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On the Connections between TRPM Channels and SOCE

Souza Bomfim, Guilherme H; Niemeyer, Barbara A; Lacruz, Rodrigo S; Lis, Annette
Plasma membrane protein channels provide a passageway for ions to access the intracellular milieu. Rapid entry of calcium ions into cells is controlled mostly by ion channels, while Ca2+-ATPases and Ca2+ exchangers ensure that cytosolic Ca2+ levels ([Ca2+]cyt) are maintained at low (~100 nM) concentrations. Some channels, such as the Ca2+-release-activated Ca2+ (CRAC) channels and voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels (CACNAs), are highly Ca2+-selective, while others, including the Transient Receptor Potential Melastatin (TRPM) family, have broader selectivity and are mostly permeable to monovalent and divalent cations. Activation of CRAC channels involves the coupling between ORAI1-3 channels with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) located Ca2+ store sensor, Stromal Interaction Molecules 1-2 (STIM1/2), a pathway also termed store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE). The TRPM family is formed by 8 members (TRPM1-8) permeable to Mg2+, Ca2+, Zn2+ and Na+ cations, and is activated by multiple stimuli. Recent studies indicated that SOCE and TRPM structure-function are interlinked in some instances, although the molecular details of this interaction are only emerging. Here we review the role of TRPM and SOCE in Ca2+ handling and highlight the available evidence for this interaction.
PMID: 35406753
ISSN: 2073-4409
CID: 5201822

Mitochondria modulate ameloblast Ca2+ signaling

Costiniti, Veronica; Bomfim, Guilherme H S; Neginskaya, Maria; Son, Ga-Yeon; Mitaishvili, Erna; Giacomello, Marta; Pavlov, Evgeny; Lacruz, Rodrigo S
The role of mitochondria in enamel, the most mineralized tissue in the body, is poorly defined. Enamel is formed by ameloblast cells in two main sequential stages known as secretory and maturation. Defining the physiological features of each stage is essential to understand mineralization. Here, we analyzed functional features of mitochondria in rat primary secretory and maturation-stage ameloblasts focusing on their role in Ca2+ signaling. Quantification of the Ca2+ stored in the mitochondria by trifluoromethoxy carbonylcyanide phenylhydrazone stimulation was comparable in both stages. The release of endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ pools by adenosine triphosphate in rhod2AM-loaded cells showed similar mitochondrial Ca2+ (m Ca2+ ) uptake. However, m Ca2+ extrusion via Na+ -Li+ -Ca2+ exchanger was more prominent in maturation. To address if m Ca2+ uptake via the mitochondrial Ca2+ uniporter (MCU) played a role in cytosolic Ca2+ (c Ca2+ ) buffering, we stimulated Ca2+ influx via the store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) and blocked MCU with the inhibitor Ru265. This inhibitor was first tested using the enamel cell line LS8 cells. Ru265 prevented c Ca2+ clearance in permeabilized LS8 cells like ruthenium red, and it did not affect ΔΨm in intact cells. In primary ameloblasts, SOCE stimulation elicited a significantly higher m Ca2+ uptake in maturation ameloblasts. The uptake of Ca2+ into the mitochondria was dramatically decreased in the presence of Ru265. Combined, these results suggest an increased mitochondrial Ca2+ handling in maturation but only upon stimulation of Ca2+ influx via SOCE. These functional studies provide insights not only on the role of mitochondria in ameloblast Ca2+ physiology, but also advance the concept that SOCE and m Ca2+ uptake are complementary processes in biological mineralization.
PMID: 35084775
ISSN: 1530-6860
CID: 5157132

Mitochondria modulate ameloblast Ca2+ signaling

Costiniti, Veronica; Bomfim, Guilherme H. S.; Neginskaya, Maria; Son, Ga-Yeon; Mitaishvili, Erna; Giacomello, Marta; Pavlov, Evgeny; Lacruz, Rodrigo S.
ISSN: 0892-6638
CID: 5182562

On the Connections between TRPM Channels and SOCE

Bomfim, Guilherme H. Souza; Niemeyer, Barbara A.; Lacruz, Rodrigo S.; Lis, Annette
ISSN: 2073-4409
CID: 5207922

Mibefradil alters intracellular calcium concentration by activation of phospholipase C and IP3 receptor function

