Effects of LED curing light on silver diamine fluoride penetration into dentin
This ex-vivo study investigated the effect of a light-emitting diode (LED) curing light on the depth of penetration of Silver Diamine Fluoride (SDF) into carious lesions. Twenty-four primary teeth with untreated caries lesions were allocated into groups and treated within 5 min after extraction: (1) n = 6 treated for 1 min with one drop of SDF followed by 10 sec rinse with tap water, (2) n = 6 treated for 10 sec with one drop of SDF and exposed to LED light for 20 sec (30 sec total SDF exposure) followed by 10 sec rinse with tap water, (3) n = 6 treated for 10 sec with one drop of SDF followed by a 10 sec rinse with tap water, (4) n = 3 untreated, and (5) n = 3 untreated but exposed to LED light for 20 sec. Samples were prepared, embedded, sectioned and silver penetration was measured using backscattered electron imaging in the scanning electron microscope and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis. Results were expressed as the average relative depth of penetration (%) = Ag depth/lesion depth × 100 from 5 sites in each lesion. Group means were compared using mixed model analysis. Mean ± standard deviation (SD) penetration was: 86.4 ± 20.7% in Group 1, 94.3 ± 13.7% in Group 2, and 26.7 ± 13.9% in Group 3. Groups 1 and 2 were statistically similar and different from Group 3 (p < 0.001). Groups 4 and 5 had no silver present. Use of LED light for 20 sec after 10 sec SDF application appears to facilitate silver penetration, similar to a 1 min SDF application. Clinical studies are needed to define the role of silver penetration in sustained caries arrest.
Long-term effects of canagliflozin treatment on the skeleton of aged UM-HET3 mice
Sodium glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT2is) promote urinary glucose excretion and decrease plasma glucose levels independent of insulin. Canagliflozin (CANA) is an SGLT2i, which is widely prescribed, to reduce cardiovascular complications, and as a second-line therapy after metformin in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Despite the robust metabolic benefits, reductions in bone mineral density (BMD) and cortical fractures were reported for CANA-treated subjects. In collaboration with the National Institute on Aging (NIA)-sponsored Interventions Testing Program (ITP), we tested skeletal integrity of UM-HET3 mice fed control (137 mice) or CANA-containing diet (180 ppm, 156 mice) from 7 to 22 months of age. Micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) revealed that CANA treatment caused significant thinning of the femur mid-diaphyseal cortex in both male and female mice, did not affect trabecular bone architecture in the distal femur or the lumbar vertebra-5 in male mice, but was associated with thinning of the trabeculae at the distal femur in CANA-treated female mice. In male mice, CANA treatment is associated with significant reductions in cortical bone volumetric BMD by micro-CT, and by quantitative backscattered scanning electron microscopy. Raman microspectroscopy, taken at the femur mid-diaphyseal posterior cortex, showed significant reductions in the mineral/matrix ratio and an increased carbonate/phosphate ratio in CANA-treated male mice. These data were supported by thermogravimetric assay (TGA) showing significantly decreased mineral and increased carbonate content in CANA-treated male mice. Finally, the sintered remains of TGA were subjected to X-ray diffraction and showed significantly higher fraction of whitlockite, a calcium orthophosphate mineral, which has higher resorbability than hydroxyapatite. Overall, long-term CANA treatment compromised bone morphology and mineral composition of bones, which likely contribute to increased fracture risk seen with this drug.
Life history in primate teeth is revealed by changes in major and minor element concentrations measured via field-emission SEM-EDS analysis
Overcoming the non-specificity of histological accentuated growth lines in hard tissues is an ongoing challenge. Identifying season at death and reproductive events has profound implications for evolutionary, ecological and conservation studies. Dental cementum is a mineralized tissue with yearly periodicity that continues deposition from tooth formation until death, maintaining a record spanning almost the entire life of an individual. Recent work has successfully employed elemental analysis of calcified incremental tissues to detect changes in extrinsic conditions such as diet and climate and to identify two important life-history milestones: weaning and sexual maturity. Here, we employ field-emission scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis to measure the relative concentrations of calcium, phosphorous, oxygen, magnesium and sodium in the cementum of 34 teeth from seven male and female rhesus macaques with known medical and life-history information. We find that changes in relative magnesium concentrations correspond with reproductive events in females and breastfeeding in infants. Additionally, we observe seasonal calcium patterns in 77.3% of the samples.
