Digital Analysis of the Dimensional Change Of an Irreversible Hydrocolloid Impression Material (Alginate) with Varying Storage Times
AIM/UNASSIGNED:The aim of this study was to digitally measure the dimensional changes in an irreversible hydrocolloid impression material (alginate) resulting from varying storage times under optimal storage conditions. MATERIALS AND METHODS/UNASSIGNED:A single type V dental stone control cast was used to make 25 alginate impressions using perforated stock trays. The impressions were randomly assigned into five groups of five samples each (n=5 per group) with varying storage times: Group 1, poured at 15 minutes; Group 2, poured at one hour; Group 3, poured at 24 hours (one day); Group 4, poured at 72 hours (three days); Group 5, poured at 168 hours (seven days). All impressions were stored in sealed Ziploc® plastic bags with a wet paper towel (100% relative humidity) at room temperature and stored according to the assigned group storage times. All impressions were poured in type V dental stone according to the manufacturer's instructions. The casts were scanned with a digital 3D desktop scanner and saved as electronic stereolithography (.stl) files. Each .stl file of the scanned casts were superimposed on the .stl file of the control cast using Geomagic® Control X™ software. Three preselected fixed comparison measuring points (CMP) on each cast were compared to the control cast. Point one (CMP1) was on the midfacial surface of central incisor. Point two (CMP2) and point three (CMP3) were on the mesiobuccal proximal marginal ridge areas of third molars. The discrepancies between the files at each point were analysed with colour maps, and quantified (Table 1). The tolerance was set at ±10μm. CMP scores were analysed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Kruskal-Wallis (K-W) non-parametric H tests. RESULTS/UNASSIGNED:= 3.62, p = 0.46). CONCLUSIONS/UNASSIGNED:Under optimal storage conditions, there were no significant dimensional changes in casts poured from alginate up to seven days.
Lifelong Excess in GH Elicits Sexually Dimorphic Effects on Skeletal Morphology and Bone Mechanical Properties
Excess in growth hormone (GH) levels, seen in patients with acromegaly, is associated with increases in fractures. This happens despite wider bones and independent of bone mineral density. We used the bovine GH (bGH) transgenic mice, which show constitutive excess in GH and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) in serum and tissues, to study how lifelong increases in GH and IGF-1 affect skeletal integrity. Additionally, we crossed the acid labile subunit (ALS) null (ALSKO) to the bGH mice to reduce serum IGF-1 levels. Our findings indicate sexually dimorphic effects of GH on cortical and trabecular bone. Male bGH mice showed enlarged cortical diameters, but with marrow cavity expansion and thin cortices as well as increased vascular porosity that were associated with reductions in diaphyseal strength and stiffness. In contrast, female bGH mice presented with significantly smaller-diameter diaphysis, with greater cortical bone thickness and with a slightly reduced tissue elastic modulus (by microindentation), ultimately resulting in overall stronger, stiffer bones. We found increases in C-terminal telopeptide of type 1 collagen and procollagen type 1Â N propeptide in serum, independent of circulating IGF-1 levels, indicating increased bone remodeling with excess GH. Sexual dimorphism in response to excess GH was also observed in the trabecular bone compartment, particularly at the femur distal metaphysis. Female bGH mice preserved their trabecular architecture during aging, whereas trabecular bone volume in male bGH mice significantly reduced and was associated with thinning of the trabeculae. We conclude that pathological excess in GH results in sexually dimorphic changes in bone architecture and gains in bone mass that affect whole-bone mechanical properties, as well as sex-specific differences in bone material properties. Â© 2022 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research (ASBMR).
Silver diamine fluoride, atraumatic restorations, and oral health-related quality of life in children aged 5-13 years: results from the CariedAway school-based cluster randomized trial
OBJECTIVE:Silver diamine fluoride (SDF) is a non-surgical treatment for the arrest and prevention of dental caries that results in irreversible black staining of dental decay. The objective of this study was to evaluate the short-term impact of SDF treatment on oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) relative to a standard package of glass ionomer sealants and atraumatic restorative treatmentÂ (ART) in children aged 5-13 years. METHODS:CariedAway is a pragmatic, longitudinal, cluster-randomized non-inferiority trial of non-surgical interventions for caries. Secondary study outcomes included OHRQoL and academic performance. Oral health-related quality of life was measured at each study visit using the Child Oral Health Impact Profile. Change in OHRQoL was assessed using linear regression and non-inferiority was determined using t tests. RESULTS:160 children with an average age of 8.7 years completed quality of life assessments. Untreated decay at baseline (approximately 25%) was associated with significantly worse OHRQoL and treatment in both groups resulted in incremental improvement: children receiving SDF improved their OHRQoL scores from 16.44 (SD = 11.12) to 14.62 (SD = 11.90), and those receiving traditional sealants and atraumatic restorations slightly improved from 16.65 (SD = 10.56) to 16.47 (SD = 11.09). Quality of life in children receiving silver diamine fluoride was non-inferior to those receiving sealants and ART at least 6 months post-treatment (mean difference = 1.85, 95% CI = - 2.10, 5.80), and change in OHRQoL did not depend on the severity of baseline decay. CONCLUSIONS:OHRQoL is related to untreated dental caries, and observed changes following SDF treatment were non-inferior relative to standard preventive therapies.
