Cognitive dysfunction in young subjects with periodontal disease
BACKGROUND:Periodontal disease is an inflammatory, dysbiotic condition. Studies have shown that in the elderly, periodontal disease was associated with cognitive dysfunction and Alzheimer's disease. OBJECTIVE:To investigate whether young healthy subjects with periodontal disease have lower cognition compared to those without periodontal disease. The salivary cytokines (IL-1Î², TNF-Î±) levels in relation to cognition were also tested. METHODS:In a monocenter, cross-sectional study, forty subjects [mean age (SD) = 34 (5) and 48% female] from western Romania were classified into periodontal disease conditions using radiographic assessment: 10 subjects had aggressive periodontitis (AGG_P), 20 chronic mild-moderate periodontitis (CR_P), and 10 no periodontitis (NL_P). Neuropsychological assessment performed by standardized neurologists and psychologist included Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT), Montreal Cognitive Assessment test (MOCA), Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), and Prague tests. Salivary cytokines levels were determined by ELISA. RESULTS:RAVLT and MOCA delayed recall scores were lower in AGG_P group compared to NL_P and CR_P. The learning curve was also different with subjects with AGG_P showing reduced learning performance. Contrary to our hypothesis, salivary IL-1Î² associated with immediate but not delayed cognitive scores. CONCLUSIONS:These results showed for the first time that subjects with AGG_P had cognitive dysfunction and IL-1Î² may play a role in this process.
Periodontal disease as a possible cause for Alzheimer's disease
Approximately 47 million people worldwide have been diagnosed with dementia, 60%-80% of whom have dementia of the Alzheimer's disease type. Unfortunately, there is no cure in sight. Defining modifiable risk factors for Alzheimer's disease may have a significant impact on its prevalence. An increasing body of evidence suggests that chronic inflammation and microbial dysbiosis are risk factors for Alzheimer's disease. Periodontal disease is a chronic inflammatory disease that develops in response to response to microbial dysbiosis. Many studies have shown an association between periodontal disease and Alzheimer's disease. The intent of this paper was to review the existing literature and determine, using the Bradford Hill criteria, whether periodontal disease is causally related to Alzheimer's disease.
Opioid, NSAID, and OTC Analgesic Medications for Dental Procedures: PEARL Network Findings
OBJECTIVE: Dental treatment is often categorized as a moderately or severely painful experience; however, no clinical data reported by the patient and dentist currently exists to support this degree of pain. This has contributed possibly to the overprescribing of analgesics, in particular the opioid class of medications. The primary objective of the study was to document the dentists' postprocedural prescriptions and recommendations for analgesic medications and their effectiveness for a 5-day period. Medications prescribed or recommended in the patient-reported outcomes included: opioid, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and over-the-counter (OTC) analgesics. Met hods : This study used both dentist and patient responses to evaluate the use of opioid, NSAID, and OTC recommended or prescribed analgesics following one of seven classes of dental procedures encompassing over 22 specific coded procedures thought to elicit pain. The patient-centered study included a 5-day postprocedural patient follow-up assessment of the medication's effectiveness in relieving pain. RESULTS: Baseline questionnaires were completed by 2765 (99.9%) of 2767 eligible patients, and 2381 (86%) patients responded to the Day 5 follow-up questionnaires. CONCLUSION: The data suggest NSAIDs, both OTC and prescribed dosages, may be a sufficient analgesic to treat most postoperative dental pain. Clinical judgment as to the use of an opioid should include the physiological principles related to the pharmacology of pain and inflammation and may include a central effect. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02929602.
Periodontal disease's contribution to Alzheimer's disease progression in Down syndrome
People with Down syndrome (DS) are at an increased risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD). After 60 years of age, >50% of DS subjects acquire dementia. Nevertheless, the age of onset is highly variable possibly because of both genetic and environmental factors. Genetics cannot be modified, but environmental risk factors present a potentially relevant intervention for DS persons at risk for AD. Among them, inflammation, important in AD of DS type, is potential target. Consistent with this hypothesis, chronic peripheral inflammation and infections may contribute to AD pathogenesis in DS. People with DS have an aggressive form of periodontitis characterized by rapid progression, significant bacterial and inflammatory burden, and an onset as early as 6 years of age. This review offers a hypothetical mechanistic link between periodontitis and AD in the DS population. Because periodontitis is a treatable condition, it may be a readily modifiable risk factor for AD.
