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Tooth failure post-radiotherapy in head and neck cancer

Brennan, Michael T; Treister, Nathaniel S; Sollecito, Thomas P; Schmidt, Brian L; Patton, Lauren L; Lin, Alexander; Elting, Linda S; Hodges, James S; Lalla, Rajesh V
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:To elucidate long-term sequelae of radiation therapy (RT) in head and neck cancer (HNC) patients, a multi-center prospective study, Clinical Registry of Dental Outcomes in Head and Neck Cancer Patients (OraRad), was established with tooth failure as its primary outcome. We report tooth failure and associated risk factors. METHODS:Demographics, cancer and dental disease characteristics were documented in 572 HNC patients at baseline and 6, 12, 18, and 24 months after RT. Eligible patients were age 18 or older, diagnosed with HNC, and receiving RT to treat HNC. Tooth failure during follow-up was defined as losing a tooth or having a tooth deemed hopeless. Analyses of time to first tooth-failure event and number of teeth that failed used Kaplan-Meier estimators, Cox regression, and generalized linear models. RESULTS:At 2 years, the estimated fraction of tooth failure was 17.8% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 14.3%-21.3%). Number of teeth that failed was higher for those with fewer teeth at baseline (p<0.0001), greater reduction in salivary flow rate (p=0.013), and non-compliance with daily oral hygiene (p=0.03). Patients with dental caries at baseline had higher risk of tooth failure with decreased salivary flow. Patients who were oral hygiene non-compliant at baseline but compliant at all follow-up visits had the fewest teeth that failed; greatest tooth failure occurred in participants who were non-compliant at baseline and follow-up. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Despite pre-RT dental management, substantial tooth failure occurs within 2 years after RT for HNC. Identified factors may help to predict or reduce risk of post-RT tooth failure.
PMID: 34879248
ISSN: 1879-355x
CID: 5140732

Radiation therapy for head and neck cancer leads to gingival recession associated with dental caries

Lalla, Rajesh V; Treister, Nathaniel S; Sollecito, Thomas P; Schmidt, Brian L; Patton, Lauren L; Helgeson, Erika S; Lin, Alexander; Rybczyk, Cynthia; Dowsett, Robert; Hegde, Upendra; Boyd, Timothy S; Duplinsky, Thomas G; Brennan, Michael T
OBJECTIVE:The aim of this study was to examine effects of radiation therapy (RT) for head and neck cancer (HNC) on periodontal disease and relationships to caries. STUDY DESIGN/METHODS:A multicenter prospective observational cohort study (OraRad) was conducted in patients undergoing RT for HNC. Assessments were conducted by calibrated examiners at the pre-RT (baseline) visit (n = 533), the 12-month visit (n = 414), and the 24-month visit (n = 365). RESULTS:The average whole mouth mean (standard error (SE)) distance from the cementoenamel junction to the gingival margin (CEJ-GM) decreased significantly from 0.43 (0.04) mm at baseline to 0.24 (0.04) mm at 12 months and 0.11 (0.04) mm at 24 months (P ≤ .001). Whole mouth mean (SE) percentage of sites with CEJ-GM distance of <0 mm increased significantly from 23.3% (1.0%) at baseline to 28.5% (1.0%) at 12 months and 30.5% (1.1%) at 24 months (P ≤ .02). Higher mean radiation dose to the mandible was associated with a greater increase in the percentage of mandibular sites with CEJ-GM distance of <0 mm (P = .003). Both mean CEJ-GM distance and the percentage of sites with a CEJ-GM distance <0 mm were strongly associated with whole mouth mean proportion of decayed, missing, and filled surfaces, as well as proportion of decayed or filled facial/buccal surfaces specifically, (P < .001), with greater gingival recession associated with increased caries. CONCLUSIONS:RT for HNC leads to mandibular gingival recession in a dose-dependent manner. This gingival recession may contribute to increased risk for cervical caries seen in these patients.
PMID: 35304084
ISSN: 2212-4411
CID: 5190962

