Percutaneous Dilational Tracheostomy at the Epicenter of the SARS-CoV-2 Pandemic: Impact on Critical Care Resource Utilization and Early Outcomes
BACKGROUND:The COVID-19 pandemic overwhelmed New York City hospitals early in the pandemic. Shortages of ventilators and sedatives prompted tracheostomy earlier than recommended by professional societies. This study evaluates the impact of percutaneous dilational tracheostomy (PDT) in COVID+ patients on critical care capacity. METHODS:This is a single-institution prospective case series of mechanically ventilated COVID-19 patients undergoing PDT from April 1 to June 4, 2020 at a public tertiary care center. RESULTS:Fifty-five patients met PDT criteria and underwent PDT at a median of 13Â days (IQR 10, 18) from intubation. Patient characteristics are found in Table 1. Intravenous midazolam, fentanyl, and cisatracurium equivalents were significantly reduced 48Â hours post-PDT (Table 2). Thirty-five patients were transferred from the ICU and liberated from the ventilator. Median time from PDT to ventilator liberation and ICU discharge was 10 (IQR 4, 14) and 12 (IQR 8, 17)Â days, respectively. Decannulation occurred in 45.5% and 52.7% were discharged from acute inpatient care (Figure 1). Median follow-up for the study was 62Â days. Four patients had bleeding complications postoperatively and 11 died during the study period. Older age was associated with increased odds of complication (OR 1.12, 95% CI 1.04, 1.23) and death (OR=1.15, 95% CI 1.05, 1.30). All operators tested negative for COVID-19 during the study period. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:These findings suggest COVID-19 patients undergoing tracheostomy within the standard time frame can improve critical care capacity in areas strained by the pandemic with low risk to operators. Long-term outcomes after PDT deserve further study.
High resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta procedural volume is associated with improved outcomes: An analysis of the AORTA registry
BACKGROUND:The use of resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta (REBOA) is controversial. We hypothesize that REBOA outcomes are improved in centers with high REBOA utilization. METHODS:We examined the Aortic Occlusion in Resuscitation for Trauma and Acute Care Surgery registry over a 5-year period (2014-2018). Resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta outcomes were analyzed by stratifying institutions into low-volume (<10), average-volume (11-30), and high-volume (>30) deployment centers. A multivariable model adjusting for volume group, mechanism of injury, signs of life, systolic blood pressure at initiation, operator level, device type, zone of placement, and hemodynamic response to aortic occlusion was created to analyze REBOA mortality and REBOA-related complications. RESULTS:Four hundred ninety-five REBOA placements were included. High-volume centers accounted for 63%, while low accounted for 13%. High-volume institutions were more likely to place a REBOA in the emergency department (81% vs. 63% low volume, p = 0.003), had a lower mean systolic blood pressure at insertion (53 Â± 38 vs. 64 Â± 40, p = 0.001), and more Zone I deployments (64% vs. 55%, p = 0.002). Median time from admission to REBOA placement was significantly less in patients treated at high-volume centers (15 [7-30] minutes vs. 35 [20-65] minutes, p = 0.001). Resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta mortality was significantly higher at low-volume centers (67% vs. 57%; adjusted odds ratio, 1.29; adj p = 0.040), while average- and high-volume centers were similar. Resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta complications were less frequent at high-/average-volume centers, but did not reach statistical significance (adj p = 0.784). CONCLUSION:Resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta survival is increased at high versus low utilization centers. Increased experience with REBOA may be associated with earlier deployment and subsequently improved patient outcomes. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE:Therapeutic/Care Management, level IV.
A Novel COVID-19 Severity Score Is Associated with Survival in Patients Undergoing Percutaneous Dilational Tracheostomy [Meeting Abstract]
Introduction: Tracheostomy in COVID-19 patients is a controversial and difficult clinical decision. A recent COVID-19 Severity Score (CSS) was validated to identify high-risk patients requiring hospitalization. We hypothesized that the CSS would be associated with survival in patients considered for tracheostomy.
Method(s): We reviewed 77 mechanically ventilated COVID-19 patients evaluated for percutaneous dilational tracheostomy (PDT) from March-June 2020 at a public tertiary care center. Decision for PDT was based on clinical judgment of the screening surgeons. The CSS was retrospectively calculated using mean biomarker values from admission to time of PDT consult. Primary end point was survival to discharge. The Youden index identified an optimal CSS cut point for survival.
