Associations between Pain Severity, Clinical Findings, and Endodontic Disease: A Cross-Sectional Study
INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND:Thorough pain assessment and thermal and mechanical testing are the primary diagnostic tools used to assess the status of pulp and periapical tissues in teeth with potential endodontic pathology. This study evaluated predictors of acute odontogenic pain to better understand the relationship between endodontic pain, clinical testing, endodontic disease, and diagnoses. METHODS:Participants (NÂ =Â 228) presenting with acute odontogenic pain underwent standardized clinical testing and reported their pain intensity. Univariate and multiple regression analyses were performed to evaluate the predictors of acute endodontic pain. Chi-square tests with Bonferroni adjustments were conducted to measure the frequency of endodontic diagnostic test findings and clinical observations in patients with different pulpal diagnoses. RESULTS:A negative response to cold stimulation on the causative tooth and percussion hypersensitivity on the healthy adjacent tooth were the strongest predictors of higher levels of acute endodontic pain. Percussion hypersensitivity on the healthy adjacent tooth was present in a quarter of the cohort and was reported with equal frequency in teeth diagnosed with irreversible pulpitis, necrotic pulp, and previously initiated/treated teeth. Although painful percussion on the causative tooth was more frequently reported in teeth diagnosed with necrotic pulp, painful palpation was more frequently reported on teeth diagnosed with previously initiated/treated teeth. CONCLUSIONS:Percussion hypersensitivity on the healthy adjacent tooth may reveal a lowered pain threshold and heightened pain sensitization. It is also possible that the 2 commonly performed mechanical sensory tests, percussion and palpation hypersensitivity, may detect different aspects of endodontic pathophysiology and pain processing.
Factors Influencing Pain and Anxiety Before Endodontic Treatment: A Cross-Sectional Study Amongst American Individuals
OBJECTIVE:The present study aimed to assess preoperative levels of patient anxiety and pain before root canal treatment, and to explore variables that may affect these levels. METHODS:Ninety-five patients presenting for an endodontic visit were recruited for the study. A questionnaire was administered. Visual analog scales were used to record levels of pain and anxiety. Data was tabulated, and analysis was performed using the Pearson Chi-Squire test with continuity correction, and the level of significance was set at 0.05 (P=0.05). RESULTS:Anxiety was detected more frequently in females (60%) than in males (33%) (P=0.016). Sixty-two percent of patients who were waiting for a new treatment were anxious, compared to 39% of those who were returning to continue treatment (P=0.049). Sixty-nine percent of patients in pain reported being anxious (P=0.015). Patients aged 18-30 years reported more pain than those older than 30 years (P=0.023). Forty-three percent of new patients reported being in pain, whereas only 20% of patients returning for a treatment reported pain (P=0.027). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Anxiety associated with root canal treatment is prevalent, and it was reported primarily by young females who were presenting for a new treatment. Pain and anxiety are highly inter-related, and they are usually reduced after the first endodontic session.
Modified Apexification Procedure for Immature Permanent Teeth with a Necrotic Pulp/Apical Periodontitis: A Case Series
The current American Association of Endodontists clinical considerations for a regenerative endodontic procedure state that a regenerative procedure is suitable for immature permanent teeth with necrotic pulp when the pulp space is not needed for a post/core in the final restoration. Therefore, many immature permanent teeth with necrotic pulp that have sustained a substantial loss of coronal tooth structure either from caries or trauma are treated by apexification or mineral trioxide aggregate/Biodentine (Septodent, Lancaster, PA) apical barrier techniques in which no further root maturation would occur. This case series presents 10 immature permanent teeth with necrotic pulp in which a post/core was likely required in the future for adequate coronal restoration because of loss of substantial coronal tooth structure and a modified apexification procedure was used. All 10 cases after the modified apexification procedure showed no clinical symptoms/signs and showed radiographic evidence of healed/healing of periapical lesion after a 2-year review. Eight cases showed increased thickness of the apical root canal walls, increased apical root length, and apical closure. The overall percentage change in root length was 7.52%, in root width at the apical one third it was 18.89%, and in radiographic root area it was 15.04% at the 24- to 72-month follow-up period. This modified apexification procedure allows for the tooth to be restored with a post/core if required for the final restoration in the future as well as continued root development.
