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127


Sophorolipid Biosurfactants Activate Taste Receptor Type 1 Member 3-Mediated Taste Responses and Block Responses to Bitter Taste In Vitro and In Vivo

Ozdener, Mehmet Hakan; Ashby, Richard D.; Jyotaki, Masafumi; Elkaddi, Nadia; Spielman, Andrew I.; Bachmanov, Alexander A.; Solaiman, Daniel K.Y.
Sophorolipids (SL) are typically produced and secreted by select nonpathogenic yeast species (i.e., Candida) from renewable substrates. They are currently being used by industry on a limited basis in formulations for cleaning solutions as well as laundry and dishwashing detergents. Due to the nature of their chemical structure, it was hypothesized that SL would demonstrate taste-sensory properties. In this study, SL were produced via fermentation on a mixed substrate platform with glucose and either palmitic acid, stearic acid, or oleic acid using Candida (currently reclassified as Starmerella) bombicola ATCC 22214. The taste properties of SL were determined using a single-cell manual calcium imaging technique on cultured human fungiform taste papillae (HBO) cells. The results of those studies demonstrated that sweetener-responsive HBO cells also respond to SL, and these responses are mediated by the type 1 taste receptors 3 (T1R3), because they were blocked by lactisole (a T1R3 receptor-specific blocker). The involvement of the T1R3 receptor in SL recognition was confirmed via the chorda tympani nerve recording (CTNR) study in a (−/−) T1R3 knockout (KO) mouse model. We further demonstrated that SL are capable of blocking the bitter stimuli-elicited responses both in HBO cells and in the CTNR study. This is the first report demonstrating that SL have taste-sensory properties, which opens up numerous possibilities for practical applications of SL to ameliorate bitter tastes in foods and drugs and understand the potential source of dysgeusia in some patients.
SCOPUS:85062970170
ISSN: 1097-3958
CID: 3787432

Zika Virus Infection in Chemosensory Cells [Meeting Abstract]

Donadoni, Martina; Ozdener, Mehmet Hakan; Cicalese, Stephanie; Spielman, Andrew; Garcia-Blanco, Alvaro; Gordon, Jennifer; Sariyer, Ilker Kudret
ISI:000495782800041
ISSN: 1355-0284
CID: 4193222

Modulatory Effect of Arginyl Dipeptides on the Frequency of NaCl Elicited Responses in Cultured Human Fungiform Taste Papillae (HBO) Cells [Meeting Abstract]

Xu, Jiao-Jiao; Spielman, Andrew I.; Chung, Hau Y.; Ozdener, M. Hakan
ISI:000493389500195
ISSN: 0379-864x
CID: 4223112

Wiring taste receptor cells to the central gustatory system

Spielman, Andrew I; Brand, Joseph G
Taste receptor cells in the tongue are epithelial in nature and turnover frequently. Taste receptor cell-associated neurons carrying bitter, sweet or sour signals never turnover and are hardwired to specific gustatory centers in the brain. How can ever-changing bitter or sweet receptors find never-changing neurons that must match the specificity of the signal? This article reviews a recent paper published in Nature (Lee et al., 2017, 548:330-333) that identified two molecules belonging to the semaphorin axon guidance family of molecules (SEMA3A and SEMA7A) that help maintain the "labelled line principle" between peripheral bitter or sweet receptors and their respective central projection area in the gustatory center.
PMID: 29363231
ISSN: 1601-0825
CID: 2929082

Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (CHRN) expression and function in human taste cells [Meeting Abstract]

Lyall, V; Qian, J; Mummalaneni, S; Larsen, J; Ozdener, M H; Spielman, A I
In rodents, CHRNs are involved in bitter taste transduction of nicotine and ethanol. Currently, the information regarding CHRN expression and function human taste cells is lacking. Accordingly, we investigated the expression and functional role of CHRNs in cultured human adult fungiform (HBO) taste cells. Using molecular techniques, we demonstrate that a subset of HBO cells express CHRNs that also co-express TRPM5, T1R3 or T2R38. Exposing HBO cells to nicotine or ethanol acutely or to nicotine chronically induced a differential increase in the expression of CHRN mRNA and protein in a dose-and time-dependent manner. Acutely exposing HBO cells to a mixture containing nicotine plus ethanol induced a smaller increase in CHRN mRNAs relative to nicotine or ethanol treatment alone. A subset of HBO cells responded to nicotine, acetylcholine and ATP with a transient increase in [Ca2+]i. Nicotine effects on [Ca2+]i were mecamylamine sensitive. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) protein was detected in HBO cells using ELISA. Acute nicotine exposure decreased BDNF in HBO cells and increased BDNF release in the medium. CHRNs were also detected in HEK293 cells by RT-PCR. Unlike HBO cells, CHRNs were localized in most of HEK293 cells and majority of HEK293 cells responded to nicotine and ethanol stimulation with a transient increase in [Ca2+]i. BDNF levels in HEK293 cells were significantly higher than in HBO cells but the nicotine induced release of BDNF in the media was a fraction of the BDNF cellular content. We conclude that CHRNs are expressed in TRPM5 positive HBO cells. CHRN mRNA expression is modulated by exposure to nicotine and ethanol in a dose-and time-dependent manner. Nicotine induces the synthesis and release of BDNF in HBO cells
EMBASE:626768397
ISSN: 1464-3553
CID: 3757252

