first wave on patients with cystic fibrosis in New York
BACKGROUND:People with cystic fibrosis (pwCF) may be at risk of complications from COVID-19 but the impact of COVID-19 on pwCF remains unknown. METHODS:We conducted a multicenter retrospective cohort study to assess the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic first wave on pwCF in the New York metropolitan area (NY) from March 1, 2020 to August 31, 2020. Objectives were to determine (1) the prevalence of COVID-19 by PCR and IgG antibody testing, (2) the clinical characteristics of COVID-19, (3) delay in routine outpatient care, and (4) the effect on anxiety and depression in pwCF. RESULTS:There were 26 COVID-19 cases diagnosed by PCR or antibody testing among the study cohort of 810 pwCF. The prevalence of COVID-19 by PCR (1.6%) and IgG antibody (12.2%) testing was low. 58% of cases were asymptomatic and 82% were managed at home. 8% were hospitalized and 1 person died. 89% of pwCF experienced delay in care. The prevalence of anxiety increased from 43% baseline to 58% during the pandemic (P<0.01). In post-hoc analysis, the proportion of patients with diabetes (38% versus 16%, P<0.01) and pancreatic insufficiency (96% versus 66%, P<0.01) were higher while CFTR modulator use was lower (46% versus 65%, PÂ =Â 0.05) in pwCF who tested positive for COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS:The prevalence of COVID-19 among pwCF in NY during the pandemic first wave was low and most cases were managed at home. CFTR modulators may be protective. PwCF experienced delay in routine care and increased anxiety.
Age and Hospitalization Risk in People With Type 1 Diabetes and COVID-19: Data From the T1D Exchange Surveillance Study
CONTEXT:COVID-19 morbidity and mortality are increased in type 1 diabetes (T1D), but few data focus on age-based outcomes. OBJECTIVE:This work aimed to quantify the risk for COVID-19-related hospitalization and adverse outcomes by age in people with T1D. METHODS:For this observational, multisite, cross-sectional study of patients with T1D and laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 from 56 clinical sites in the United States, data were collected from April 2020 to March 2021. The distribution of patient factors and outcomes across age groups (0-18, 19-40, and >â€…40 years) was examined. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the study population, and multivariate logistic regression models were used to analyze the relationship between age, adverse outcomes, and hospitalization. The main outcome measure was hospitalization for COVID-19. RESULTS:A total of 767 patients were analyzed. Fifty-four percent (nâ€…=â€…415) were aged 0 to 18 years, 32% (nâ€…=â€…247) were aged 19 to 40 years, and 14% (nâ€…=â€…105) were older than 40 years. A total of 170 patients were hospitalized, and 5 patients died. Compared to the 0- to 18-years age group, those older than 40 years had an adjusted odds ratio of 4.2 (95% CI, 2.28-7.83) for hospitalization after adjustment for sex, glycated hemoglobin A1c, race, insurance type, and comorbidities. CONCLUSION:Age older than 40 years is a risk factor for patients with T1D and COVID-19, with children and younger adults experiencing milder disease and better prognosis. This indicates a need for age-tailored treatments, immunization, and clinical management of individuals affected by T1D.
Patient-reported outcomes in patients with acromegaly treated with pegvisomant in the ACROSTUDY extension: A real-world experience
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:To report the effects of pegvisomant (PEGV) treatment on patient-reported outcomes in acromegaly patients. METHODS:We conducted an extension study of an open-label, multinational, non-interventional study (ACROSTUDY) evaluating the long-term safety and efficacy of PEGV for acromegaly in routine clinical practice. Enrolled patients were rollover patients from ACROSTUDY, or treatment naÃ¯ve/semi-naÃ¯ve (NSN; no PEGV within 6 months of enrollment). Exploratory efficacy endpoints were changes in symptoms with the Patient-Assessed Acromegaly Symptom Questionnaire (PASQ) and quality of life with the Acromegaly Quality of Life questionnaire (AcroQoL) analyzed by controlled or uncontrolled IGF-I levels. Results were analyzed in all patients, in NSN patient subgroup, and by diabetes status. RESULTS:A total of 544 patients with acromegaly were enrolled, including 434 rollover subjects from ACROSTUDY and 110 NSN patients. Mean PEGV treatment duration was 7.8 years (range, 0-19.6 years). Overall, the majority of PASQ scores improved over time, but there was no significant difference between IGF-I controlled or uncontrolled groups. In the NSN subgroup, most PASQ and AcroQoL scores remained similar to baseline up to 1 year, regardless of IGF-I control. Patients with diabetes reported better PASQ scores over time with PEGV treatment, regardless of IGF-I control. IGF-I normalization increased from 10% of patients at baseline to more than 78% at year 10, with a mean daily PEGV dose of 18.7Â mg. CONCLUSIONS:Overall, patients treated with PEGV had small improvements in PASQ. While IGF-I normalization increased with PEGV treatment, IGF-I control had no effects on PASQ and AcroQoL scores.
