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Monocyte-derived S1P in the lymph node regulates immune responses

Baeyens, Audrey; Bracero, Sabrina; Chaluvadi, Venkata S; Khodadadi-Jamayran, Alireza; Cammer, Michael; Schwab, Susan R
The lipid chemoattractant sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) guides cells out of tissues, where the concentration of S1P is relatively low, into circulatory fluids, where the concentration of S1P is high1. For example, S1P directs the exit of T cells from lymph nodes, where T cells are initially activated, into lymph, from which T cells reach the blood and ultimately inflamed tissues1. T cells follow S1P gradients primarily using S1P receptor 1 (ref. 1). Recent studies have described how S1P gradients are established at steady state, but little is known about the distribution of S1P in disease or about how changing levels of S1P may affect immune responses. Here we show that the concentration of S1P increases in lymph nodes during an immune response. We found that haematopoietic cells, including inflammatory monocytes, were an important source of this S1P, which was an unexpected finding as endothelial cells provide S1P to lymph1. Inflammatory monocytes required the early activation marker CD69 to supply this S1P, in part because the expression of CD69 was associated with reduced levels of S1pr5 (which encodes S1P receptor 5). CD69 acted as a 'stand-your-ground' signal, keeping immune cells at a site of inflammation by regulating both the receptors and the gradients of S1P. Finally, increased levels of S1P prolonged the residence time of T cells in the lymph nodes and exacerbated the severity of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in mice. This finding suggests that residence time in the lymph nodes might regulate the differentiation of T cells, and points to new uses of drugs that target S1P signalling.
PMID: 33658712
ISSN: 1476-4687
CID: 4801642

STAT3 Inhibitor OPB-51602 Is Cytotoxic to Tumor Cells Through Inhibition of Complex I and ROS Induction

Brambilla, Lara; Lahiri, Tanaya; Cammer, Michael; Levy, David E
STAT3 is a transcription factor involved in several cellular activities including inflammation, proliferation, and survival, but it also plays a non-transcriptional role in modulating mitochondrial metabolism. Given its diverse functions in human cancers, it is an emerging therapeutic target. Here we show that OPB-51602, a small molecule inhibitor of STAT3, is highly toxic in a STAT3-dependent manner. Specifically, drug toxicity depends on mitochondrial STAT3 as tumor cells expressing only a mitochondrially restricted form of STAT3 are sensitive to the compound, whereas STAT3-null cells are protected. OPB-51602 inhibited complex I activity and led to increased ROS production, which in turn induced mitophagy, actin rearrangements, and cell death. Cells undergoing reduced oxidative phosphorylation or expressing NDI1 NADH dehydrogenase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which bypasses mammalian complex I, were resistant to OPB-51602 toxicity. These results show that targeting mitochondrial STAT3 function causes synthetic lethality through complex I inhibition that could be exploited for cancer chemotherapy.
PMID: 33305182
ISSN: 2589-0042
CID: 4709362

Respiratory Supercomplexes Promote Mitochondrial Efficiency and Growth in Severely Hypoxic Pancreatic Cancer

Hollinshead, Kate E R; Parker, Seth J; Eapen, Vinay V; Encarnacion-Rosado, Joel; Sohn, Albert; Oncu, Tugba; Cammer, Michael; Mancias, Joseph D; Kimmelman, Alec C
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is characterized by extensive fibrosis and hypovascularization, resulting in significant intratumoral hypoxia (low oxygen) that contributes to its aggressiveness, therapeutic resistance, and high mortality. Despite oxygen being a fundamental requirement for many cellular and metabolic processes, and the severity of hypoxia in PDAC, the impact of oxygen deprivation on PDAC biology is poorly understood. Investigating how PDAC cells survive in the near absence of oxygen, we find that PDAC cell lines grow robustly in oxygen tensions down to 0.1%, maintaining mitochondrial morphology, membrane potential, and the oxidative metabolic activity required for the synthesis of key metabolites for proliferation. Disrupting electron transfer efficiency by targeting mitochondrial respiratory supercomplex assembly specifically affects hypoxic PDAC proliferation, metabolism, and in vivo tumor growth. Collectively, our results identify a mechanism that enables PDAC cells to thrive in severe, oxygen-limited microenvironments.
PMID: 33027658
ISSN: 2211-1247
CID: 4626982

3-Dimensional organization and dynamics of the microsporidian polar tube invasion machinery

