Sustainability of an Evidence-Based Practice in Community Mental Health Agencies Serving Children
OBJECTIVE:/UNASSIGNED:The authors documented rates of sustained use of an evidence-based practice following training sponsored by New York State (NYS), and they identified clinician characteristics related to sustained use. METHODS:/UNASSIGNED:Clinicians (N=89) who were employed in licensed NYS Office of Mental Health agencies serving children and adolescents and who were trained to proficiency in Managing and Adapting Practice (MAP) in 2016 were contacted between 9 and 18 months later and asked whether they were still using (users) or had stopped using (nonusers) MAP and their reason for doing so. RESULTS:/UNASSIGNED:Responses were received from 57% of trainees and of those, 80% reported continued use of MAP. Score on the appeal subscale of the Evidence-Based Practices Attitude Scale (EBPAS) was the only significant difference between users and nonusers. CONCLUSIONS:/UNASSIGNED:Most clinicians reported sustained use of MAP. The EBPAS appeal subscale can be used to identify clinicians who are likely to discontinue use.
A second look at dropout rates from state-sponsored MAP trainings: Can targeted adaptations improve retention in evidence-based practice trainings?
States are restructuring health care delivery with a focus on cost savings and care quality. Building on lessons learned from the first statewide roll-out of the NY State Managing and Adapting Practice (MAP) program, we targeted adaptations to the MAP trainings with the goal of addressing key factors related to clinician dropout. We describe these adaptations made to MAP version 2, using Damschroder et al.'s (2009) theoretical model of the consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR). our adaptations were connected with each of the five domains: intervention characteristics, outer setting (incentives and cost), inner setting (leadership/champions), characteristics of the individuals, and the process of training implementation (planning, engaging, executing, and reflecting and evaluating. Next, we compared dropout rates between MAP version 1 (v1) and MAP version 2 (v2). Because the structural adaptations aimed to increase retention rate by targeting factors hypothesized to be associated with empirically derived predictors of dropout, we expected that the dropout rate would be significantly lower in MAP v2. We then examined associations of clinician sociodemographic characteristics, clinical characteristics, and attitudes with dropout. Although older participant age was significantly associated with dropout in MAP v1, we hypothesized that participant age will not be a significant predictor of dropout in MAP v2 because MAP v2 adaptations focused on age-related factors. However, we expected clinic region, which is immutable, to remain a significant predictor of dropout.
What Predicts Clinician Dropout from State-Sponsored Managing and Adapting Practice Training
Dropouts from system-wide evidence-based practice trainings are high; yet there are few studies on what predicts dropouts. This study examined multilevel predictors of clinician dropout from a statewide training on the Managing and Adapting Practice program. Extra-organizational structural variables, intra-organizational variables and clinician variables were examined. Using multivariable logistic regression analysis, state administrative data and prospectively collected clinician participation data were used to predict dropout. Two characteristics were predictive: younger clinicians and those practicing in upstate-rural areas compared to downstate-urban areas were less likely to drop out from training. Implications for research and policy are described.
Implementing a Measurement Feedback System in Community Mental Health Clinics: A Case Study of Multilevel Barriers and Facilitators
Measurement feedback systems (MFSs) have been proposed as a means of improving practice. The present study examined the implementation of a MFS, the Contextualized Feedback System (CFS), in two community-based clinic sites. Significant implementation differences across sites provided a basis for examining factors that influenced clinician uptake of CFS. Following the theoretical implementation framework of Aarons et al. (Adm Policy Mental Health Mental Health Serv Res 38(1):4-23, 2011), we coded qualitative data collected from eighteen clinicians (13 from Clinic U and 5 from Clinic R) who participated in semi-structured interviews about their experience with CFS implementation. Results suggest that clinicians at both clinics perceived more barriers than facilitators to CFS implementation. Interestingly, clinicians at the higher implementing clinic reported a higher proportion of barriers to facilitators (3:1 vs. 2:1); however, these clinicians also reported a significantly higher level of organizational and leadership supports for CFS implementation. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Implementing a Measurement Feedback System: A Tale of Two Sites
A randomized experiment was conducted in two outpatient clinics evaluating a measurement feedback system called contextualized feedback systems. The clinicians of 257 Youth 11-18 received feedback on progress in mental health symptoms and functioning either every 6Â months or as soon as the youth's, clinician's or caregiver's data were entered into the system. The ITT analysis showed that only one of the two participating clinics (Clinic R) had an enhanced outcome because of feedback, and only for the clinicians' ratings of youth symptom severity on the SFSS. A dose-response effect was found only for Clinic R for both the client and clinician ratings. Implementation analyses showed that Clinic R had better implementation of the feedback intervention. Clinicians' questionnaire completion rate and feedback viewing at Clinic R were 50Â % higher than clinicians at Clinic U. The discussion focused on the differences in implementation at each site and how these differences may have contributed to the different outcomes of the experiment.