Sustained endosomal release of a neurokinin-1 receptor antagonist from nanostars provides long-lasting relief of chronic pain

Latorre, Rocco; Ramírez-Garcia, Paulina D; Hegron, Alan; Grace, James L; Retamal, Jeffri S; Shenoy, Priyank; Tran, Mai; Aurelio, Luigi; Flynn, Bernard; Poole, Daniel P; Klein-Cloud, Rafael; Jensen, Dane D; Davis, Thomas P; Schmidt, Brian L; Quinn, John F; Whittaker, Michael R; Veldhuis, Nicholas A; Bunnett, Nigel W
Soft polymer nanoparticles designed to disassemble and release an antagonist of the neurokinin 1 receptor (NK1R) in endosomes provide efficacious yet transient relief from chronic pain. These micellar nanoparticles are unstable and rapidly release cargo, which may limit the duration of analgesia. We examined the efficacy of stable star polymer nanostars containing the NK1R antagonist aprepitant-amine for the treatment of chronic pain in mice. Nanostars continually released cargo for 24 h, trafficked through the endosomal system, and disrupted NK1R endosomal signaling. After intrathecal injection, nanostars accumulated in endosomes of spinal neurons. Nanostar-aprepitant reversed mechanical, thermal and cold allodynia and normalized nociceptive behavior more efficaciously than free aprepitant in preclinical models of neuropathic and inflammatory pain. Analgesia was maintained for >10 h. The sustained endosomal delivery of antagonists from slow-release nanostars provides effective and long-lasting reversal of chronic pain.
PMID: 35533442
ISSN: 1878-5905
CID: 5215272

Dental Caries Postradiotherapy in Head and Neck Cancer

Brennan, M T; Treister, N S; Sollecito, T P; Schmidt, B L; Patton, L L; Lin, A; Elting, L S; Helgeson, E S; Lalla, R V
BACKGROUND/UNASSIGNED:Treatment for head and neck cancer (HNC) such as radiotherapy (RT) can lead to numerous acute and chronic head and neck sequelae, including dental caries. The goal of the present study was to measure 2-y changes in dental caries after radiotherapy in patients with HNC and test risk factors for caries increment. METHODS/UNASSIGNED:Cancer and dental disease characteristics, demographics, and oral health practices were documented before and 6, 12, 18, and 24 mo after the start of RT for 572 adult patients with HNC. Patients were eligible if they were age 18 y or older, diagnosed with HNC, and planned to receive RT for treatment of HNC. Caries prevalence was measured as decayed, missing, and filled surfaces (DMFS). The association between change in DMFS and risk factors was evaluated using linear mixed models. RESULTS/UNASSIGNED:= 164), lower salivary flow at follow-up visits was associated with increased DMFS. CONCLUSION/UNASSIGNED:Increased caries is a complication soon after RT in HNC. Fluoride, oral hygiene, dental insurance, and education level had the strongest association with caries increment after radiotherapy to the head and neck region. Thus, intensive oral hygiene measures, including fluoride and greater accessibility of dental care, may contribute to reducing the caries burden after RT in HNC. KNOWLEDGE TRANSFER STATEMENT/UNASSIGNED:The results of this study can be used by clinicians when deciding how to minimize oral complications related to cancer therapy for patients with head and neck cancer. Identification of modifiable factors (e.g., oral hygiene and prescription fluoride compliance) associated with increased caries risk can minimize radiation caries burden.
PMID: 35403479
ISSN: 2380-0852
CID: 5207022

Agonist that activates the µ-opioid receptor in acidified microenvironments inhibits colitis pain without side effects