Jaroenlak, Pattana; Cammer, Michael; Davydov, Alina; Sall, Joseph; Usmani, Mahrukh; Liang, Feng-Xia; Ekiert, Damian C; Bhabha, Gira
Microsporidia, a divergent group of single-celled eukaryotic parasites, harness a specialized harpoon-like invasion apparatus called the polar tube (PT) to gain entry into host cells. The PT is tightly coiled within the transmissible extracellular spore, and is about 20 times the length of the spore. Once triggered, the PT is rapidly ejected and is thought to penetrate the host cell, acting as a conduit for the transfer of infectious cargo into the host. The organization of this specialized infection apparatus in the spore, how it is deployed, and how the nucleus and other large cargo are transported through the narrow PT are not well understood. Here we use serial block-face scanning electron microscopy to reveal the 3-dimensional architecture of the PT and its relative spatial orientation to other organelles within the spore. Using high-speed optical microscopy, we also capture and quantify the entire PT germination process of three human-infecting microsporidia species in vitro: Anncaliia algerae, Encephalitozoon hellem and E. intestinalis. Our results show that the emerging PT experiences very high accelerating forces to reach velocities exceeding 300 μm⋅s-1, and that firing kinetics differ markedly between species. Live-cell imaging reveals that the nucleus, which is at least 7 times larger than the diameter of the PT, undergoes extreme deformation to fit through the narrow tube, and moves at speeds comparable to PT extension. Our study sheds new light on the 3-dimensional organization, dynamics, and mechanism of PT extrusion, and shows how infectious cargo moves through the tube to initiate infection.
PMID: 32946515
ISSN: 1553-7374
CID: 4593522

An Intestinal Organoid-Based Platform That Recreates Susceptibility to T Cell-Mediated Tissue Injury

Matsuzawa-Ishimoto, Yu; Hine, Ashley; Shono, Yusuke; Rudensky, Eugene; Lazrak, Amina; Yeung, Frank; Neil, Jessica A; Yao, Xiaomin; Chen, Ying-Han; Heaney, Thomas; Schuster, Samantha L; Zwack, Erin E; Axelrad, Jordan Eric; Hudesman, David; Tsai, Jennifer Jia-Ying; Nichols, Katherine B; Dewan, M Zahidunnabi; Cammer, Michael; Beal, Allison; Hoffman, Sandra; Geddes, Brad; Bertin, John; Liu, Chen; Torres, Victor J; Loke, P'ng; van den Brink, Marcel Rm; Cadwell, Ken
A goal in precision medicine is to use patient-derived material to predict disease course and intervention outcomes. Here, we use mechanistic observations in a preclinical animal model to design an ex vivo platform that recreates genetic susceptibility to T cell-mediated damage. Intestinal graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a life-threatening complication of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT). We found that intestinal GVHD in mice deficient in Atg16L1, an autophagy gene that is polymorphic in humans, is reversed by inhibiting necroptosis. We further show that co-cultured allogeneic T cells kill Atg16L1 mutant intestinal organoids from mice, which was associated with an aberrant epithelial interferon signature. Using this information, we demonstrate that pharmacologically inhibiting necroptosis or interferon signaling protects human organoids derived from individuals harboring a common ATG16L1 variant from allogeneic T cell attack. Our study provides a roadmap for applying findings in animal models to individualized therapy that targets affected tissues.
PMID: 32232483
ISSN: 1528-0020
CID: 4370252

Amyloid-like substance in mice and human oocytes and embryos

Pimentel, Ricardo N; Navarro, Paula A; Wang, Fang; Robinson, LeRoy G; Cammer, Michael; Liang, Fengxia; Kramer, Yael; Keefe, David Lawrence
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:To identify and characterize amyloid-like substance (ALS) in human and mouse oocytes and preimplantation embryos. METHODS:An experimental prospective pilot study. A total of 252 mouse oocytes and preimplantation embryos and 50 immature and in vitro matured human oocytes and parthenogenetic human embryos, from 11 consenting fertility patients, ages 18-45. Fluorescence intensity from immunofluorescent staining and data from confocal microscopy were quantified. Data were compared by one-way analysis of variance, with the least square-MEANS post-test, Pearson correlation coefficients (r), and bivariate analyses (t tests). ALS morphology was verified using transmission electron microscopy. RESULTS:Immunostaining for ALS appears throughout the zona pellucida, as well as in the cytoplasm and nucleus of mouse and human oocytes, polar bodies, and parthenogenetic embryos, and mouse preimplantation embryos. In mouse, 2-cell embryos exhibited the highest level of ALS (69000187.4 ± 6733098.07). Electron microscopy confirmed the presence of ALS. In humans, fresh germinal vesicle stage oocytes exhibited the highest level of ALS (4164.74088 ± 1573.46) followed by metaphase I and II stages (p = 0.008). There was a significant negative association between levels of ALS and patient body mass index, number of days of ovarian stimulation, dose of gonadotropin used, time between retrieval and fixation, and time after the hCG trigger. Significantly higher levels of ALS were found in patients with AMH between 1 and 3 ng/ml compared to < 1 ng/ml. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:We demonstrate for the first time the presence, distribution, and change in ALS throughout some stages of mouse and human oocyte maturation and embryonic development. We also determine associations between ALS in human oocytes with clinical characteristics.
PMID: 31332596
ISSN: 1573-7330
CID: 3986902

