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Serious illness communication skills training for emergency physicians and advanced practice providers: a multi-method assessment of the reach and effectiveness of the intervention

Adeyemi, Oluwaseun; Ginsburg, Alexander D; Kaur, Regina; Cuthel, Allison M; Zhao, Nicole; Siman, Nina; Goldfeld, Keith S; Emlet, Lillian Liang; DiMaggio, Charles; Yamarik, Rebecca Liddicoat; Bouillon-Minois, Jean-Baptiste; Chodosh, Joshua; Grudzen, Corita R; ,
BACKGROUND:EM Talk is a communication skills training program designed to improve emergency providers' serious illness conversational skills. Using the Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation, and Maintenance (RE-AIM) framework, this study aims to assess the reach of EM Talk and its effectiveness. METHODS:EM Talk consisted of one 4-h training session during which professional actors used role-plays and active learning to train providers to deliver serious/bad news, express empathy, explore patients' goals, and formulate care plans. After the training, emergency providers filled out an optional post-intervention survey, which included course reflections. Using a multi-method analytical approach, we analyzed the reach of the intervention quantitatively and the effectiveness of the intervention qualitatively using conceptual content analysis of open-ended responses. RESULTS:A total of 879 out of 1,029 (85%) EM providers across 33 emergency departments completed the EM Talk training, with the training rate ranging from 63 to 100%. From the 326 reflections, we identified meaning units across the thematic domains of improved knowledge, attitude, and practice. The main subthemes across the three domains were the acquisition of Serious Illness (SI) communication skills, improved attitude toward engaging qualifying patients in SI conversations, and commitment to using these learned skills in clinical practice. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Our study showed the extensive reach and the effectiveness of the EM Talk training in improving SI conversation. EM Talk, therefore, can potentially improve emergency providers' knowledge, attitude, and practice of SI communication skills. TRIAL REGISTRATION/ NCT03424109; Registered on January 30, 2018.
PMID: 38378532
ISSN: 1472-684x
CID: 5634212

ASO Visual Abstract: Results of Magnetic Resonance Imaging Screening in Patients at High Risk for Breast Cancer

Miah, Pabel A; Pourkey, Nakisa; Marmer, Alyssa; Sevdalis, Athanasios; Fiedler, Laura; DiMaggio, Charles; Pak, Linda; Shapiro, Richard; Hiotis, Karen; Axelrod, Deborah; Guth, Amber; Schnabel, Freya
PMID: 37659979
ISSN: 1534-4681
CID: 5609342

Insufficient Reporting of Race and Ethnicity in Breast Cancer Clinical Trials

Keegan, Grace; Crown, Angelena; DiMaggio, Charles; Joseph, Kathie-Ann
BACKGROUND:Reporting race and ethnicity in clinical trial publications is critical for determining the generalizability and effectiveness of new treatments. This is particularly important for breast cancer, in which Black women have been shown to have between 40 and 100% higher mortality rate yet are underrepresented in trials. Our objective was to describe changes over time in the reporting of race/ethnicity in breast trial publications. PATIENTS AND METHODS/METHODS:We searched to identify the primary publication linked to trials with results posted from May 2010-2022. Statistical analysis included summed frequencies and a linear regression model of the proportion of articles reporting race/ethnicity and the proportion of non-White enrollees over time. RESULTS:A proportion of 72 of the 98 (73.4%) studies that met inclusion criteria reported race/ethnicity. In a linear regression model of the proportion of studies reporting race/ethnicity as a function of time, there was no statistically significant change, although we detected a signal toward a decreasing trend (coefficient for quarter = -2.2, p = 0.2). Among all studies reporting race and ethnicity over the study period, the overall percentage of non-White enrollees during the study period was 21.9%, [standard error (s.e.) 1.8, 95% confidence interval (CI) 18.4, 25.5] with a signal towards a decreasing trend in Non-White enrollment [coefficient for year-quarter = -0.8 (p = 0.2)]. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Our data demonstrate that both race reporting and overall representation of minority groups in breast cancer clinical trials did not improve over the last 12 years and may have, in fact, decreased. Increased reporting of race and ethnicity data forces the medical community to confront disparities in access to clinical trials. This may improve efforts to recruit and retain members of minority groups in clinical trials, and over time, reduce racial disparities in oncologic outcomes.
PMID: 37658271
ISSN: 1534-4681
CID: 5605142