Scaling up Evidence-Based Practices for Children and Families in New York State: Toward Evidence-Based Policies on Implementation for State Mental Health Systems
Dissemination of innovations is widely considered the sine qua non for system improvement. At least two dozen states are rolling out evidence-based mental health practices targeted at children and families using trainings, consultations, webinars, and learning collaboratives to improve quality and outcomes. In New York State (NYS) a group of researchers, policymakers, providers, and family support specialists have worked in partnership since 2002 to redesign and evaluate the children's mental health system. Five system strategies driven by empirically based practices and organized within a state-supported infrastructure have been used in the child and family service system with more than 2,000 providers: (a) business practices, (b) use of health information technologies in quality improvement, (c) specific clinical interventions targeted at common childhood disorders, (d) parent activation, and (e) quality indicator development. The NYS system has provided a laboratory for naturalistic experiments. We describe these initiatives, key findings and challenges, lessons learned for scaling, and implications for creating evidence-based implementation policies in state systems.
The Role of Consultation Calls for Clinic Supervisors in Supporting Large-Scale Dissemination of Evidence-Based Treatments for Children
This study explores the content of consultation provided to clinic supervisors within the context of a statewide training program in an evidence-based practice. Minute-to-minute live coding of consultation calls with clinic supervisors was conducted in order to identify the content and distribution of call topics. Results indicated that approximately half of the total speaking time was spent on a range of clinically relevant topics (e.g., cognitive-behavioral therapy techniques, fidelity to the treatment protocols). The remaining time was spent on program administration and CBT-related supervisory issues. This pilot study has broad implications for structuring the content of consultation process in large-scale dissemination efforts involving multiple portions of the clinical workforce.
Consultation as an implementation strategy for evidence-based practices across multiple contexts: unpacking the black box
There is great interest in the dissemination and implementation of evidence-based treatments and practices for children across schools and community mental health settings. A growing body of literature suggests that the use of one-time workshops as a training tool is ineffective in influencing therapist behavior and patient outcomes and that ongoing expert consultation and coaching is critical to actual uptake and quality implementation. Yet, we have very limited understanding of how expert consultation fits into the larger implementation support system, or the most effective consultation strategies. This commentary reviews the literature on consultation in child mental health, and proposes a set of core consultation functions, processes, and outcomes that should be further studied in the implementation of evidence-based practices for children.
Statewide CBT Training for Clinicians and Supervisors Treating Youth: The New York State Evidence Based Treatment Dissemination Center
In recent years, several states have undertaken efforts to disseminate evidence-based treatments to agencies and clinicians in their children's service system. In New York, the Evidence Based Treatment Dissemination Center adopted a unique translation-based training and consultation model in which an initial 3-day training was combined with a year of clinical consultation with specific clinician and supervisor elements. This model has been used by the New York State Office of Mental Health for the past 3 years to train 1,210 clinicians and supervisors statewide. This article describes the early adoption and initial implementation of a statewide training program in cognitive-behavioral therapy for youth. The training and consultation model and descriptive findings are presented; lessons learned are described. Future plans include a focus on sustainability and measurement feedback of youth outcomes to enhance the continuity of this program and the quality of the clinical services.
Are children with anxiety disorders privately referred to a university clinic like those referred from the public mental health system?
Compared two groups of children with anxiety disorders served at a single mental health clinic whose referral source differed: private referrals (i.e., parent/legal guardian initiated) and public referrals (e.g., via state contracts--Departments of Health and Education, juvenile justice system). Comparisons were made across three domains of variables: (a) symptoms/diagnoses, (b) functioning, and (c) environments. Few symptom differences emerged. However, large differences were evident for contextual variables like family income and life stressors. Overall, the pattern of differences point to possible directions for adaptation of treatments for use with children with anxiety disorders served in public mental health systems.