Regulation of BACE1 expression after injury is linked to the p75 neurotrophin receptor

Saadipour, Khalil; Tiberi, Alexia; Lomardo, Sylvia; Grajales, Elena; Montroull, Laura; Mañucat-Tan, Noralyn B; LaFrancois, John; Cammer, Michael; Mathews, Paul M; Scharfman, Helen E; Liao, Francesca-Fang; Friedman, Wilma J; Zhou, Xin-Fu; Tesco, Giueseppina; Chao, Moses V
BACE1 is a transmembrane aspartic protease that cleaves various substrates and it is required for normal brain function. BACE1 expression is high during early development, but it is reduced in adulthood. Under conditions of stress and injury, BACE1 levels are increased; however, the underlying mechanisms that drive BACE1 elevation are not well understood. One mechanism associated with brain injury is the activation of injurious p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75), which can trigger pathological signals. Here we report that within 72 h after controlled cortical impact (CCI) or laser injury, BACE1 and p75 are increased and tightly co-expressed in cortical neurons of mouse brain. Additionally, BACE1 is not up-regulated in p75 null mice in response to focal cortical injury, while p75 over-expression results in BACE1 augmentation in HEK-293 and SY5Y cell lines. A luciferase assay conducted in SY5Y cell line revealed that BACE1 expression is regulated at the transcriptional level in response to p75 transfection. Interestingly, this effect does not appear to be dependent upon p75 ligands including mature and pro-neurotrophins. In addition, BACE1 activity on amyloid precursor protein (APP) is enhanced in SY5Y-APP cells transfected with a p75 construct. Lastly, we found that the activation of c-jun n-terminal kinase (JNK) by p75 contributes to BACE1 up-regulation. This study explores how two injury-induced molecules are intimately connected and suggests a potential link between p75 signaling and the expression of BACE1 after brain injury.
PMID: 31422108
ISSN: 1095-9327
CID: 4046542

Cadherin-Mediated Cell Coupling Coordinates Chemokine Sensing across Collectively Migrating Cells

Colak-Champollion, Tugba; Lan, Ling; Jadhav, Alisha R; Yamaguchi, Naoya; Venkiteswaran, Gayatri; Patel, Heta; Cammer, Michael; Meier-Schellersheim, Martin; Knaut, Holger
The directed migration of cells sculpts the embryo, contributes to homeostasis in the adult, and, when dysregulated, underlies many diseases [1, 2]. During these processes, cells move singly or as a collective. In both cases, they follow guidance cues, which direct them to their destination [3-6]. In contrast to single cells, collectively migrating cells need to coordinate with their neighbors to move together in the same direction. Recent studies suggest that leader cells in the front sense the guidance cue, relay the directional information to the follower cells in the back, and can pull the follower cells along [7-19]. In this manner, leader cells steer the collective and set the collective's overall speed. However, whether follower cells also participate in steering and speed setting of the collective is largely unclear. Using chimeras, we analyzed the role of leader and follower cells in the collectively migrating zebrafish posterior lateral line primordium. This tissue expresses the chemokine receptor Cxcr4 and is guided by the chemokine Cxcl12a [20-23]. We find that leader and follower cells need to sense the attractant Cxcl12a for efficient migration, are coupled to each other through cadherins, and require coupling to pull Cxcl12a-insensitive cells along. Analysis of cell dynamics in chimeric and protein-depleted primordia shows that Cxcl12a-sensing and cadherin-mediated adhesion contribute jointly to direct migration at both single-cell and tissue levels. These results suggest that all cells in the primordium need to sense the attractant and adhere to each other to coordinate their movements and migrate with robust directionality.
PMID: 31386838
ISSN: 1879-0445
CID: 4033132

Staphylococcus aureus Impairs the Function of and Kills Human Dendritic Cells via the LukAB Toxin