Results of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Screening in Patients at High Risk for Breast Cancer

Miah, Pabel A; Pourkey, Nakisa; Marmer, Alyssa; Sevdalis, Athanasios; Fiedler, Laura; DiMaggio, Charles; Pak, Linda; Shapiro, Richard; Hiotis, Karen; Axelrod, Deborah; Guth, Amber; Schnabel, Freya
BACKGROUND:Screening MRI as an adjunct to mammography is recommended by the ACS for patients with a lifetime risk for breast cancer > 20%. While the benefits are clear, MRI screening is associated with an increase in false-positive results. The purpose of this study was to analyze our institutional database of high-risk patients and assess the uptake of screening MRI examinations and the results of those screenings. METHODS:Our institutional review board-approved High-Risk Breast Cancer Database was queried for patients enrolled from January 2017 to January 2023 who were at high risk for breast cancer in a comparative analysis between those who were screened versus not screened with MRIs. Variables of interest included risk factor, background, MRI screening uptake, and frequency and results of image-guided breast biopsies. RESULTS:A total of 254 of 1106 high-risk patients (23%) had MRI screening. Forty-six of 852 (5.3%) patients in the non-MRI-screened cohort and nine of 254 (3.5%) patients in the MRI-screened cohort were diagnosed with a malignant lesion after image-guided biopsy (p = 0.6). There was no significant difference between MRI and non-MRI guided biopsies in detecting breast cancer. All malignant lesions were T1 or in situ disease. The 254 patients in the MRI-screened group underwent 185 biopsies. Fifty-seven percent of MRI-guided biopsies yielded benign results. CONCLUSIONS:Although the addition of MRI screening in our high-risk cohort did not produce a significant number of additional cancer diagnoses, patients monitored in our high-risk cohort who developed breast cancer were diagnosed at very early stages of disease, underscoring the benefit of participation in the program.
PMID: 37561341
ISSN: 1534-4681
CID: 5593992

Immune response, phenotyping and molecular graft surveillance in kidney transplant recipients following severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 vaccination

Ali, Nicole M; Herati, Ramin S; Mehta, Sapna A; Leonard, Jeanette; Miles, Jake; Lonze, Bonnie E; DiMaggio, Charles; Tatapudi, Vasishta S; Stewart, Zoe A; Alnazari, Nasser; Neumann, Henry J; Thomas, Jeffrey; Cartiera, Katarzyna; Weldon, Elaina; Michael, Jennifer; Hickson, Christopher; Whiteson, Harris; Khalil, Karen; Stern, Jeffrey M; Allen, Joseph R; Tuen, Michael; Gray-Gaillard, Sophie L; Solis, Sabrina M; Samanovic, Marie I; Mulligan, Mark J; Montgomery, Robert A
BACKGROUND:Understanding immunogenicity and alloimmune risk following severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccination in kidney transplant recipients is imperative to understanding the correlates of protection and to inform clinical guidelines. METHODS:We studied 50 kidney transplant recipients following SARS-CoV-2 vaccination and quantified their anti-spike protein antibody, donor-derived cell-free DNA (dd-cfDNA), gene expression profiling (GEP), and alloantibody formation. RESULTS:Participants were stratified using nucleocapsid testing as either SARS-CoV-2-naïve or experienced prior to vaccination. One of 34 (3%) SARS-CoV-2 naïve participants developed anti-spike protein antibodies. In contrast, the odds ratio for the association of a prior history of SARS-CoV-2 infection with vaccine response was 18.3 (95% confidence interval 3.2, 105.0, p < 0.01). Pre- and post-vaccination levels did not change for median dd-cfDNA (0.23% vs. 0.21% respectively, p = 0.13), GEP scores (9.85 vs. 10.4 respectively, p = 0.45), calculated panel reactive antibody, de-novo donor specific antibody status, or estimated glomerular filtration rate. CONCLUSIONS:SARS-CoV-2 vaccines do not appear to trigger alloimmunity in kidney transplant recipients. The degree of vaccine immunogenicity was associated most strongly with a prior history of SARS-CoV-2 infection.
PMID: 37707287
ISSN: 1399-3062
CID: 5593762