The future of oral medicine

Spielman, A I
Oral Medicine has been a specialty at the cross-roads of medicine and dentistry, not entirely recognized as a specialty by organized dentistry (at least in the US), and not embraced by medicine. This study makes a case for its place as a specialty of Medicine.
PMID: 29480604
ISSN: 1601-0825
CID: 2964832

Restoring the Weinberger Rare Book Collection at New York University College of Dentistry [Meeting Abstract]

Spielman, Andrew I; Aviczer, Sherry; Kohanbash, Kimia
ORIGINAL:0012483
ISSN: 1930-7837
CID: 2934192

Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (CHRN) expression and function in cultured human adult fungiform (HBO) taste cells

Qian, Jie; Mummalaneni, Shobha; Larsen, James; Grider, John R; Spielman, Andrew I; Özdener, Mehmet Hakan; Lyall, Vijay
In rodents, CHRNs are involved in bitter taste transduction of nicotine and ethanol. Currently, it is not clear if CHRNs are expressed in human taste cells and if they play a role in transducing the bitter taste of nicotine and ethanol or in the synthesis and release of neurohumoral peptides. Accordingly, we investigated the expression and functional role of CHRNs in HBO cells. Using molecular techniques, we demonstrate that a subset of HBO cells express CHRNs that also co-express TRPM5, T1R3 or T2R38. Exposing HBO cells to nicotine or ethanol acutely or to nicotine chronically induced a differential increase in the expression of CHRN mRNA and protein in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Acutely exposing HBO cells to a mixture containing nicotine plus ethanol induced a smaller increase in CHRN mRNAs relative to nicotine or ethanol treatment alone. A subset of HBO cells responded to nicotine, acetylcholine and ATP with a transient increase in [Ca2+]i. Nicotine effects on [Ca2+]i were mecamylamine sensitive. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) protein was detected in HBO cells using ELISA. Acute nicotine exposure decreased BDNF in HBO cells and increased BDNF release in the medium. CHRNs were also detected in HEK293 cells by RT-PCR. Unlike HBO cells, CHRNs were localized in most of HEK293 cells and majority of HEK293 cells responded to nicotine and ethanol stimulation with a transient increase in [Ca2+]i. BDNF levels in HEK293 cells were significantly higher than in HBO cells but the nicotine induced release of BDNF in the media was a fraction of the BDNF cellular content. We conclude that CHRNs are expressed in TRPM5 positive HBO cells. CHRN mRNA expression is modulated by exposure to nicotine and ethanol in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Nicotine induces the synthesis and release of BDNF in HBO cells.
PMCID:5841828
PMID: 29513745
ISSN: 1932-6203
CID: 2973832

Person-Centered Care: Opportunities and Challenges for Academic Dental Institutions and Programs

Walji, Muhammad F; Karimbux, Nadeem Y; Spielman, Andrew I
Many readers may be familiar with patient-centered care, but they may not be familiar with the concept of person-centered care. Person-centered care implies knowing the patient as a person, not as just another patient or as a clinical requirement in dental school. Person-centered care gains the trust of the patient and is meaningful to the person because it respects his or her values, preferences, needs, and beliefs, emphasizing the individual's freedom of choice while promoting emotional and physical comfort. This article describes the concept of person-centered care, compares person-centered care with patient- and student-centered care, presents a vision of person-centered care in a clinic setting, discusses its opportunities and challenges in general, and outlines future topics of interest for the academic, research, and practicing dental communities, including opportunities for in-depth reviews and guidelines.
PMID: 29093139
ISSN: 1930-7837
CID: 2764642

Dental, Dental Hygiene, and Advanced Dental Students' Use, Knowledge, and Beliefs Regarding Tobacco Products

Shearston, Jenni A; Shah, Krina; Cheng, Eric; Moosvi, Rizvan; Park, Su Hyun; Patel, Naiya; Spielman, Andrew I; Weitzman, Michael L
Using cigarettes and alternative tobacco products (ATPs) is associated with negative oral health outcomes, and dental health professionals are poised to help patients quit. The aim of this study was to determine dental, dental hygiene, and advanced dental students' use, knowledge, and beliefs about cigarettes and ATPs, including perceptions about their education in tobacco dependence treatment and counseling experience. All 1,783 students enrolled in the dental, dental hygiene, and postdoctoral dental programs at the New York University College of Dentistry were invited to participate in the survey in 2016. A total of 708 students at least partially completed the survey, for a response rate of 39.7%. In the results, 146 of the students (20.1%) reported ever using cigarettes, while 253 (35.7%) reported ever using any ATP. Regarding tobacco use intervention, the students reported they had not received enough training on ATPs, were neutral about cigarettes, and were somewhat confident and not so confident counseling a cigarette smoker or ATP user, respectively. By their fourth year, 77.8% of the dental students reported they had counseled someone to stop smoking cigarettes, but only 40.7% had counseled someone to stop using ATPs. Overall, all groups of students reported feeling more confident and had received more education on interventions for cigarettes than for ATPs (p<0.001). These students reported low confidence in helping people quit tobacco and did not perceive they had received enough training on intervening with patients on use of cigarettes and ATPs. These findings call for a revised tobacco education curriculum for dental, dental hygiene, and advanced dental students, focused on building knowledge and confidence for promoting tobacco dependence treatment.
PMID: 29093145
ISSN: 1930-7837
CID: 2922252