Effectiveness of school-based strategies to prevent tooth decay in Filipino children: A cluster-randomized trial
OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:Evidence for affordable and pragmatic programmes to address the burden of untreated tooth decay in children in low- and middle-income settings is limited. This study aimed to (1) assess the effect of a government-run, school-based daily group toothbrushing programme compared to standard school-based oral health education on the incidence of dental caries and odontogenic infections in Filipino children over a period of 3Â years; and (2) assess the additional preventive effect of on-demand oral urgent treatment (OUT) and weekly fluoride gel application. METHODS:A cluster-randomized trial was conducted in Camiguin, Philippines. Schools in three regions were randomly assigned to one of three intervention groups: The Essential Health Care Programme (EHCP), which includes daily toothbrushing with fluoride toothpaste; EHCP plus twice-yearly access to on-demand urgent oral treatment (EHCPÂ +Â OUT) and EHCP plus weekly application of high-concentrated fluoride gel (EHCPÂ +Â Fluoride). Schools in a nearby province with a similar child population were selected as external concurrent control group. Clinical oral examinations were performed by calibrated dentists from a random sample of 682Â seven-year-old students who were examined at baseline and over the following 3Â years. Outcome variables were the number of decayed primary teeth, the number of decayed, missing and filled permanent teeth (DMFT) and surfaces (DMFS), and the number of permanent teeth with pulpal involvement, ulcerations, fistula or abscess (PUFA). Data were analysed using multilevel mixed-effects negative binomial regression. RESULTS:Three years after implementation, increments in dental caries and odontogenic infections in permanent teeth did not significantly differ between the EHCP and control group, yet the incidence of DMFT was lower by 22% in children receiving EHCP. Compared to controls, children receiving EHCPÂ +Â Fluoride had a significantly lower increment of DMFT, DMFS and PUFA by 40%, 40% and 47%, respectively. Children receiving EHCPÂ +Â OUT had lower incidence rates of DMFT and DMFS than control children by 23% and 28%, respectively. A lower incidence rate was also found for PUFA, but the effect was not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS:Findings suggest that the weekly application of fluoride gel and urgent oral treatment, in addition to daily school-based toothbrushing with fluoride toothpaste, are realistic and effective strategies to lower the burden of dental caries in Filipino children. Implementation challenges may explain why no substantial caries-preventive benefits were demonstrated for school-based toothbrushing only. Intervention compliance should be considered in future programme implementation and evaluation research.
Silver diamine fluoride and oral health-related quality of life: A review and network meta-analysis
OBJECTIVE:Silver diamine fluoride (SDF) is an effective non-surgical treatment for dental caries which may also impact oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL). The objective of this study was to conduct a network meta-analysis of SDF versus other standard of care therapies on OHRQoL. DATA SOURCES:Studies published in PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus, or Web of Science through July 2021 with no date or language restrictions. STUDY SELECTION:Any randomized controlled trial, cohort, or case-control study that included silver diamine fluoride as either a single or combinative treatment for dental caries and a quantitatively measured outcome for oral health-related quality of life was included. DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS:Potentially eligible studies were screened by two independent reviewers trained in conducting systematic reviews. Studies meeting inclusion criteria underwent a full-text review with data being extracted using a standardized form, including publication details, study methodology, outcomes, assessors, and sample information. Studies underwent a risk of bias assessment. Quantitative synthesis was performed using fixed effects meta-analysis and individual comparisons were assessed via network meta-analysis. MAIN OUTCOME(S) AND MEASURE(S):Oral health-related quality of life. RESULTS:19 articles were returned following search strategies. Following screening, ten studies were evaluated for full-text eligibility and five were retained for meta-analyses. Results across all treatments indicate no differences in OHRQoL when compared to SDF (SMD = -0.06, 95% CI = -0.20, 0.08). Direct and indirect estimates from network meta-analysis indicated that OHRQoL in children was not significantly different when treated with SDF versus atraumatic restorations (d = 0.02, 95% CI = -0.32, 0.36) or placebo (d = 0.03, 95% CI = -0.16, 0.22). CONCLUSIONS:Evidence from the literature consistently shows no discernible impact on OHRQoL across various non-surgical treatments for dental caries. Overall oral health-related quality of life may increase regardless of treatment protocol due to treatment of the underlying disease. Concerns over the staining of dental decay and oral mucosa resulting from treatment with silver diamine fluoride do not seem to affect OHRQoL.