A Call to Action to Train Underrepresented Minorities in Surgical Subspecialties and Fellowships

Escobar, Natalie; Keshinro, Ajaratu; Hambrecht, Amanda; Frangos, Spiros; Berman, Russell S; DiMaggio, Charles; Joseph, Kathie-Ann; Bukur, Marko; Klein, Michael J; Ude-Welcome, Akuezunkpa; Berry, Cherisse
BACKGROUND:With each succession along the surgical career pathway, from medical school to faculty, the percentage of those who identify as underrepresented in medicine (URiM) decreases. We sought to evaluate the demographic trend of surgical fellowship applicants, matriculants, and graduates over time. STUDY DESIGN:The Electronic Residency Application Service and the Graduate Medical Education Survey for general surgery fellowships in colorectal surgery, surgical oncology, pediatric surgery, thoracic surgery, and vascular surgery were retrospectively analyzed (2005 to 2020). The data were stratified by race and gender, descriptive statistics were performed, and time series were evaluated. Race/ethnicity groups included White, Asian, other, and URiM, which is defined as Black/African American, Hispanic/Latino(a), Alaskan or Hawaiian Native, and Native American. RESULTS:From 2005 to 2020, there were 5,357 Electronic Residency Application Service applicants, 4,559 matriculants, and 4,178 graduates to surgery fellowships. Whites, followed by Asians, represented the highest percentage of applicants (62.7% and 22.3%, respectively), matriculants (65.4% and 23.8% respectively), and graduates (65.4% and 24.0%, respectively). For URiMs, the applicants (13.4%), matriculants (9.1%), and graduates (9.1%) remained significantly low (p < 0.001). When stratified by both race and gender, only 4.6% of the applicants, 2.7% of matriculants, and 2.4% of graduates identified as both URiM and female compared to White female applicants (20.0%), matriculants (17.9%), and graduates (16.5%, p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS:Significant disparities exist for URiMs in general surgery subspecialty fellowships. These results serve as a call to action to re-examine and improve the existing processes to increase the number of URiMs in the surgery subspecialty fellowship training pathway.
PMID: 36946471
ISSN: 1879-1190
CID: 5525062

The Current Status of Minimally Invasive Adrenalectomy for Aldosterone Producing Adenoma: Controversial Issues, and Realistic Expectations of Clinical Cure

Pachter, Hersch Leon; Arthurs, Likolani; Sant, Vivek; Underwood, Hunter; Kulkarni, Kopel; Parikh, Manish; Agrawal, Nidhi; Suh, Insoo; DiMaggio, Charles
ISSN: 2508-8149
CID: 5523542

Crosswalk between Charlson Comorbidity Index and the American Society of Anesthesiologists Physical Status Score for Geriatric Trauma Assessment

Adeyemi, Oluwaseun John; Meltzer-Bruhn, Ariana; Esper, Garrett; DiMaggio, Charles; Grudzen, Corita; Chodosh, Joshua; Konda, Sanjit
The American Society of Anesthesiologists Physical Status (ASA-PS) grade better risk stratifies geriatric trauma patients, but it is only reported in patients scheduled for surgery. The Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI), however, is available for all patients. This study aims to create a crosswalk from the CCI to ASA-PS. Geriatric trauma cases, aged 55 years and older with both ASA-PS and CCI values (N = 4223), were used for the analysis. We assessed the relationship between CCI and ASA-PS, adjusting for age, sex, marital status, and body mass index. We reported the predicted probabilities and the receiver operating characteristics. A CCI of zero was highly predictive of ASA-PS grade 1 or 2, and a CCI of 1 or higher was highly predictive of ASA-PS grade 3 or 4. Additionally, while a CCI of 3 predicted ASA-PS grade 4, a CCI of 4 and higher exhibited greater accuracy in predicting ASA-PS grade 4. We created a formula that may accurately situate a geriatric trauma patient in the appropriate ASA-PS grade after adjusting for age, sex, marital status, and body mass index. In conclusion, ASA-PS grades can be predicted from CCI, and this may aid in generating more predictive trauma models.
PMID: 37107971
ISSN: 2227-9032
CID: 5465472