Prenatal phthalate exposure in relation to placental corticotropin releasing hormone (pCRH) in the CANDLE cohort
CONTEXT/BACKGROUND:Phthalates may disrupt maternal-fetal-placental endocrine pathways, affecting pregnancy outcomes and child development. Placental corticotropin releasing hormone (pCRH) is critical for healthy pregnancy and child development, but understudied as a target of endocrine disruption. OBJECTIVE:To examine phthalate metabolite concentrations (as mixtures and individually) in relation to pCRH. DESIGN/METHODS:Secondary data analysis from a prospective cohort study. SETTING/METHODS:Prenatal clinics in Tennessee, USA. PATIENTS/METHODS:1018 pregnant women (61.4% non-Hispanic Black, 32% non-Hispanic White, 6.6% other) participated in the CANDLE study and provided data. Inclusion criteria included: low-medical-risk singleton pregnancy, age 16-40, and gestational weeks 16-29. INTERVENTION/METHODS:None. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES/METHODS:Plasma pCRH at two visits (mean gestational ages 23.0 and 31.8Â weeks) and change in pCRH between visits (Î”pCRH). RESULTS:In weighted quantile sums (WQS) regression models, phthalate mixtures were associated with higher pCRH at Visit 1 (Î²Â =Â 0.07, 95Â %CI: 0.02, 0.11) but lower pCRH at Visit 2 (Î²Â =Â -0.08, 95Â %CI: -0.14, -0.02). In stratified analyses, among women with gestational diabetes (nÂ =Â 59), phthalate mixtures were associated with lower pCRH at Visit 1 (Î²Â =Â -0.17, 95Â %CI: -0.35, 0.0006) and Visit 2 (Î²Â =Â -0.35, 95Â %CI: -0.50, -0.19), as well as greater Î”pCRH (Î²Â =Â 0.16, 95Â %CI: 0.07, 0.25). Among women with gestational hypertension (nÂ =Â 102), phthalate mixtures were associated with higher pCRH at Visit 1 (Î²Â =Â 0.20, 95Â %CI: 0.03, 0.36) and Visit 2 (Î²Â =Â 0.42; 95Â %CI: 0.19, 0.64) and lower Î”pCRH (Î²Â =Â -0.17, 95Â %CI: -0.29, -0.06). Significant interactions between individual phthalate metabolites and pregnancy complications were observed. CONCLUSIONS:Phthalates may impact placental CRH secretion, with differing effects across pregnancy. Differences in results between women with and without gestational diabetes and gestational hypertension suggest a need for further research examining whether women with pregnancy complications may be more vulnerable to endocrine-disrupting effects of phthalates.
Cardiovascular Impact of Race andÂ Ethnicity in Patients With DiabetesÂ and Obesity: JACC Focus Seminar 2/9
Obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus are highly prevalent and increasing in the United States among racial/ethnic minority groups. Type 2 diabetes mellitus, which is driven by many factors including elevated levels of adiposity, is an exemplar health disparities disease. Pervasive disparities exist at every level from risk factors through outcomes for U.S. racial/ethnic minority groups, including African American, Hispanic/LatinX American, and Asian American populations. Disparities in clinical care exist including hemoglobin A1c control, lower prescription rates of newer antihyperglycemic medications, along with greater rates of complications postbariatric surgery. Underpinning these disparities are the social determinants of health affecting provider-patient interactions, access to resources, and healthy built environments. We review the best practices to address cardiometabolic disparities in the current cardiovascular guidelines and describe recommendations for cross-cutting strategies to advance equity in obesity and type 2 diabetes across U.S. racial/ethnic groups.