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New ways of initiating translation in eukaryotes [Letter]

Schneider, R; Agol, V I; Andino, R; Bayard, F; Cavener, D R; Chappell, S A; Chen, J J; Darlix, J L; Dasgupta, A; Donze, O; Duncan, R; Elroy-Stein, O; Farabaugh, P J; Filipowicz, W; Gale, M Jr; Gehrke, L; Goldman, E; Groner, Y; Harford, J B; Hatzglou, M; He, B; Hellen, C U; Hentze, M W; Hershey, J; Hershey, P; Hohn, T; Holcik, M; Hunter, C P; Igarashi, K; Jackson, R; Jagus, R; Jefferson, L S; Joshi, B; Kaempfer, R; Katze, M; Kaufman, R J; Kiledjian, M; Kimball, S R; Kimchi, A; Kirkegaard, K; Koromilas, A E; Krug, R M; Kruys, V; Lamphear, B J; Lemon, S; Lloyd, R E; Maquat, L E; Martinez-Salas, E; Mathews, M B; Mauro, V P; Miyamoto, S; Mohr, I; Morris, D R; Moss, E G; Nakashima, N; Palmenberg, A; Parkin, N T; Pe'ery, T; Pelletier, J; Peltz, S; Pestova, T V; Pilipenko, E V; Prats, A C; Racaniello, V; Read, G S; Rhoads, R E; Richter, J D; Rivera-Pomar, R; Rouault, T; Sachs, A; Sarnow, P; Scheper, G C; Schiff, L; Schoenberg, D R; Semler, B L; Siddiqui, A; Skern, T; Sonenberg, N; Sossin, W; Standart, N; Tahara, S M; Thomas, A A; Toulme, J J; Wilusz, J; Wimmer, E; Witherell, G; Wormington, M
PMCID:99989
PMID: 11710333
ISSN: 0270-7306
CID: 1182252

Detection of HIV in oral mucosal cells

Qureshi, M N; Barr, C E; Hewlitt, I; Boorstein, R; Kong, F; Bagasra, O; Bobroski, L E; Joshi, B
OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of HIV DNA and RNA and the morphologic localization of HIV in the oral cavity of HIV-seropositive subjects. DESIGN: A cross-sectional analysis of saliva, buccal scrapings and buccal biopsies from HIV-seropositive injecting drug users (IDUs). SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Whole saliva, buccal mucosal scrapings and buccal biopsies were obtained from HIV-seropositive and seronegative IDUs. Presence of HIV DNA and RNA was assessed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR). RT in situ PCR was used to detect HIV tat/rev RNA in buccal mucosal scrapings. Host-cell integrated HIV-proviral DNA in buccal biopsies was detected by in situ PCR. Presence of intact HIV viral particles in buccal scrapings was assessed by electron microscopy. RESULTS: HIV DNA was detected in 40% (18/45) and HIV RNA in 69.2% (25/36) of saliva samples from HIV-seropositive IDUs. Viral particles consistent with HIV were localized in inter-epithelial spaces by electron microscopy. RT in situ PCR revealed the presence of HIV tat/rev RNA in 36% (8/22) of the seropositive samples tested. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that epithelial cells can be productively infected by HIV. Epithelial cells in buccal mucosa may acquire HIV in the basal layers through contact with submucosal HIV-positive lymphocytes and/or Langerhans' cells. HIV infection may also spread by inter-epithelial cell contact. As HIV infected cells mature they travel to more superficial layers and are shed into the oral cavity
PMID: 9456662
ISSN: 1354-523x
CID: 155375