3D printed mesoporous bioactive glass, bioglass 45S5, and β-TCP scaffolds for regenerative medicine: A comparative in vitro study
BACKGROUND:While autografts to date remain the "gold standard" for bone void fillers, synthetic bone grafts have garnered attention due to their advantages such as ability to be tailored in terms of its physical and chemical properties. Bioactive glass (BG), an inorganic material, has the capacity to form a strong bond with bone by forming a bone-like apatite surface, enhancing osteogenesis. Coupled with three-dimensional printing it is possible to maximize bone regenerative properties of the BG. OBJECTIVE:The objective of this study was to synthesize and characterize 3D printed mesoporous bioactive glass (MBG), BG 45S5, and compare to β-Tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) based scaffolds; test cell viability and osteogenic differentiation on human osteoprogenitor cells in vitro. METHODS:MBG, BG 45S5, and β-TCP were fabricated into colloidal gel suspensions, tested with a rheometer, and manufactured into scaffolds using a 3D direct-write micro-printer. The materials were characterized in terms of microstructure and composition with Thermogravimetric Analyzer/Differential Scanning Calorimeter (TGA/DSC), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Micro-Computed Tomography (μ-CT), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS), and Mattauch-Herzog-Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (MH-ICP-MS). RESULTS:Scaffolds were tested for cell proliferation and osteogenic differentiation using human osteoprogenitor cells. Osteogenic media was used for differentiation, and immunocytochemistry for osteogenic markers Runx-2, Collagen-I, and Osteocalcin. The cell viability results after 7 days of culture yielded significantly higher (p < 0.05) results in β-TCP scaffolds compared to BG 45S5 and MBG groups. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:All materials expressed osteogenic markers after 21 days of culture in expansion and osteogenic media.
Dental cementum virtual histology of Neanderthal teeth from Krapina (Croatia, 130-120 kyr): an informed estimate of age, sex and adult stressors
The evolution of modern human reproductive scheduling is an aspect of our life history that remains vastly uncomprehended. The present work aims to address this gap by validating a non-destructive cutting-edge methodology to infer adult life-history events on modern teeth with known life history and then applying it to fossil specimens. We use phase-contrast synchrotron X-ray microtomography to visualize the dental cementum of 21 specimens: nine contemporary humans; 10 Neanderthals from Krapina (Croatia, 130-120 kyr); one Neolithic Homo sapiens from Ajmana (Serbia); and one Mesolithic H. sapiens from Vlasac (Serbia). We were able to correctly detect and time (root mean square error = 2.1 years; R
Ontogenetic variability in collagen fiber orientation at the midshaft femur of Virunga mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei) [Meeting Abstract]
Elemental composition of primary lamellar bone differs between parous and nulliparous rhesus macaque females
Extracting life history information from mineralized hard tissues of extant and extinct species is an ongoing challenge in evolutionary and conservation studies. Primary lamellar bone is a mineralized tissue with multidien periodicity that begins deposition prenatally and continues until adulthood albeit with concurrent resorption, thus maintaining a record spanning several years of an individual's life. Here, we use field-emission scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis to measure the relative concentrations of calcium, phosphorous, oxygen, magnesium and sodium in the femora of seven rhesus macaque with known medical and life-history information. We find that the concentration of these elements distinguishes parous from nulliparous females; that in females calcium and phosphorus are lower in bone formed during reproductive events; and that significant differences in relative magnesium concentration correlate with breastfeeding in infants.
Optimizing Preparation Protocols and Microscopy for Cementochronology
Adjuvant therapy with 1% alendronate gel for experimental periodontitis treatment in rats
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of locally delivered 1% alendronate (ALN) gel used as an adjunct to non-invasive periodontal therapy. METHODS:0.05. RESULTS:>0.05 for all). CONCLUSIONS:Locally delivered 1% ALN gel used as an adjunct to SRP enhanced bone regeneration in the furcation region in a rat model of experimental periodontitis.
Microbial contamination survey of environmental fresh and saltwater resources of upolu island, Samoa
Analysis of microbe diversity in freshwater resources and nearshore seawater samples of Upolu Island was performed to investigate the distribution of harmful bacteria. For this, 124 samples were collected from 23 river systems, two volcanic lakes, and 45 locations inside and outside the barrier reef of Upolu Island, Samoa. Physicochemical parameters for general water quality, detection of coliform bacteria and 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing were performed on all samples. Fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) testing indicated a wide distribution of coliform bacteria in all sampled freshwater sites with evidence of fecal coliform in most locations. Importantly, evidence of coliform bacteria was found in most seawater samples inside and along the reef, apart from those samples taken ~20 km offshore. Illumina 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing of the V4 hypervariable region confirmed the presence of various types of harmful bacterial species, namely from the Enterobacteriaceae, Enterococcae, Streptococcaceae, and Vibrionacea families. By combining the sensitivity of FIB testing and next-generation sequencing, we were able to show the extent of potential contaminations in fresh and seawater samples and simultaneously identify the potential pathogenic bacterial genera present. The wide distribution of potential harmful bacteria from river runoff or direct sewage dumping has an impact on human health, leading to many skin and intestinal diseases, and is potentially detrimental to coral reef community health.