Case Presentations Demonstrating Periodontal Treatment Variation: PEARL Network
BACKGROUND: Variation in periodontal terminology can affect the diagnosis and treatment plan as assessed by practicing general dentists in the Practitioners Engaged in Applied Research and Learning (PEARL) Network. General dentists participating in the PEARL Network are highly screened, credentialed, and qualified and may not be representative of the general population of dentists. METHODS: Ten randomized case presentations ranging from periodontal health to gingivitis, to mild, moderate, and severe periodontitis were randomly presented to respondents. Descriptive comparisons were made between these diagnosis groups in terms of the treatment recommendations following diagnosis. RESULTS: PEARL practitioners assessing periodontal clinical scenarios were found to either over- or under-diagnose the case presentations, which affected treatment planning, while the remaining responses concurred with respect to the diagnosis. The predominant diagnosis was compared with that assigned by two practicing periodontists. There was variation in treatment based on the diagnosis for gingivitis and the lesser forms of periodontitis. CONCLUSION: Data suggests that a lack of clarity of periodontal terminology affects both diagnosis and treatment planning, and terminology may be improved by having diagnosis codes, which could be used to assess treatment outcomes. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: This article provides data to support best practice for the use of diagnosis coding and integration of dentistry with medicine using ICD-10 terminology.
Periodontal disease associates with higher brain amyloid load in normal elderly
The accumulation of amyloid-beta (Abeta) plaques is a central feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD). First reported in animal models, it remains uncertain if peripheral inflammatory and/or infectious conditions in humans can promote Abeta brain accumulation. Periodontal disease, a common chronic infection, has been previously reported to be associated with AD. Thirty-eight cognitively normal, healthy, and community-residing elderly (mean age, 61 and 68% female) were examined in an Alzheimer's Disease Research Center and a University-Based Dental School. Linear regression models (adjusted for age, apolipoprotein E, and smoking) were used to test the hypothesis that periodontal disease assessed by clinical attachment loss was associated with brain Abeta load using 11C-Pittsburgh compound B (PIB) positron emission tomography imaging. After adjusting for confounders, clinical attachment loss (>/=3 mm), representing a history of periodontal inflammatory/infectious burden, was associated with increased PIB uptake in Abeta vulnerable brain regions (p = 0.002). We show for the first time in humans an association between periodontal disease and brain Abeta load. These data are consistent with the previous animal studies showing that peripheral inflammation/infections are sufficient to produce brain Abeta accumulations.
Prevalence of Persistent Pain 3 to 5 Years Post Primary Root Canal Therapy and Its Impact on Oral Health-Related Quality of Life: PEARL Network Findings
INTRODUCTION: The frequency of persistent pain 3-5 years after primary root canal therapy and its impact on the patient's perceived oral health-related quality of life was determined in a practice-based research network. METHODS: All patients presenting to participating network practices who received primary root canal therapy and restoration for a permanent tooth 3-5 years previously were invited to enroll. Persistent pain was defined as pain occurring spontaneously or elicited by percussion, palpation, or biting. The patient also completed an oral health-related quality of life questionnaire (Oral Health Impact Profile-14). RESULTS: Sixty-four network practices enrolled 1323 patients; 13 were ineligible, 12 did not receive a final restoration, and 41 were extracted, leaving 1257 for analysis. The average time to follow-up was 3.9 +/- 0.6 years. Five percent (63/1257) of the patients reported persistent pain, whereas 24 of 63 (38%) exhibited periapical pathosis and/or root fracture (odontogenic pain). No obvious odontogenic cause for persistent pain was found for 39 of 63 (62%). Teeth treated by specialists had a greater frequency of persistent pain than teeth treated by generalists (9.3% vs 3.0%, respectively; P < .0001). Sex, age, tooth type, type of dentist, and arch were not found to be associated with nonodontogenic persistent pain; however, ethnicity and a preoperative diagnosis of pulpitis without periapical pathosis were. Patients reporting pain with percussion tended to experience pain with other stimuli that negatively impacted quality of life including oral function and psychological discomfort and disability. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that a small percentage (3.1%) of patients experience persistent pain not attributable to odontogenic causes 3-5 years after primary root canal therapy that may adversely impact their quality of life.