Jiménez-Vargas, Nestor Nivardo; Yu, Yang; Jensen, Dane D; Bok, Diana Daeun; Wisdom, Matthew; Latorre, Rocco; Lopez, Cintya; Jaramillo-Polanco, Josue O; Degro, Claudius; Guzman-Rodriguez, Mabel; Tsang, Quentin; Snow, Zachary; Schmidt, Brian L; Reed, David E; Lomax, Alan Edward; Margolis, Kara Gross; Stein, Christoph; Bunnett, Nigel W; Vanner, Stephen J
OBJECTIVE:The effectiveness of µ-opioid receptor (MOPr) agonists for treatment of visceral pain is compromised by constipation, respiratory depression, sedation and addiction. We investigated whether a fentanyl analogue, (±)-N-(3-fluoro-1-phenethylpiperidine-4-yl)-N-phenyl propionamide (NFEPP), which preferentially activates MOPr in acidified diseased tissues, would inhibit pain in a preclinical model of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) without side effects in healthy tissues. DESIGN/METHODS:Antinociceptive actions of NFEPP and fentanyl were compared in control mice and mice with dextran sodium sulfate colitis by measuring visceromotor responses to colorectal distension. Patch clamp and extracellular recordings were used to assess nociceptor activation. Defecation, respiration and locomotion were assessed. Colonic migrating motor complexes were assessed by spatiotemporal mapping of isolated tissue. NFEPP-induced MOPr signalling and trafficking were studied in human embryonic kidney 293 cells. RESULTS:NFEPP inhibited visceromotor responses to colorectal distension in mice with colitis but not in control mice, consistent with acidification of the inflamed colon. Fentanyl inhibited responses in both groups. NFEPP inhibited the excitability of dorsal root ganglion neurons and suppressed mechanical sensitivity of colonic afferent fibres in acidified but not physiological conditions. Whereas fentanyl decreased defecation and caused respiratory depression and hyperactivity in mice with colitis, NFEPP was devoid of these effects. NFEPP did not affect colonic migrating motor complexes at physiological pH. NFEPP preferentially activated MOPr in acidified extracellular conditions to inhibit cAMP formation, recruit β-arrestins and evoke MOPr endocytosis. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:In a preclinical IBD model, NFEPP preferentially activates MOPr in acidified microenvironments of inflamed tissues to induce antinociception without causing respiratory depression, constipation and hyperactivity.
PMID: 33785555
ISSN: 1468-3288
CID: 4840882

Oral cancer induced TRPV1 sensitization is mediated by PAR2 signaling in primary afferent neurons innervating the cancer microenvironment

Scheff, Nicole N; Wall, Ian M; Nicholson, Sam; Williams, Hannah; Chen, Elyssa; Tu, Nguyen H; Dolan, John C; Liu, Cheng Z; Janal, Malvin N; Bunnett, Nigel W; Schmidt, Brian L
Oral cancer patients report sensitivity to spicy foods and liquids. The mechanism responsible for chemosensitivity induced by oral cancer is not known. We simulate oral cancer-induced chemosensitivity in a xenograft oral cancer mouse model using two-bottle choice drinking and conditioned place aversion assays. An anatomic basis of chemosensitivity is shown in increased expression of TRPV1 in anatomically relevant trigeminal ganglion (TG) neurons in both the xenograft and a carcinogen (4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide)-induced oral cancer mouse models. The percent of retrograde labeled TG neurons that respond to TRPV1 agonist, capsaicin, is increased along with the magnitude of response as measured by calcium influx, in neurons from the cancer models. To address the possible mechanism of TRPV1 sensitivity in tongue afferents, we study the role of PAR2, which can sensitize the TRPV1 channel. We show co-expression of TRPV1 and PAR2 on tongue afferents and using a conditioned place aversion assay, demonstrate that PAR2 mediates oral cancer-induced, TRPV1-evoked sensitivity in an oral cancer mouse model. The findings provide insight into oral cancer-mediated chemosensitivity.
PMID: 35260737
ISSN: 2045-2322
CID: 5183522

The impact of head and neck radiotherapy on salivary flow and quality of life: Results of the ORARAD study