Sensory Testing Associates With Pain Quality Descriptors During Acute Dental Pain
BACKGROUND:Pain descriptors capture the multidimensional nature of pain and can elucidate underlying pathophysiological mechanisms. This study determined whether the pain descriptors chosen by subjects experiencing acute dental pain associate with the outcomes of two commonly performed dental sensory tests. The goal of the study is to clarify whether pain descriptors are useful in discriminating the underlying biological processes contributing to dental pain. METHODS:Participants (n= 228) presenting with acute toothache underwent standardized clinical dental sensory testing and described their pain in reference to 22 pain quality descriptors. Univariate and 2-way ANOVA determined the relationship between groups defined by cold detection (positive or negative) and percussion hypersensitivity (painful or not) on the affected tooth, and pain descriptor reporting. RESULTS:Subjects experiencing painful toothache most frequently reported evoked pain to temperature and chewing, and pain descriptors such as "throbbing" and "aching". They also reported neuropathic pain descriptors such as "tingling" and "electric shock". Subjects who detected a cold stimulus (thermal) on the affected tooth, frequently reported high intensity paroxysmal shooting pain compared to those that did not detect cold. By contrast, patients with percussion (mechanical) hypersensitivity on the affected tooth, reported higher levels of global pain intensity at rest and in function, and reported significantly higher intensity "radiating" and "throbbing" pain, than subjects with non-painful percussion. CONCLUSIONS:The reporting of neuropathic pain descriptors by subjects experiencing acute toothache was more frequent than expected, suggesting that neuropathic mechanisms could contribute to typical toothache pain. Subjects experiencing toothache with mechanical hypersensitivity experience more intense pain overall. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Regenerative Endodontics: A review
The European Society of Endodontology and the American Association for Endodontists have released position statements and clinical considerations for regenerative endodontics. There is increasing literature on this field since the initial reports of Iwaya etÂ al. (2001) and Banchs & Trope (2004). Endogenous stem cells from an induced periapical bleeding and scaffolds using blood clot, platelet rich plasma or platelet rich fibrin have been utilized in regenerative endodontics. This approach has been described as a 'paradigm shift' and considered the first treatment option for immature teeth with pulp necrosis. There are three treatment outcomes of regenerative endodontics; 1) Resolution of clinical signs and symptoms; 2) further root maturation; and 3) return of neurogenesis. It is known that results are variable for these objectives and true regeneration of the pulp/dentine complex is not achieved. Repair derived primarily from the periodontal and osseous tissues has been shown histologically. It is hoped that with the concept of tissue engineering; namely stem cells, scaffolds and signaling molecules that true pulp regeneration is an achievable goal. This review discusses current knowledge as well as future directions for regenerative endodontics. Patient-centered outcomes such as tooth discoloration and possibly more appointments with the potential for adverse effects needs to be discussed with patients and parents. Based on the classification of Cvek (1992), it is proposed that regenerative endodontics should be considered for teeth with incomplete root formation though teeth with near or complete root formation may be more suited for conventional endodontic therapy or MTA barrier techniques. However, much is still not known about clinical and biological aspects of regenerative endodontics.
Treatment of Mature Permanent Teeth with Necrotic Pulps and Apical Periodontitis Using Regenerative Endodontic Procedures: A Case Series
INTRODUCTION: Regenerative endodontic procedures (REPs) are usually used to treat human immature permanent teeth with necrotic pulps and/or apical periodontitis. Successful REPs result in the elimination of clinical signs/symptoms, the resolution of apical periodontitis, and, in some cases, thickening of the canal walls and/or continued root development with or without apical closure. REPs can restore the vitality of tissue in the canals of immature permanent teeth previously destroyed by infection or trauma. Vital tissue is inherited with immune defense mechanisms to protect itself from foreign invaders. Recently, REPs have also been used to successfully treat human mature permanent teeth with necrotic pulps and apical periodontitis. The purpose of this case series was to present the potential of using REPs for mature permanent teeth with necrotic pulps and apical periodontitis. METHODS: This case series consisted of 6 patients, 4 females and 2 males. The patients' ages ranged from 8-21 years old. Seven permanent teeth, 4 anterior and 3 molar teeth, with necrotic pulps and apical periodontitis were treated using REP. Radiographically, the root development of all teeth was almost completed except the apices of 2 molars, which showed slightly open. Complete chemomechanical debridement of the canals of the teeth was performed, and the canals were dressed with Metapaste (Meta Biomed Co, Ltd, Chungbuk, Korea) during treatment visits. Periapical bleeding into the canals was induced at the last treatment visit by placing a hand #20 or #25 K-file with the tip slightly bent through the apical foramina into the periapical tissues. A 3-mm thickness of mineral trioxide aggregate was placed into the coronal canals over semicoagulated blood. The access cavities were restored with either composite resin or amalgam. RESULTS: Follow-ups of the 7 teeth ranged from 8 to 26 months. The periapical lesions of 2 teeth were considered healed, and 5 teeth revealed healing. Clinical signs/symptoms were absent in all teeth at follow-up visits at different time points. None of the treated teeth responded to cold and electric pulp tests. CONCLUSIONS: This case series shows the potential of using REPs for mature teeth with necrotic pulp and apical periodontitis.
Differential Diagnosis of a Periapical Radiolucent Lesion. A Case Report and Review of the Literature
This article demonstrates a methodological approach to diagnosing a periapical radiolucency that could not be diagnosed using only basic clinical and radiographic findings. The patient was a 59-year-old Hispanic female with a small tender mass on the lower gingiva associated with tooth #25. Radiographic appearance demonstrated a well-defined radiolucent lesion at the apices of the mandibular incisors. The patient had no significant medical history. Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) showed bony expansion of the buccal plate. Differential diagnosis included non-endodontic unilocular radiolucent lesions in the anterior mandibular region. Biopsy findings were consistent with periapical cemento-osseous dysplasia (PCOD). In conclusion, clinical appearance of PCOD varies from non-expansile and asymptomatic to being expansile and sometimes symptomatic. In the latter cases, it may be necessary to use additional diagnostic tools to confirm the diagnosis.
Evaluation Of Root Canal Morphology Of Human Maxillary And Mandibular Molars Using Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT)
[New York NY : NYU College of Dentistry. NYU Academy of Distinguished Educators], 2015