Authors' response [Letter]
Outcomes of implants and restorations placed in general dental practices: A retrospective study by the Practitioners Engaged in Applied Research and Learning (PEARL) Network
OBJECTIVES: The authors conducted a study to determine the types, outcomes, risk factors and esthetic assessment of implants and their restorations placed in the general practices of a practice-based research network. METHODS: All patients who visited network practices three to five years previously and underwent placement of an implant and restoration within the practice were invited to enroll. Practitioner-investigators (P-Is) recorded the status of the implant and restoration, characteristics of the implant site and restoration, presence of peri-implant pathology and an esthetic assessment by the P-I and patient. The P-Is classified implants as failures if the original implant was missing or had been replaced, the implant was mobile or elicited pain on percussion, there was overt clinical or radiographic evidence of pathology or excessive bone loss (> 0.2 millimeter per year after an initial bone loss of 2 mm). They classified restorations as failures if they had been replaced or if there was abutment or restoration fracture. RESULTS: The authors enrolled 922 implants and patients from 87 practices, with a mean (standard deviation) follow-up of 4.2 (0.6) years. Of the 920 implants for which complete data records were available, 64 (7.0 percent) were classified as failures when excessive bone loss was excluded from the analysis. When excessive bone loss was included, 172 implants (18.7 percent) were classified as failures. According to the results of univariate analysis, a history of severe periodontitis, sites with preexisting inflammation or type IV bone, cases of immediate implant placement and placement in the incisor or canine region were associated with implant failure. According to the results of multivariate analysis, sites with preexisting inflammation (odds ratio [OR] = 2.17; 95 percent confidence interval [CI], 1.41-3.34]) or type IV bone (OR = 1.99; 95 percent CI, 1.12-3.55) were associated with a greater risk of implant failure. Of the 908 surviving implants, 20 (2.2 percent) had restorations replaced or judged as needing to be replaced. The majority of P-Is and patients were satisfied with the esthetic outcomes for both the implant and restoration. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that implant survival and success rates in general dental practices may be lower than those reported in studies conducted in academic or specialty settings. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: The results of this study, generated in the private general practice setting, add to the evidence base to facilitate implant treatment planning.
Periodontal Therapy is Associated With Decreased Risk of Developing End-stage Renal Disease - A Study Using the Taiwan National Health Insurance Database
ARTICLE TITLE AND BIBLIOGRAPHIC INFORMATION: Surgical treatment for patients with periodontal disease reduces risk of end-stage renal disease: A nationwide population-based retrospective cohort study. Lee C-F, Lin C-L, Lin M-C, Lin S-Y, Sung F-C, Kao C-H. J Periodontol 2014;85(1):50-6. REVIEWER: Ronald G. Craig, DMD, PhD PURPOSE/QUESTION: This retrospective study used claims data from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Database to ask whether surgical periodontal therapy, defined as root planing or flap surgery, was associated with a reduced risk of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) when compared to periodontal disease without surgical periodontal therapy. SOURCE OF FUNDING: Government: Taiwan Department of Health Clinical Trial and Research Center (DOH102-TD-B-111-004), Taiwan Department of Heath Cancer Research Center (DOH102-TD-C-111-005) and International Research Intensive Centers of Excellence in Taiwan (i-RICE) (NSC101-2911-1-002-303) TYPE OF STUDY/DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level 2: Limited-quality patient-oriented evidence STRENGTH OF RECOMMENDATION GRADE: Not applicable.