Lin, Alexander; Helgeson, Erika S; Treister, Nathaniel S; Schmidt, Brian L; Patton, Lauren L; Elting, Linda S; Lalla, Rajesh V; Brennan, Michael T; Sollecito, Thomas P
OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:Salivary hypofunction and xerostomia, are common side effects of radiotherapy, negatively impacting quality of life. The OraRad study presents results on the longitudinal impact of radiotherapy on salivary flow and patient-reported outcomes. PATIENTS AND METHODS/METHODS:Prospective, multicenter cohort study of 572 patients receiving curative-intent head and neck radiotherapy (RT). Stimulated salivary flow (SSF) rate and patient-reported outcomes were measured prior to RT and at 6- and 18-months post-RT. Linear mixed effects models examined the relationship between RT dose and change in salivary flow, and change in patient-reported outcomes. RESULTS:544 patients had baseline salivary flow measurement, with median (IQR) stimulated flow rate of 0.975 (0.648, 1.417) g/min. Average RT dose to parotid glands was associated with change in salivary flow post-RT (p < 0.001). Diminished flow to 37% of pre-RT level was observed at 6 months (median: 0.358, IQR: 0.188 to 0.640 g/min, n = 481) with partial recovery to 59% of pre-RT at 18 months (median: 0.575, IQR: 0.338 to 0.884 g/min, n = 422). Significant improvement in patient-reported swallowing, senses (taste and smell), mouth opening, dry mouth, and sticky saliva (p-values < 0.03) were observed between 6 and 18 months post-RT. Changes in swallowing, mouth opening, dry mouth, and sticky saliva were significantly associated with changes in salivary flow from baseline (p-values < 0.04). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Salivary flow and patient-reported outcomes decreased as a result of RT, but demonstrated partial recovery during follow-up. Continued efforts are needed to improve post-RT salivary function to support quality of life.
PMID: 35231809
ISSN: 1879-0593
CID: 5176952

Mice expressing fluorescent PAR2 reveal that endocytosis mediates colonic inflammation and pain

Latorre, Rocco; Hegron, Alan; Peach, Chloe J; Teng, Shavonne; Tonello, Raquel; Retamal, Jeffri S; Klein-Cloud, Rafael; Bok, Diana; Jensen, Dane D; Gottesman-Katz, Lena; Rientjes, Jeanette; Veldhuis, Nicholas A; Poole, Daniel P; Schmidt, Brian L; Pothoulakis, Charalabos H; Rankin, Carl; Xie, Ying; Koon, Hon Wai; Bunnett, Nigel W
G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) regulate many pathophysiological processes and are major therapeutic targets. The impact of disease on the subcellular distribution and function of GPCRs is poorly understood. We investigated trafficking and signaling of protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2) in colitis. To localize PAR2 and assess redistribution during disease, we generated knockin mice expressing PAR2 fused to monomeric ultrastable green fluorescent protein (muGFP). PAR2-muGFP signaled and trafficked normally. PAR2 messenger RNA was detected at similar levels in Par2-mugfp and wild-type mice. Immunostaining with a GFP antibody and RNAScope in situ hybridization using F2rl1 (PAR2) and Gfp probes revealed that PAR2-muGFP was expressed in epithelial cells of the small and large intestine and in subsets of enteric and dorsal root ganglia neurons. In healthy mice, PAR2-muGFP was prominently localized to the basolateral membrane of colonocytes. In mice with colitis, PAR2-muGFP was depleted from the plasma membrane of colonocytes and redistributed to early endosomes, consistent with generation of proinflammatory proteases that activate PAR2 PAR2 agonists stimulated endocytosis of PAR2 and recruitment of Gαq, Gαi, and β-arrestin to early endosomes of T84 colon carcinoma cells. PAR2 agonists increased paracellular permeability of colonic epithelial cells, induced colonic inflammation and hyperalgesia in mice, and stimulated proinflammatory cytokine release from segments of human colon. Knockdown of dynamin-2 (Dnm2), the major colonocyte isoform, and Dnm inhibition attenuated PAR2 endocytosis, signaling complex assembly and colonic inflammation and hyperalgesia. Thus, PAR2 endocytosis sustains protease-evoked inflammation and nociception and PAR2 in endosomes is a potential therapeutic target for colitis.
PMID: 35110404
ISSN: 1091-6490
CID: 5156302