Result(s): Mean CSS for 42 survivors vs 35 nonsurvivors was significantly different (CSS 52 vs 66; p = 0.003). The Youden index returned an optimal CSS of 55 (area under the curve 0.7; 95% CI, 43 to 72). Median CSS was 40 (interquartile range 27 to 49) in the Low CSS (<55 group) and 72 (interquartile range 66 to 93) in the high CSS (>= 55) group (Fig. 1a). Eighty-seven percent of low CSS patients underwent PDT, with 74% survival, and 61% of high CSS patients underwent PDT with only 41% surviving (Fig. 1b). Patients with high CSS had 77% lower odds of survival (odds ratio 0.2; 95% CI, 0.1 to 0.7).
Conclusion(s): Higher CSS was associated with decreased survival to discharge in patients evaluated for PDT, with a score > 55 predictive of mortality. The novel CSS can be a useful adjunct in determining which COVID-19 patients will benefit from tracheostomy. Further prospective validation of this tool is warranted. [Formula presented]
Association between overcrowded households, multigenerational households, and COVID-19: a cohort study
OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:The role of overcrowded and multigenerational households as a risk factor for COVID-19 remains unmeasured. The objective of this study is to examine and quantify the association between overcrowded and multigenerational households and COVID-19 in New York City (NYC). STUDY DESIGN/METHODS:Cohort study. METHODS:We conducted a Bayesian ecological time series analysis at the ZIP Code Tabulation Area (ZCTA) level in NYC to assess whether ZCTAs with higher proportions of overcrowded (defined as the proportion of the estimated number of housing units with more than one occupant per room) and multigenerational households (defined as the estimated percentage of residences occupied by a grandparent and a grandchild less than 18 years of age) were independently associated with higher suspected COVID-19 case rates (from NYC Department of Health Syndromic Surveillance data for March 1 to 30, 2020). Our main measure was an adjusted incidence rate ratio (IRR) of suspected COVID-19 cases per 10,000 population. Our final model controlled for ZCTA-level sociodemographic factors (median income, poverty status, White race, essential workers), the prevalence of clinical conditions related to COVID-19 severity (obesity, hypertension, coronary heart disease, diabetes, asthma, smoking status, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease), and spatial clustering. RESULTS:Â =Â 0.99, 95% CI: 0.99-1.00). CONCLUSIONS:Overcrowdedness and multigenerational housing are independent risk factors for suspected COVID-19. In the early phase of the surge in COVID cases, social distancing measures that increase house-bound populations may inadvertently but temporarily increase SARS-CoV-2 transmission risk and COVID-19 disease in these populations.
Factors Related to Self-Reported Distress Experienced by Physicians During Their First COVID-19 Triage Decisions
OBJECTIVE:To identify factors associated with distress experienced by physicians during their first COVID-19 triage decisions. METHODS:An online survey was administered to physicians licensed in New York State. RESULTS:Of the 164 physicians studied, 20.7% experienced severe distress during their first COVID-19 triage decisions. The mean distress score was not significantly different between physicians who received just-in-time training and those who did not (6.0 Â± 2.7 vs 6.2 Â± 2.8, P=0.550) and between physicians who received clinical guidelines and those who did not (6.0 Â± 2.9 vs 6.2 Â± 2.7, P=0.820). Substantially increased odds of severe distress were found in physicians who reported that their first COVID-19 triage decisions were inconsistent with their core values (adjusted odds ratio 6.33, 95% confidence interval 2.03-19.76) and who reported having insufficient skills and expertise (adjusted odds ratio 2.99, 95% confidence interval 0.91-9.87). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:About 1 in 5 physicians in New York experienced severe distress during their first COVID-19 triage decisions. Physicians with insufficient skills and expertise, and core values misaligned to triage decisions are at heightened risk of severe distress. Just-in-time training and clinical guidelines do not appear to alleviate distress experienced by physicians during their first COVID-19 triage decisions.
The role of alcohol and other drugs on emergency department traumatic injury mortality in the United States
BACKGROUND:Alcohol and other drugs (AOD) increase the risk of traumatic injury occurring, but data suggest a protective benefit in preventing trauma-related mortality. The objective of this study is to describe the epidemiology of AOD-related traumatic injury in the US over a recent 7 year period and assess the interaction of traumatic injury and AOD on pre-admission fatality on both an additive scale using incidence contrasts and on a statistical multiplicative scale using survey-adjusted logistic regression. METHODS:Using the National Emergency Department Sample (NEDS), we describe the epidemiology of alcohol and substance-related emergency department traumatic injury over a recent period. AOD-related injury was assessed using survey-adjusted counts and means. Ratio estimates and differences were calculated using simulations based on survey-adjusted counts and standard errors. Differences in trends over time were evaluated by comparing the slopes of linear regression equations with year as the predictor variable. RESULTS:Alcohol and substance-related emergency department injury discharges increased 9.8 % during the study period. There was a statistically significant interaction between traumatic injury death and AOD on both an additive scale and multiplicative scale. (Odds Ratio for interaction term = 1.76, 95 % CI = 1.53, 2.03). CONCLUSIONS:AOD use does not provide a protective benefit in the setting of trauma, but rather is an important contributor to traumatic injury mortality.