The New York State COVID-19 Healthcare Personnel Study: One-Year Follow-up of Physicians, Nurse Practitioners, and Physician Assistants, 2020-2021

DiMaggio, Charles; Susser, Ezra; Frangos, Spiros; Abramson, David; Andrews, Howard; Hoven, Christina; Ryan, Megan; Li, Guohua
OBJECTIVES/UNASSIGNED:The COVID-19 Healthcare Personnel Study is a longitudinal survey to assess the changing impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the New York State health care workforce. We analyzed results from a follow-up survey of physicians, nurse practitioners, and physician assistants on the availability of equipment and personnel, work conditions, physical and mental health of participants, and impact of the pandemic on commitment to their profession. METHODS/UNASSIGNED:tests and odds ratios (ORs) using survey-adjusted generalized linear models controlling for age, sex, region of practice, and hospital versus non-hospital-based practice. RESULTS/UNASSIGNED:< .001). CONCLUSIONS/UNASSIGNED:Interventions such as decreasing the number of hours worked, ensuring health care professionals do not work directly with patients while ill, and addressing shortages of personal protective equipment can help address concerns of the health care workforce.
PMID: 36905312
ISSN: 1468-2877
CID: 5462422

A Novel COVID-19 Severity Score is Associated With Survival in Patients Undergoing Percutaneous Dilational Tracheostomy

Hambrecht, Amanda; Krowsoski, Leandra; DiMaggio, Charles; Hong, Charles; Medina, Benjamin; Thomas McDevitt, John; McRae, Michael; Mukherjee, Vikramjit; Uppal, Amit; Bukur, Marko
INTRODUCTION:Tracheostomy in patients with COVID-19 is a controversial and difficult clinical decision. We hypothesized that a recently validated COVID-19 Severity Score (CSS) would be associated with survival in patients considered for tracheostomy. METHODS:We reviewed 77 mechanically ventilated COVID-19 patients evaluated for decision for percutaneous dilational tracheostomy (PDT) from March to June 2020 at a public tertiary care center. Decision for PDT was based on clinical judgment of the screening surgeons. The CSS was retrospectively calculated using mean biomarker values from admission to time of PDT consult. Our primary outcome was survival to discharge, and all patient charts were reviewed through August 31, 2021. ROC curve and Youden index were used to estimate an optimal cut-point for survival. RESULTS:The mean CSS for 42 survivors significantly differed from that of 35 nonsurvivors (CSS 52 versus 66, P = 0.003). The Youden index returned an optimal CSS of 55 (95% confidence interval 43-72), which was associated with a sensitivity of 0.8 and a specificity of 0.6. The median CSS was 40 (interquartile range 27, 49) in the lower CSS (<55) group and 72 (interquartile range 66, 93) in the high CSS (≥55 group). Eighty-seven percent of lower CSS patients underwent PDT, with 74% survival, whereas 61% of high CSS patients underwent PDT, with only 41% surviving. Patients with high CSS had 77% lower odds of survival (odds ratio = 0.2, 95% confidence interval 0.1-0.7). CONCLUSIONS:Higher CSS was associated with decreased survival in patients evaluated for PDT, with a score ≥55 predictive of mortality. The novel CSS may be a useful adjunct in determining which COVID-19 patients will benefit from tracheostomy. Further prospective validation of this tool is warranted.
PMID: 36914992
ISSN: 1095-8673
CID: 5439642