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The presence of 3D printing in orthopedics: A clinical and material review

Rodriguez Colon, Ricardo; Nayak, Vasudev Vivekanand; Parente, Paulo E L; Leucht, Philipp; Tovar, Nick; Lin, Charles C; Rezzadeh, Kevin; Hacquebord, Jacques H; Coelho, Paulo G; Witek, Lukasz
The field of additive manufacturing, 3D printing (3DP), has experienced an exponential growth over the past four decades, in part due to increased accessibility. Developments including computer-aided design and manufacturing, incorporation of more versatile materials, and improved printing techniques/equipment have stimulated growth of 3DP technologies within various industries, but most specifically the medical field. Alternatives to metals including ceramics and polymers have been garnering popularity due to their resorbable properties and physiologic similarity to extracellular matrix. 3DP has the capacity to utilize an assortment of materials and printing techniques for a multitude of indications, each with their own associated benefits. Within the field of medicine, advances in medical imaging have facilitated the integration of 3DP. In particular, the field of orthopedics has been one of the earliest medical specialties to implement 3DP. Current indications include education for patients, providers, and trainees, in addition to surgical planning. Moreover, further possibilities within orthopedic surgery continue to be explored, including the development of patient-specific implants. This review aims to highlight the use of current 3DP technology and materials by the orthopedic community, and includes comments on current trends and future direction(s) within the field.
PMID: 35634867
ISSN: 1554-527x
CID: 5235812

"Bone Tissue Engineering in the Growing Calvaria: A 3D Printed Bioceramic Scaffold to Reconstruct Critical-Sized Defects in a Skeletally Immature Pig Model"

DeMitchell-Rodriguez, Evellyn M; Shen, Chen; Nayak, Vasudev V; Tovar, Nick; Witek, Lukasz; Torroni, Andrea; Yarholar, Lauren M; Cronstein, Bruce N; Flores, Roberto L; Coelho, Paulo G
BACKGROUND:3D-printed bioceramic scaffolds composed of 100% beta(β)-tricalcium phosphate augmented with dipyridamole (3DPBC-DIPY) can regenerate bone across critically sized defects in skeletally mature and immature animal models. Prior to human application, safe and effective bone formation should be demonstrated in a large translational animal model. This study evaluated the ability of 3DPBC-DIPY scaffolds to restore critically sized calvarial defects in a skeletally immature, growing minipig. METHODS:Unilateral calvarial defects (~1.4cm) were created in six-week-old Göttingen minipigs (n=12). Four defects were filled with a 1000µ M 3DPBC-DIPY scaffold with a cap (a solid barrier on the ectocortical side of the scaffold to prevent soft tissue infiltration), four defects were filled with a 1000µM 3DPBC-DIPY scaffold without a cap, and four defects served as negative controls (no scaffold). Animals were euthanized 12-weeks post-operatively. Calvaria were subjected to micro-computed tomography, 3D-reconstruction with volumetric analysis, qualitative histologic analysis, and nanoindentation. RESULTS:Scaffold-induced bone growth was statistically greater than negative controls (p≤0.001) and the scaffolds with caps produced significantly more bone generation compared to the scaffolds without caps (p≤0.001). Histological analysis revealed woven and lamellar bone with the presence of haversian canals throughout the regenerated bone. Additionally, cranial sutures were observed to be patent and there was no evidence of ectopic bone formation or excess inflammatory response. Reduced elastic modulus (Er) and hardness (H) of scaffold-regenerated bone were found to be statistically equivalent to native bone (p = 0.148 for Er of scaffolds with and without caps, and p = 0.228 and p = 0.902, for H of scaffolds with and without caps, respectively). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:3DPBC-DIPY scaffolds have the capacity to regenerate bone across critically sized calvarial defects in a skeletally immature translational pig model.
PMID: 36723712
ISSN: 1529-4242
CID: 5420092

Giant Increase of Hardness in Silicon Carbide by Metastable Single Layer Diamond-Like Coating

Rejhon, Martin; Zhou, Xinliu; Lavini, Francesco; Zanut, Alessandra; Popovich, Filip; Schellack, Lorenzo; Witek, Lukasz; Coelho, Paulo; Kunc, Jan; Riedo, Elisa
Silicon carbide (SiC) is one of the hardest known materials. Its exceptional mechanical properties combined with its high thermal conductivity make it a very attractive material for a variety of technological applications. Recently, it is discovered that two-layer epitaxial graphene films on SiC can undergo a pressure activated phase transition into a sp3 diamene structure at room temperature. Here, it is shown that epitaxial graphene films grown on SiC can increase the hardness of SiC up to 100% at low loads (up to 900 µN), and up to 30% at high loads (10 mN). By using a Berkovich diamond indenter and nanoindentation experiments, it is demonstrated that the 30% increase in hardness is present even for indentations depths of 175 nm, almost three hundred times larger than the graphene film thickness. The experiments also show that the yield point of SiC increases up to 77% when the SiC surface is coated with epitaxial graphene. These improved mechanical properties are explained with the formation of diamene under the indenter's pressure.
PMID: 36599685
ISSN: 2198-3844
CID: 5434292