Comprehensive, School-Based Preventive Dentistry: Program Details and Students' Unmet Dental Needs
BACKGROUND:In this paper, we describe the design, program details, and baseline demographics and oral health of participants in ForsythKids, a regional, comprehensive, school-based mobile caries prevention program. METHODS:We solicited all Massachusetts elementary schools with greater than 50% of students receiving free or reduced-price meals. Six schools initially elected to participate, ultimately followed by over 50 schools. Interventions were based on systematic reviews and randomized controlled caries prevention trials. Participating students received semiannual dental examinations, followed by comprehensive preventive care. Summary statistics regarding oral health indicators were derived from individual tooth- and surface-level data. RESULTS:Over a 6-year period, data were collected on 6927 children. The number of students per school ranged from 58 to 681. The overall participation rate was 15%, ranging from 10% to 29%. Overall, 57% of the children were younger than 8â€‰years at baseline. Approximately, 54% of children experienced dental decay on any tooth at baseline; 32% had untreated decay on any tooth, 29% had untreated decay on primary teeth, and 10% untreated decay on permanent teeth. CONCLUSIONS:Untreated dental decay was double the national average, even in schools within several blocks of community dental clinics. These data demonstrate the need for caries prevention beyond the traditional dental practice.
Longitudinal caries prevalence in a comprehensive, multicomponent, school-based prevention program
BACKGROUND:Globally, children's caries prevalence exceeds 30% and has not markedly changed in 30 years. School-based caries prevention programs can be an effective method to reduce caries prevalence, obviate traditional barriers to care, and use aerosol-free interventions. The objective of this study was to explore the clinical effectiveness of a comprehensive school-based, aerosol-free, caries prevention program. METHODS:The authors conducted a 6-year prospective open cohort study in 33 US public elementary schools, providing care to 6,927 children in communities with and without water fluoridation. After dental examinations, dental hygienists provided twice-yearly prophylaxis, glass ionomer sealants, glass ionomer interim therapeutic restorations, fluoride varnish, toothbrushes, fluoride toothpaste, oral hygiene instruction, and referral to community dentists as needed. The authors used generalized estimating equations to estimate the change in the prevalence of untreated caries over time. RESULTS:The prevalence of untreated caries decreased by more than 50%: from 39% through 18% in phase 1, and from 28% through 10% in phase 2. The per-visit adjusted odds ratio of untreated caries was 0.79 (95% confidence interval, 0.73 to 0.85). CONCLUSIONS AND PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS/UNASSIGNED:This school-based comprehensive caries prevention program was associated with substantial reductions in children's untreated caries, supporting the concept of expanding traditional practices to include office- and community-based aerosol-free care.
Microbial population shift and metabolic characterization of silver diamine fluoride treatment failure on dental caries
The objective of this pilot study was to describe the microbial profiles present in the plaque and saliva of children who continued to develop new carious lesions following treatment with silver diamine fluoride ("nonresponders") compared to caries active, caries-free, and children immediately receiving SDF treatment for untreated caries in order to identify potential microbial differences that may relate to a re-incidence of caries. Saliva and plaque samples from infected and contralateral sites were obtained from twenty children who were either caries free, had active carious lesions, were caries active and received SDF treatment immediately before sampling, or had previously received SDF treatment and developed new caries. In total, 8,057,899 Illumina-generated sequence reads from 60 samples were obtained. Reads were processed using the Quantitative Insights Into Microbial Ecology pipeline. Group differences were assessed using Analysis of Variance Models and Tukey Honest Significant Differences. To identify significant taxa between treatment groups, Linear discriminant analysis Effect Size (LefSe) and Analysis of Differential Abundance Taking Sample Variation Into Account were used. Differential abundant analysis indicated that members of the Lachnospiraceae family were significantly enriched in non-responders and the genus Tannerella and species Granulicatella adiances were also highly abundant in this group. LefSe analysis between non-responders and SDF-treated groups revealed that genera Leptotrichia and Granulicatella were enriched in non-responders. We observed the highest abundance of phosphotransferase system and lowest abundance of lipopolysaccharide synthesis in non-responders. The microbiome in dental biofilms is responsible for initiation and progression of dental caries. SDF has been shown to be effective in arresting the progression carious lesions, in part due to its antimicrobial properties. Findings suggest that the differential abundance of select microbiota and specific pathway functioning in individuals that present with recurrent decay after SDF treatment may contribute to a potential failure of silver diamine fluoride to arrest dental caries. However, the short duration of sample collection following SDF application and the small sample size emphasize the need for further data and additional analysis.