Non-fatal senior pickleball and tennis-related injuries treated in United States emergency departments, 2010-2019
BACKGROUND:Pickleball is growing rapidly with a passionate senior following. Understanding and comparing players' injury experience through analysis of a nationally representative hospital emergency department sample helps inform senior injury prevention and fitness goals. METHODS:A cross-sectional descriptive study was performed using 2010 to 2019 data from the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission's (CPSC) National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS). Tennis was selected for comparison purposes because of the similarity of play, occasional competition for the same court space, and because many seniors play both sports. Non-fatal pickleball and tennis-related cases were identified, examined, recoded, and separated by injury versus non-injury conditions. Since over 85% of the pickleball injury-related cases were to players â‰¥60â€‰years of age, we mostly focused on this older age group. Analyses consisted of descriptive statistics, injury frequency, type and trends over time, and comparative measures of risk. RESULTS:Among players â‰¥60â€‰years of age, non-injuries (i.e., cardiovascular events) accounted for 11.1 and 21.5% of the pickleball and tennis-related cases, respectively. With non-injuries removed for seniors (â‰¥60â€‰years), the NEISS contained a weighted total of 28,984 pickleball injuries (95% confidence interval [CI]â€‰=â€‰19,463-43,163) and 58,836 tennis injuries (95% CIâ€‰=â€‰44,861-77,164). Pickleball-related injuries grew rapidly over the study period, and by 2018 the annual number of senior pickleball injuries reached parity with senior tennis-related injuries. Pickleball-related Slip/Trip/Fall/Dive injury mechanisms predominated (63.3, 95% CIâ€‰=â€‰57.7-69.5%). The leading pickleball-related diagnoses were strains/sprains (33.2, 95% CIâ€‰=â€‰27.8-39.5%), fractures (28.1, 95% CIâ€‰=â€‰24.3-32.4%) and contusions (10.6, 95% CIâ€‰=â€‰8.0-14.1%). Senior males were three-and-a-half times more likely than females to suffer a pickleball-related strain or sprain (Odds Ratio [OR] 3.5, 95% CIâ€‰=â€‰2.2-5.6) whereas women were over three-and-a-half times more likely to suffer a fracture (OR 3.7, 95% CIâ€‰=â€‰2.3-5.7) compared to men and nine times more likely to suffer a wrist fracture (OR 9.3 95% CIâ€‰=â€‰3.6-23.9). Patterns of senior tennis and pickleball injuries were mostly similar. CONCLUSIONS:NEISS is a valuable data source for describing the epidemiology of recreational injuries. However, careful case definitions are necessary when examining records involving older populations as non-injury conditions related to the activity/product codes of interest are frequent. As pickleball gains in popularity among active seniors, it is becoming an increasingly important cause of injury. Identifying and describing the most common types of injuries may can help inform prevention and safety measures.
Race and Insurance Status are Associated With Different Management Strategies After Thoracic Trauma
INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND:Health-care disparities based on race and socioeconomic status among trauma patients are well-documented. However, the influence of these factors on the management of rib fractures following thoracic trauma is unknown. The aim of this study is to describe the association of race and insurance status on management and outcomes in patients who sustain rib fractures. METHODS:The Trauma Quality Improvement Program database was used to identify adult patients who presented with rib fractures between 2015 and 2016. Patient demographics, injury severity, procedures performed, and outcomes were evaluated. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to determine the effect of race and insurance status on mortality and the likelihood of rib fixation surgery and epidural analgesia for pain management. RESULTS:A total of 95,227 patients were identified. Of these, 2923 (3.1%) underwent rib fixation. Compared to White patients, Asians (AOR: 0.57, PÂ =Â 0.001), Blacks or African-Americans (AA) (AOR: 0.70, PÂ <Â 0.001), and Hispanics/Latinos (HL) (AOR: 0.78, PÂ <Â 0.001) were less likely to undergo rib fixation surgery. AA patients (AOR: 0.67, PÂ =Â 0.004), other non-Whites (ONW) (AOR: 0.61, PÂ =Â 0.001), and HL (AOR 0.65, PÂ =Â 0.006) were less likely to receive epidural analgesia. Compared to privately insured patients, mortality was higher in uninsured patients (AOR: 1.72, PÂ <Â 0.001), Medicare patients (AOR: 1.80, PÂ <Â 0.001), and patients with other non-private insurance (AOR: 1.23, PÂ <Â 0.001). CONCLUSIONS:Non-White race is associated with a decreased likelihood of rib fixation and/or epidural placement, while underinsurance is associated with higher mortality in patients with thoracic trauma. Prospective efforts to examine the socioeconomic disparities within this population are warranted.