3D printed mesoporous bioactive glass, bioglass 45S5, and β-TCP scaffolds for regenerative medicine: A comparative in vitro study

Pacheco, Maria; Ricci, John L; Mijares, Dindo; Bromage, Timothy G; Rabieh, Sasan; Coelho, Paulo G; Witek, Lukasz
BACKGROUND:While autografts to date remain the "gold standard" for bone void fillers, synthetic bone grafts have garnered attention due to their advantages such as ability to be tailored in terms of its physical and chemical properties. Bioactive glass (BG), an inorganic material, has the capacity to form a strong bond with bone by forming a bone-like apatite surface, enhancing osteogenesis. Coupled with three-dimensional printing it is possible to maximize bone regenerative properties of the BG. OBJECTIVE:The objective of this study was to synthesize and characterize 3D printed mesoporous bioactive glass (MBG), BG 45S5, and compare to β-Tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) based scaffolds; test cell viability and osteogenic differentiation on human osteoprogenitor cells in vitro. METHODS:MBG, BG 45S5, and β-TCP were fabricated into colloidal gel suspensions, tested with a rheometer, and manufactured into scaffolds using a 3D direct-write micro-printer. The materials were characterized in terms of microstructure and composition with Thermogravimetric Analyzer/Differential Scanning Calorimeter (TGA/DSC), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Micro-Computed Tomography (μ-CT), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS), and Mattauch-Herzog-Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (MH-ICP-MS). RESULTS:Scaffolds were tested for cell proliferation and osteogenic differentiation using human osteoprogenitor cells. Osteogenic media was used for differentiation, and immunocytochemistry for osteogenic markers Runx-2, Collagen-I, and Osteocalcin. The cell viability results after 7 days of culture yielded significantly higher (p < 0.05) results in β-TCP scaffolds compared to BG 45S5 and MBG groups. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:All materials expressed osteogenic markers after 21 days of culture in expansion and osteogenic media.
PMID: 36744331
ISSN: 1878-3619
CID: 5434832

Impact of implant thread design on insertion torque and osseointegration: a preclinical model

Benalcázar-Jalkh, E-B; Nayak, V-V; Gory, C; Marquez-Guzman, A; Bergamo, E-T; Tovar, N; Coelho, P-G; Bonfante, E-A; Witek, L
BACKGROUND:Successful osseointegration of endosteal dental implants has been attributed to implant design, including the macro-, micro- and nano- geometric properties. Based on current literature pertaining to implant design, the resultant cellular and bone healing response is unknown when the thread thickness of the implants is increased, resulting in an increased contact area in implants designed with healing chambers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of two implant designs with different thread profiles on the osseointegration parameters and implant stability at 3- and 6-weeks in vivo using a well-established preclinical dog model. MATERIAL AND METHODS/METHODS:A total of 48 type V Ti alloy implants were divided in two groups according to their thread design (D1= +0.1x/mm and D2= +0.15x/mm) and placed in an interpolated fashion into the radii of six beagles. Insertion torque was measured at time of placement, radii were extracted for histological processing following 3- and 6-week healing intervals. Histologic and histomorphometric analyses were performed in terms of bone to implant contact (%BIC) and bone area fraction occupancy within implant threads (%BAFO). Statistical analyses were performed through a linear mixed model with fixed factors of time and implant thread design. RESULTS:Surface roughness analysis demonstrated no significant differences in Sa and Sq between D1 and D2 implant designs, which confirmed that both implant designs were homogenous except for their respective thread profiles. For insertion torque, statistically significant lower values were recorded for D1 in comparison to D2 (59.6 ± 11.1 and 78.9 ± 10.1 N⋅cm, respectively). Furthermore, there were no significant differences with respect to histological analysis and histomorphometric parameters, between D1 and D2 at both time points. CONCLUSIONS:Both thread profiles presented equivalent potential to successfully osseointegrate in the osteotomies, with D2 yielding higher mechanical retention upon placement without detrimental bone resorption.
PMID: 36173722
ISSN: 1698-6946
CID: 5409102

Evaluation of instrumentation and pedicle screw design for posterior lumbar fixation: A pre-clinical in vivo/ex vivo ovine model