Souza Bomfim, Guilherme H; Mitaishvili, Erna; Aguiar, Talita Ferreira; Lacruz, Rodrigo S
Mibefradil is a tetralol derivative originally developed as an antagonist of T-type voltage-gated calcium (Ca2+) channels to treat hypertension when used at nanomolar dosage. More recently, its therapeutic application in hypertension has declined and has been instead repurposed as a treatment of cancer cell proliferation and solid tumor growth. Beyond its function as a Cav blocker, the micromolar concentration of mibefradil can stimulate a rise in [Ca2+]cyt although the mechanism is poorly known. The chanzyme TRPM7 (transient receptor potential melastanin 7), the release of intracellular Ca2+ pools, and Ca2+ influx by ORAI channels have been associated with the increase in [Ca2+]cyt triggered by mibefradil. This study aims to investigate the cellular targets and pathways associated with mibefradil's effect on [Ca2+]cyt. To address these questions, we monitored changes in [Ca2+]cyt in the specialized mouse epithelial cells (LS8 and ALC) and the widely used HEK-293 cells by stimulating these cells with mibefradil (0.1 μM to 100 μM). We show that mibefradil elicits an increase in [Ca2+]cyt at concentrations above 10 μM (IC50 around 50 μM) and a fast Ca2+ increase capacity at 100 μM. We found that inhibiting IP3 receptors, depleting the ER-Ca2+ stores, or blocking phospholipase C (PLC), significantly decreased the capacity of mibefradil to elevate [Ca2+]cyt. Moreover, the transient application of 100 μM mibefradil triggered Ca2+ influx by store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) mediated by the ORAI channels. Our findings reveal that IP3R and PLC are potential new targets of mibefradil offering novel insights into the effects of this drug.
PMID: 35006468
ISSN: 2662-8651
CID: 5118402

Calcium Transport in Specialized Dental Epithelia and Its Modulation by Fluoride [Review]

Costiniti, Veronica; Bomfim, Guilherme H.; Mitaishvili, Erna; Son, Ga-Yeon; Li, Yi; Lacruz, Rodrigo S.
ISSN: 1664-2392
CID: 4990442

A comprehensive survey of Retzius periodicities in fossil hominins and great apes

Hogg, Russell; Lacruz, Rodrigo; Bromage, Timothy G; Dean, M Christopher; Ramirez-Rozzi, Fernando; Girimurugan, Senthil Balaji; McGrosky, Amanda; Schwartz, Gary T
Recent studies have provided great insight into hominin life history evolution by utilizing incremental lines found in dental tissues to reconstruct and compare the growth records of extant and extinct humans versus other ape taxa. Among the hominins, studies that have examined Retzius periodicity (RP) variation have come to contradictory conclusions in some instances. To clarify RP variation among hominins and better place this variation in its broader evolutionary context, we conduct the most comprehensive analysis of published RP values for hominins and great apes to date. We gathered all available data from the literature on RP data from extant humans, great apes, and fossil hominins and assessed their variation using parametric and nonparametric analyses of variance. We also performed phylogenetic generalized least-squares regressions of RP data for these taxa as well as a larger set of hominoids for which RP data have been published against data for body mass, encephalization, and mean semicircular canal radius (a proxy for metabolic rate). Our results show that modern humans have a mean RP significantly differing from that of other hominins. Pongo also is significantly different from nearly all other taxa in all analyses. Our results also demonstrate that RP variation among hominins scales with respect to body mass, encephalization, and semicircular canal radius similarly to other hominids but that modern humans and Pongo stand out in this regard. Operating within the hypothesis that RP reflects autonomic biorhythms that regulate multiple life history variables, our results reinforce the idea that Homo sapiens has evolved a life history distinct from other hominins, even from other members of Homo, and suggest that many of these life history differences may be driven by hypothalamic output from the brain.
PMID: 33069911
ISSN: 1095-8606
CID: 4641882

Short and long period growth markers of enamel formation distinguish European Pleistocene hominins

