Energy output reduction and surface alteration of quartz and sapphire tips following Er:YAG laser contact irradiation for tooth enamel ablation
BACKGROUND: Despite the recent increase in application of Er:YAG laser for various dental treatments, limited information is available regarding the contact tips. This study examined the changes in energy output and surface condition of quartz and sapphire contact tips after Er:YAG laser contact irradiation for tooth enamel ablation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ten sets of unused quartz or sapphire contact tips were employed for contact irradiation to sound enamel of extracted teeth. The teeth were irradiated with Er:YAG laser at approximately 75 J/cm(2)/pulse and 20 Hz under water spray for 60 minutes. The energy output was measured before and every 5 minutes after irradiation, and the changes in morphology and chemical composition of the contact surface were analyzed. RESULTS: The energy output significantly decreased with time in both tips. The energy output from the sapphire tips was generally higher on average than that of the quartz. The contact surfaces of all the used quartz tips were concave and irregular. Most of the sapphire tips also appeared rough with crater formation and fractures, except for a few tips in which a high energy output and the original smooth surface were maintained. Spots of melted tooth substances were seen attached to the surface of both tips. CONCLUSION: In contact enamel ablation, the sapphire tip appeared to be more resistant than the quartz tip. The quartz tips showed similar patterns of energy reduction and surface alteration, whereas the sapphire tips revealed a wider and more characteristic variation among tips. Lasers Surg. Med. 41:595-604, 2009. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Triple transduction with adeno-associated virus vectors expressing tyrosine hydroxylase, aromatic-L-amino-acid decarboxylase, and GTP cyclohydrolase I for gene therapy of Parkinson's disease
Parkinson's disease (PD), a neurological disease suited to gene therapy, is biochemically characterized by a severe decrease in the dopamine content of the striatum. One current strategy for gene therapy of PD involves local production of dopamine in the striatum achieved by inducing the expression of enzymes involved in the biosynthetic pathway for dopamine. We previously showed that the coexpression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and aromatic-L-amino-acid decarboxylase (AADC), using two separate adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors, resulted in more effective dopamine production and more remarkable behavioral recovery in 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned parkinsonian rats, compared with the expression of TH alone. Not only levels of TH and AADC but also levels of tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4), a cofactor of TH, and GTP cyclohydrolase I (GCH), a rate-limiting enzymes for BH4 biosynthesis, are reduced in parkinsonian striatum. In the present study, we investigated whether transduction with separate AAV vectors expressing TH, AADC, and GCH was effective for gene therapy of PD. In vitro experiments showed that triple transduction with AAV-TH, AAV-AADC, and AAV-GCH resulted in greater dopamine production than double transduction with AAV-TH and AAV-AADC in 293 cells. Furthermore, triple transduction enhanced BH4 and dopamine production in denervated striatum of parkinsonian rats and improved the rotational behavior of the rats more efficiently than did double transduction. Behavioral recovery persisted for at least 12 months after stereotaxic intrastriatal injection. These results suggest that GCH, in addition to TH and AADC, is important for effective gene therapy of PD.