Witek, Lukasz; Parente, Paulo Eduardo Lima; Torroni, Andrea; Greenberg, Michael; Nayak, Vasudev Vivekanand; Hacquebord, Jacques Henri; Coelho, Paulo G. G.
ISSN: 2572-1143
CID: 5439782

A Histologic and Histomorphometric Evaluation of an Allograft, Xenograft, and Alloplast Graft for Alveolar Ridge Preservation in Humans: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial

Zampara, Eirini; Alshammari, Mukhlid; De Bortoli, Joao; Mullings, Otto; Gkisakis, Ioannis G; Benalcázar Jalkh, Ernesto B; Tovar, Nick; Coelho, Paulo G; Witek, Lukasz
The aim of this study was to clinically evaluate the guided bone regeneration (GBR) potential of allograft, xenograft, and alloplastic materials in combination with resorbable membranes in extraction sockets. The qualitative and quantitative assessments of this prospective study were accomplished through histologic and histomorphometric analysis. Three experimental groups and 1 control group for comparison (n = 8) received either an allograft (human cancellous bone, freeze dried, Deutsches Institut für Zell und Gewebeersatz, Berlin, Germany), xenograft (BioOss, Geistlich Pharma AG, Wolhusen, Switzerland), or alloplast (biphasic calcium sulphate, Bondbone, MIS Implants Technologies Ltd., Charlotte, NC). The negative control group received no regenerative material. Tissue samples were then qualitatively and quantitatively evaluated as a function of percentage of new vital bone, graft particles content, soft tissue, and bone marrow over time. All 3 study groups presented bone volume suitable for the successful placement of a dental implant. The xenograft group yielded significantly less amount of vital bone compared with the allograft and alloplast groups. When comparing the percentage of residual graft particles, there was significantly greater amounts associated with the xenograft group in contrast to the allograft and alloplast groups. Similarly, a significantly increased amount of soft tissue percentage was observed within the xenograft group relative to all other groups. No significant differences were observed in the percentage of residual graft particles between the allograft and alloplast groups. There were also no significant differences detected in vital bone percentage between the allograft, alloplast, and control groups. When evaluating the bone marrow percentage, the only significant difference detected was between the xenograft and alloplast materials. Overall, no complications (ie, fever, malaise, purulence or fistula) were observed during the entirety of clinical trial among all patients. The greatest GBR potential was associated with the allograft material because of the greater degree of vital bone and the lowest percentage of residual graft particles. All studied bone substitute materials resulted in bone apposition for efficient use in alveolar ridge preservation procedures.
PMID: 35446950
ISSN: 0160-6972
CID: 5433052

Laddec® versus Bio-Oss®: The effect on the healing of critical-sized defect - Calvaria rabbit model

Gil, Luiz Fernando; Nayak, Vasudev Vivekanand; Benalcázar Jalkh, Ernesto B; Tovar, Nick; Chiu, Kai-Jen; Salas, Jaime Campos; Marin, Charles; Bowers, Michelle; Freitas, Gileade; Mbe Fokam, Dejolie Christelle; Coelho, Paulo G; Witek, Lukasz
The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vivo performance of two different deproteinized bovine bone (DBB) grafting materials: DBBB (Bio-Oss®) and DBBL (Laddec®), for the regeneration of critically sized (8 mm) defects in rabbit's calvaria. Three round-shaped defects were surgically created in the calvaria of 13 New Zealand White rabbits proximal to the coronal suture in the parietal bone. Two of the defects were filled with one of the grafting materials while a third was left empty to serve as a negative control. Bone regeneration properties were evaluated at 4- and 8-weeks after implantation by means of histological and histomorphometrical analyses. Statistical analyses were performed through a mixed model analysis with fixed factors of time and material. Histological evaluation of the control group evidenced a lack of bridging bone formation across the defect sites at both evaluation time points. For the experimental groups, new bone formation was observed around the defect periphery and to progress radially inwards to the center of the defect site, regardless of the grafting material. Histomorphometric analyses at 4 weeks demonstrated higher amount of bone formation through the defect for DBBB group. However, at 8 weeks, DBBL and DBBB demonstrated osteoconductivity and low resorption rates with evidence of statistically similar bone regeneration through the complete boney defect. Finally, DBBB presented lower soft tissue migration within the defect when compared to DBBL at both evaluation time points. DBBB and DBBL presented similar bone regeneration performance and slow resorption rates. Although both materials promoted bone regeneration through the complete defect, DBBB presented lower soft tissue migration within the defects at 4- and 8-weeks.
PMID: 35857711
ISSN: 1552-4981
CID: 5279162

Effect of leukocyte-platelet-rich fibrin in bone healing around dental implants placed in conventional and wide osteotomy sites: A pre-clinical study