Berends, Evelien T M; Zheng, Xuhui; Zwack, Erin E; Ménager, Mickaël M; Cammer, Michael; Shopsin, Bo; Torres, Victor J
Staphylococcus aureus is a human pathogen responsible for high morbidity and mortality worldwide. Recurrent infections with this bacterium are common, suggesting that S. aureus thwarts the development of sterilizing immunity. S. aureus strains that cause disease in humans produce up to five different bicomponent toxins (leukocidins) that target and lyse neutrophils, innate immune cells that represent the first line of defense against S. aureus infections. However, little is known about the role of leukocidins in blunting adaptive immunity. Here, we explored the effects of leukocidins on human dendritic cells (DCs), antigen-presenting cells required for the development of adaptive immunity. Using an ex vivo infection model of primary human monocyte-derived dendritic cells, we found that S. aureus, including strains from different clonal complexes and drug resistance profiles, effectively kills DCs despite efficient phagocytosis. Although all purified leukocidins could kill DCs, infections with live bacteria revealed that S. aureus targets and kills DCs primarily via the activity of leukocidin LukAB. Moreover, using coculture experiments performed with DCs and autologous CD4+ T lymphocytes, we found that LukAB inhibits DC-mediated activation and proliferation of primary human T cells. Taken together, the data determined in the study reveal a novel immunosuppressive strategy of S. aureus whereby the bacterium blunts the development of adaptive immunity via LukAB-mediated injury of DCs.IMPORTANCE Antigen-presenting cells such as dendritic cells (DCs) fulfill an indispensable role in the development of adaptive immunity by producing proinflammatory cytokines and presenting microbial antigens to lymphocytes to trigger a faster, specific, and long-lasting immune response. Here, we studied the effect of Staphylococcus aureus toxins on human DCs. We discovered that the leukocidin LukAB hinders the development of adaptive immunity by targeting human DCs. The ability of S. aureus to blunt the function of DCs could help explain the high frequency of recurrent S. aureus infections. Taken together, the results from this study suggest that therapeutically targeting the S. aureus leukocidins may boost effective innate and adaptive immune responses by protecting innate leukocytes, enabling proper antigen presentation and T cell activation.
PMID: 30602580
ISSN: 2150-7511
CID: 3562862

Regional histologic differences in the long head of the biceps tendon following subpectoral biceps tenodesis in patients with rotator cuff tears and SLAP lesions

Glait, Sergio A; Mahure, Siddharth; Loomis, Cynthia A; Cammer, Michael; Pham, Hien; Feldman, Andrew; Jazrawi, Laith M; Strauss, Eric J
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:The purpose of this study was to quantify the regional histology of the long head of the biceps tendon (LHBT) and compare the histopathology present to clinical findings in patients with rotator cuff tears and SLAP lesions. METHODS:Prospectively enrolled patients undergoing an open subpectoral LHBT tenodesis in the setting of a rotator cuff (RTC) tear or SLAP lesion. Perioperative data were collected and the excised LHBT was analyzed by a fellowship trained pathologist. Tendons were sectioned into proximal (biceps anchor), middle (bicipital groove), and distal (myotendinous junction) portions. Sections were stained with Movat's pentachrome stain and digitized for analysis. Comparisons were made between the histologic findings present in the setting of a rotator cuff tear with those seen in the setting of a SLAP tear. RESULTS:39 tendons were analyzed: 20 from patients with SLAP lesions (mean age of 44.7 years, range 23-60 years) and 19 from patients with rotator cuff tears (mean age of 58.7 years, range 43-71). Patients with the most pathologic tendons in the bicipital groove were significantly older (59.4 vs. 50.4 years; p < 0.05), reported higher pre-operative VAS scores (6.6 vs. 5.0; p < 0.02), and demonstrated lower pre-operative ASES scores (41.6 vs. 50.7; p < 0.05). The RTC group showed significantly more mucinous degeneration at both the proximal (p < 0.03) and the middle (p < 0.01) tendon portions compared to the SLAP group. In both groups, the portions of proximal tendon showed significantly (p < 0.05) more mucinous degeneration than distal portions. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Regional histologic differences exist in the LHBT. Rotator cuff patients showed the most degenerated tendon in the bicipital groove and these patients tended to be older and have higher VAS and lower ASES scores. Surgeons should consider performing a subpectoral biceps tenodesis as the bicipital groove portion of the tendon may be very degenerated, especially in patients with rotator cuff disease. Additional research is warranted to distinguish whether treating the biceps differently in distinct geographic regions affects patient outcomes. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE/METHODS:II.
PMID: 29362860
ISSN: 1433-7347
CID: 2929272