Schwann cell endosome CGRP signals elicit periorbital mechanical allodynia in mice

De Logu, Francesco; Nassini, Romina; Hegron, Alan; Landini, Lorenzo; Jensen, Dane D; Latorre, Rocco; Ding, Julia; Marini, Matilde; Souza Monteiro de Araujo, Daniel; Ramírez-Garcia, Paulina; Whittaker, Michael; Retamal, Jeffri; Titiz, Mustafa; Innocenti, Alessandro; Davis, Thomas P; Veldhuis, Nicholas; Schmidt, Brian L; Bunnett, Nigel W; Geppetti, Pierangelo
Efficacy of monoclonal antibodies against calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) or its receptor (calcitonin receptor-like receptor/receptor activity modifying protein-1, CLR/RAMP1) implicates peripherally-released CGRP in migraine pain. However, the site and mechanism of CGRP-evoked peripheral pain remain unclear. By cell-selective RAMP1 gene deletion, we reveal that CGRP released from mouse cutaneous trigeminal fibers targets CLR/RAMP1 on surrounding Schwann cells to evoke periorbital mechanical allodynia. CLR/RAMP1 activation in human and mouse Schwann cells generates long-lasting signals from endosomes that evoke cAMP-dependent formation of NO. NO, by gating Schwann cell transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1), releases ROS, which in a feed-forward manner sustain allodynia via nociceptor TRPA1. When encapsulated into nanoparticles that release cargo in acidified endosomes, a CLR/RAMP1 antagonist provides superior inhibition of CGRP signaling and allodynia in mice. Our data suggest that the CGRP-mediated neuronal/Schwann cell pathway mediates allodynia associated with neurogenic inflammation, contributing to the algesic action of CGRP in mice.
PMID: 35115501
ISSN: 2041-1723
CID: 5156312

Exposed bone in patients with head and neck cancer treated with radiation therapy: An analysis of the Observational Study of Dental Outcomes in Head and Neck Cancer Patients (OraRad)

Treister, Nathaniel S; Brennan, Michael T; Sollecito, Thomas P; Schmidt, Brian L; Patton, Lauren L; Mitchell, Rebecca; Haddad, Robert I; Tishler, Roy B; Lin, Alexander; Shadick, Ryann; Hodges, James S; Lalla, Rajesh V
BACKGROUND:Patients with head and neck cancer (HNC) treated with radiation therapy (RT) are at risk for jaw osteoradionecrosis (ORN), which is largely characterized by the presence of exposed necrotic bone. This report describes the incidence and clinical course of and risk factors for exposed intraoral bone in the multicenter Observational Study of Dental Outcomes in Head and Neck Cancer Patients (OraRad) cohort. METHODS:Participants were evaluated before RT and at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months after RT. Exposed bone was characterized by location, sequestrum formation, and other associated features. The radiation dose to the affected area was determined, and the history of treatment for exposed bone was recorded. RESULTS:The study enrolled 572 participants; 35 (6.1%) were diagnosed with incident exposed bone at 6 (47% of reports), 12 (24%), 18 (20%), and 24 months (8%), with 60% being sequestrum and with 7 cases (20%) persisting for >6 months. The average maximum RT dose to the affected area of exposed bone was 5456 cGy (SD, 1768 cGy); the most frequent associated primary RT sites were the oropharynx (42.9%) and oral cavity (31.4%), and 76% of episodes occurred in the mandible. The diagnosis of ORN was confirmed in 18 participants for an incidence rate of 3.1% (18 of 572). Risk factors included pre-RT extractions (P = .008), a higher RT dose (P = .039), and tobacco use (P = .048). CONCLUSIONS:The 2-year incidence of exposed bone in the OraRad cohort was 6.1%; the incidence of confirmed ORN was 3.1%. Exposed bone after RT for HNC is relatively uncommon and, in most cases, is a short-term complication, not a recurring or persistent one.
PMID: 34665873
ISSN: 1097-0142
CID: 5072182