Benalcázar Jalkh, Ernesto B; Tovar, Nick; Arbex, Leticia; Kurgansky, Gregory; Torroni, Andrea; Gil, Luiz F; Wall, Brittany; Kohanbash, Kimia; Bonfante, Estevam A; Coelho, Paulo G; Witek, Lukasz
Leukocyte-platelet-rich fibrin (L-PRF) has been suggested for gap management for immediate implant placement when the distance is greater than 2 mm. However, there remains a paucity in hierarchically designed research to support this application. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of L-PRF on the osseointegration parameters of dental implants placed after conventional osteotomy of surgically created bone defects that simulate post extraction sockets in a canine model after 3, 6, and 12 weeks in vivo. Eighty dental implants (Intra-Lock, Boca Raton, FL) were placed in the radius of 13 beagle dogs. The experiment consisted of 4 groups (n = 20 implants/group): 1) Regular osteotomy (Reg n/L-PRF); 2) Regular osteotomy and implant placement with L-PRF membrane (Reg L-PRF); 3) Wide osteotomy with no gap management performed, where an osteotomy/bony defect (6 mm of diameter and ~5 mm deep) was created to simulate immediate implant placement in post-extraction sockets, and the gap was left for spontaneous healing (Wide nL-PRF); and 4) Wide osteotomy with L-PRF gap management (Wide L-PRF). L-PRF membranes were obtained by blood drawn from each subject and centrifuged at 2700 rpm (408 RCF-clot) for 12 min. In the experimental groups where L-PRF was utilized, the membrane was inserted into the osteotomy site prior to implant placement. Six dogs had implants placed in the radius for 3 weeks; and 7 dogs had implants placed in the left radius for 6 weeks and in the right radius for 12 weeks. At the corresponding experimental time points, samples were harvested, and subjected to histological processing for qualitative and quantitative analyses, via bone-to-implant contact (BIC) and bone-area-fraction occupancy (BAFO). Qualitative analysis demonstrated increased amounts of bone formation around the implant and within the healing chambers over time for all groups. While comparable histological features were observed for both Reg groups (L-PRF and nL-PRF), the gap management performed in Wide L-PRF group resulted in effective gap filling with improved bone growth in close proximity to the implant surface. Quantitative analyses of BIC and BAFO yielded higher values for both variables at 3 weeks for Wide L-PRF (~38% and ~56% respectively) compared to Wide nL-PRF (~20% for BIC and BAFO) (p < .03). No statistical differences were detected between Wide groups at 6 and 12 weeks, neither between Reg groups, independent of the association with or without the L-PRF membrane at all healing times. L-PRF placed within wide osteotomies, prior to implant placement, resulted in increased early bone formation compared to unfilled wide osteotomies at the early healing time (3 weeks in vivo).
PMID: 35771197
ISSN: 1552-4981
CID: 5281272

Stability of fatigued and aged ZTA compared to 3Y-TZP and Al2O3 ceramic systems

Benalcázar Jalkh, Ernesto B; Bergamo, Edmara T P; Campos, Tiago M B; de Araújo-Júnior, Everardo N S; Lopes, Adolfo C O; Tebcherani, Sérgio M; Yamaguchi, Satoshi; Genova, Luis A; Gierthmuehlen, Petra C; Witek, Lukasz; Coelho, Paulo G; Bonfante, Estevam A
To evaluate the effect of fatigue and aging on the crystalline content and reliability of a zirconia-toughened-alumina (ZTA) composite compared to its individual counterpart materials (3Y-TZP and Al2O3). Thirty-six disc-shaped specimens per group were obtained to comply with ISO 6872:2015. Crystalline content, microstructure and reliability of experimental groups were evaluated in four stages: 1) immediate; 2) aged; 3) fatigued; 4) aged + fatigue. Aging was performed in autoclave and Step-Stress-Accelerated-Life-Testing (SSALT) was performed using three stress profiles. Weibull statistics were used to determine Weibull parameters and life-expectancy. A significant increase in monoclinic phase in 3Y-TZP was observed after aging (19.31%), fatigue (17.88%) and aging + fatigue (55.81%), while ZTA evidenced minimal variation among all conditions (<5.69%). 3Y-TZP presented higher reliability than ZTA at 300 and 500 MPa, and ZTA outperformed Al2O3 at the same stress missions. None of the ceramics yielded acceptable reliability at 800 MPa. A higher characteristic strength was observed for 3Y-TZP, followed by ZTA and Al2O3. While after aging ZTA and Al2O3 remained stable, 3Y-TZP exhibited a significant increase in the characteristic stress. Aging did not affect the reliability of ZTA and Al2O3. 3Y-TZP demonstrated an increase in monoclinic content and characteristic strength after aging.
PMID: 36162164
ISSN: 1878-0180
CID: 5374842