The Influences of Bioinformatics Tools and Reference Databases in Analyzing the Human Oral Microbial Community
There is currently no criterion to select appropriate bioinformatics tools and reference databases for analysis of 16S rRNA amplicon data in the human oral microbiome. Our study aims to determine the influence of multiple tools and reference databases on Î±-diversity measurements and Î²-diversity comparisons analyzing the human oral microbiome. We compared the results of taxonomical classification by Greengenes, the Human Oral Microbiome Database (HOMD), National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) 16S, SILVA, and the Ribosomal Database Project (RDP) using Quantitative Insights Into Microbial Ecology (QIIME) and the Divisive Amplicon Denoising Algorithm (DADA2). There were 15 phyla present in all of the analyses, four phyla exclusive to certain databases, and different numbers of genera were identified in each database. Common genera found in the oral microbiome, such as Veillonella, Rothia, and Prevotella, are annotated by all databases; however, less common genera, such as Bulleidia and Paludibacter, are only annotated by large databases, such as Greengenes. Our results indicate that using different reference databases in 16S rRNA amplicon data analysis could lead to different taxonomic compositions, especially at genus level. There are a variety of databases available, but there are no defined criteria for data curation and validation of annotations, which can affect the accuracy and reproducibility of results, making it difficult to compare data across studies.
Efficacy of growth factors for the treatment of peri-implant diseases: a systematic review and meta-analysis
OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis on the efficacy of growth factors (GF) on clinical outcomes after treatment (surgical/non-surgical) of peri-implant diseases (peri-implant mucositis and peri-implantitis). MATERIALS AND METHODS/METHODS:A protocol was developed to answer the following focused question: Is there any difference for the use of GF for treatment of peri-implant diseases versus comparative GF treatment or without GF? Electronic database and manual searches were independently conducted to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Publications were selected based on eligibility criteria and then assessed for risk-of-bias using the Cochrane Handbook. The primary outcome was probing depth (PD) and bleeding on probing (BOP) reduction along with changes in vertical defect depth (VDD). Changes in clinical attachment level, gingival recession, and plaque index, among others, were studied as secondary outcomes. Based on primary outcomes, random-effects meta-analysis was conducted. RESULTS:A total of five RCTs were included. GF enhance the reduction of PD (standardized mean difference (SMD)â€‰=â€‰-â€‰1.28; 95% confidence interval (CI) -â€‰1.75, -â€‰0.79; pâ€‰=â€‰<â€‰0.0001) and BOP (SMDâ€‰=â€‰-â€‰1.23; 95% CI -â€‰1.70, -â€‰0.76; pâ€‰=â€‰<â€‰0.0001) in the management of peri-implant mucositis. For the treatment of peri-implantitis, the use of GF yielded to significantly greater improvement in VDD (SMDâ€‰=â€‰0.68; 95% CI 0.22, 1.14; pâ€‰=â€‰0.004); however, there were no significant differences in terms of PD (SMDâ€‰=â€‰0.08; 95% CI -â€‰1.08, 1.26; pâ€‰=â€‰0.887) and BOP (SMDâ€‰=â€‰0.211; 95% CI -â€‰0.20, 0.63; pâ€‰=â€‰0.317). The overall risk of bias of the included studies was low to unclear. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:The results of the present systematic review suggest that the addition of GF might enhance the outcomes in the treatment of peri-implant mucositis. However, there is a lack of evidence for supporting additional benefit of GF managing peri-implantitis. CLINICAL RELEVANCE/CONCLUSIONS:Within the limitations of the current systematic review and based on the meta-analyses, (1) the addition of GF for the treatment peri-implant mucositis might be associated with better outcomes in terms of PD and BOP, and (2) an additional benefit of GF for the treatment peri-implantitis could not be determined on the basis of the selected evidence.