Temporal Changes in Reboa Utilization Practices are Associated with Increased Survival: An Analysis of the Aorta Registry
BACKGROUND:Aortic occlusion (AO) is utilized for patients in extremis, with resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta (REBOA) use increasing. Our objective was to examine changes in AO practices and outcomes over time. The primary outcome was the temporal variation in AO mortality, while secondary outcomes included changes in technique, utilization, and complications. STUDY DESIGN/METHODS:This study examined the AORTA registry over a 5-year period (2014-2018). AO outcomes and utilization were analyzed using year of procedure as an independent variable. A multivariable model adjusting for year of procedure, signs of life (SOL), SBP at AO initiation, operator level, timing of AO, and hemodynamic response to AO was created to analyze AO mortality. RESULTS:1458 AO were included. Mean age (39.1â€ŠÂ±â€Š16.7) and Median ISS (34[25,49]) were comparable between REBOA and Open AO. Open AO patients were more likely: male (84% vs. 77%, pâ€Š=â€Š0.001),â€Šs/p penetrating trauma (61% vs. 19%, pâ€Š<â€Š0.001), and arrived without SOL (60% vs. 40%, pâ€Š=â€Š0.001). REBOA use increased significantly and adjusted mortality decreased 22%/year while open AO survival was unchanged. REBOA initiation SBP increased significantly over the study period (52.2 vs. 65, pâ€Š=â€Š0.04). Compared with patients undergoing AO with CPR, each decile increase in SBP improved survival 12% (AOR 1.12, adj pâ€Š=â€Š0.001). The use of 7F REBOA (2.9% to 54.8%) and Zone III deployment increased significantly (14.7% vs 40.6%), with Zone III placement having decreased associated mortality (AOR 0.33, adj pâ€Š=â€Š0.001). Overall REBOA complication rate was 4.5% and did not increase over time (pâ€Š=â€Š0.575). CONCLUSIONS:REBOA survival has increased significantly while open AO survival remained unchanged. This may be related to lower thresholds for REBOA insertion at higher blood pressures, increased operator experience and improved catheter technology leading to earlier deployment.
Percutaneous dilational tracheostomy during the COVID-19 pandemic in New York City [Meeting Abstract]
INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic overwhelmed New York City hospitals. Shortages of ventilators and sedatives prompted tracheostomy earlier than recommended by professional societies. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of percutaneous dilational tracheostomy (PDT) in COVID-19 patients on critical care capacity.
METHOD(S): This is a single-institution prospective case series of SARS-CoV-2 infected patients undergoing PDT from April 1-June 4, 2020 with follow-up through June 25, 2020 at a public tertiary care center. Clinical data were obtained through medical record review. Mechanically ventilated COVID-19 patients were screened for intervention based on the following criteria: >= 6 days of intubation with further need for mechanical ventilation, a fractional inspired oxygen concentration of <= 60%, positive end expiratory pressure <=12, no significant organ dysfunction except acute kidney injury, and minimal pressor requirements. The main outcomes measured were change in 48-hour periprocedural sedative/analgesia requirements, liberation from the ventilator, rate of transfer from the ICU, decannulation, PDT-related complications, and in-hospital survival.
RESULT(S): Fifty-five patients met PDT criteria and underwent PDT a median of 13 days from intubation. Patient characteristics are found in Table 1. Intravenous midazolam equivalents, fentanyl equivalents and cisatracurium equivalents were significantly reduced post- PDT (Table 2). Thirty-five patients were transferred from the ICU and liberated from the ventilator. Median time from PDT to ventilator liberation and ICU discharge was 10 and 12 days respectively. Decannulation occurred in 45.5% and 52.7% were discharged from acute inpatient care. Median follow-up for the study was 62 days. Four patients had bleeding complications postoperatively and 11 died during the study period. Older age was associated with increased odds of complication (OR 1.12, 95% CI 1.04, 1.23) and death (OR=1.15, 95% CI 1.05, 1.30).
CONCLUSION(S): Mechanically ventilated COVID-19 patients undergoing PDT using standard criteria improves ventilator and medication utilization in areas strained by the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Long term outcomes after PDT in this population deserve further study