Modesto-Mata, Mario; Dean, M Christopher; Lacruz, Rodrigo S; Bromage, Timothy G; García-Campos, Cecilia; Martínez de Pinillos, Marina; Martín-Francés, Laura; Martinón-Torres, María; Carbonell, Eudald; Arsuaga, Juan Luis; Bermúdez de Castro, José María
Characterizing dental development in fossil hominins is important for distinguishing between them and for establishing where and when the slow overall growth and development of modern humans appeared. Dental development of australopiths and early Homo was faster than modern humans. The Atapuerca fossils (Spain) fill a barely known gap in human evolution, spanning ~1.2 to ~0.4 million years (Ma), during which H. sapiens and Neandertal dental growth characteristics may have developed. We report here perikymata counts, perikymata distributions and periodicities of all teeth belonging to the TE9 level of Sima del Elefante, level TD6.2 of Gran Dolina (H. antecessor) and Sima de los Huesos. We found some components of dental growth in the Atapuerca fossils resembled more recent H. sapiens. Mosaic evolution of perikymata counts and distribution generate three distinct clusters: H. antecessor, Sima de los Huesos and H. sapiens.
PMID: 32170098
ISSN: 2045-2322
CID: 4350062

TRPM7 activation potentiates SOCE in enamel cells but requires ORAI

Souza Bomfim, Guilherme H; Costiniti, Veronica; Li, Yi; Idaghdour, Youssef; Lacruz, Rodrigo S
Calcium (Ca2+) release-activated Ca2+ (CRAC) channels mediated by STIM1/2 and ORAI (ORAI1-3) proteins form the dominant store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) pathway in a wide variety of cells. Among these, the enamel-forming cells known as ameloblasts rely on CRAC channel function to enable Ca2+ influx, which is important for enamel mineralization. This key role of the CRAC channel is supported by human mutations and animal models lacking STIM1 and ORAI1, which results in enamel defects and hypomineralization. A number of recent reports have highlighted the role of the chanzyme TRPM7 (transient receptor potential melastanin 7), a transmembrane protein containing an ion channel permeable to divalent cations (Mg2+, Ca2+), as a modulator of SOCE. This raises the question as to whether TRPM7 should be considered an alternative route for Ca2+ influx, or if TRPM7 modifies CRAC channel activity in enamel cells. To address these questions, we monitored Ca2+ influx mediated by SOCE using the pharmacological TRPM7 activator naltriben and the inhibitor NS8593 in rat primary enamel cells and in the murine ameloblast cell line LS8 cells stimulated with thapsigargin. We also measured Ca2+ dynamics in ORAI1/2-deficient (shOrai1/2) LS8 cells and in cells with siRNA knock-down of Trpm7. We found that primary enamel cells stimulated with the TRPM7 activator potentiated Ca2+ influx via SOCE compared to control cells. However, blockade of TRPM7 with NS8593 did not decrease the SOCE peak. Furthermore, activation of TRPM7 in shOrai1/2 LS8 cells lacking SOCE failed to elicit Ca2+ influx, and Trpm7 knock-down had no effect on SOCE. Taken together, our data suggest that TRPM7 is a positive modulator of SOCE potentiating Ca2+ influx in enamel cells, but its function is fully dependent on the prior activation of the ORAI channels.
PMID: 32146159
ISSN: 1532-1991
CID: 4348572

Fluoride exposure alters Ca2+ signaling and mitochondrial function in enamel cells

Aulestia, Francisco J; Groeling, Johnny; Bomfim, Guilherme H S; Costiniti, Veronica; Manikandan, Vinu; Chaloemtoem, Ariya; Concepcion, Axel R; Li, Yi; Wagner, Larry E; Idaghdour, Youssef; Yule, David I; Lacruz, Rodrigo S
Fluoride ions are highly reactive, and their incorporation in forming dental enamel at low concentrations promotes mineralization. In contrast, excessive fluoride intake causes dental fluorosis, visually recognizable enamel defects that can increase the risk of caries. To investigate the molecular bases of dental fluorosis, we analyzed the effects of fluoride exposure in enamel cells to assess its impact on Ca2+ signaling. Primary enamel cells and an enamel cell line (LS8) exposed to fluoride showed decreased internal Ca2+ stores and store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE). RNA-sequencing analysis revealed changes in gene expression suggestive of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in fluoride-treated LS8 cells. Fluoride exposure did not alter Ca2+ homeostasis or increase the expression of ER stress-associated genes in HEK-293 cells. In enamel cells, fluoride exposure affected the functioning of the ER-localized Ca2+ channel IP3R and the activity of the sarco-endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA) pump during Ca2+ refilling of the ER. Fluoride negatively affected mitochondrial respiration, elicited mitochondrial membrane depolarization, and disrupted mitochondrial morphology. Together, these data provide a potential mechanism underlying dental fluorosis.
PMID: 32071168
ISSN: 1937-9145
CID: 4312212