A Population Health Equity Approach Reveals Persisting Disparities in Colorectal Cancer Screening in New York City South Asian Communities
To assess colorectal cancer (CRC) screening among South Asians (SAs) and explore the challenges and facilitators to CRC screening among SA subgroups in New York City (NYC). Fifty-one semi-structured in-depth interviews and surveys were conducted among SA immigrants in NYC. Qualitative results suggested challenges to CRC screening were related to socio-cultural factors, such as a lack of knowledge on CRC and CRC screening, and structural factors, such as cost and language. A physician referral was the most cited facilitator to CRC screening. Participants reported culturally and linguistically adapted education and information on CRC and CRC screening would help to overcome noted challenges. Our findings support the development of targeted, linguistically and culturally adapted campaigns for this population that facilitate access to health systems and leverage natural community assets and social support systems.
The psychosocial impact on frontline nurses of caring for patients with COVID-19 during the first wave of the pandemic in New York City
BACKGROUND:Infectious disease pandemics, such as COVID-19, have dramatically increased in the last several decades. PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:To investigate the personal and contextual factors associated with the psychological functioning of nurses responding to COVID in the New York City area. METHOD/METHODS:Cross sectional data collected via a 95-item internet-based survey sent to an email list of the 7,219 nurses employed at four hospitals. FINDINGS/RESULTS:2,495 nurses responded (RR 35%). The more that nurses cared for COVID patients as well as experienced home-work conflict and work-home conflict the higher the nurses' depression and anxiety. When asked what has helped the nurses to carry out their care of patients the most common responses were support from and to co-workers, training in proper PPE, and support from family/friends. DISCUSSION/CONCLUSIONS:Understanding the potential triggers and vulnerability factors can inform the development of institutional resources that would help minimize their impact, reducing the risk of psychological morbidity.
Disparities in colorectal cancer screening among South Asians in New York City: a cross-sectional study
Despite improvements in colorectal cancer (CRC) screening in New York City (NYC) since the early 2000s, the degree to which disparities persist for specific Asian American subgroups has yet to be fully elucidated. The purpose of this study is to examine disparities in rates of timely colonoscopy screening among five racial/ethnic groups in NYC. We performed a retrospective cross-sectional analysis of combined 2014-2018 NYC Community Health Survey data. Prevalence estimates of timely colonoscopy screening (within the past 10 years) among individuals â‰¥ 50 years of age were calculated and presented overall (n = 24,288) and by socio-demographic variables. Racial/ethnic categories included White, Black, Hispanic, East Asian, and South Asian. Multivariable models examined socio-demographic and racial/ethnic predictors of timely colonoscopy screening. A trend analysis examined colonoscopy screening by race/ethnicity and year from 2012 to 2018 (n = 33,130). Age-adjusted prevalence of timely colonoscopy screening was lowest among Asian Americans (South Asian 61.1% and East Asian 65.9%) compared to Hispanics (71.3%), Blacks (70.2%), and Whites (68.6%). Adjustment by socio-demographics, including insurance status, further explained disparities for South Asians (adjusted risk ratio [RR] = 0.84, 95% CI = 0.73-0.97) compared to Hispanics; additionally, Whites (adjusted RR=0.88, 95% CI = 0.84-0.92) were less likely to have received a timely colonoscopy compared to Hispanics. Age, health insurance, poverty group, and education were significant predictors in adjusted regression. Results indicate that South Asians have not equally benefited from campaigns to increase colonoscopy screening in NYC. Our findings support the development of targeted, and linguistically and culturally adapted campaigns that facilitate access to health systems and leverage existing community assets and social support systems among South Asian populations.
Early Use of the Palliative Approach to Improve Patient Outcomes in HIV Disease: Insights and Findings From the Care and Support Access (CASA) Study 2013-2019
Young men of color who have sex with men (yMSM) living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in syndemic environments have been difficult-to-retain in care resulting in their being at-risk for poor health outcomes despite availability of effective once-daily antiretroviral treatment (ART). Multiple methods have been implemented to improve outcomes for this cohort; none with sustainable results. Outpatient HIV staff themselves may be a contributing factor. We introduced multidisciplinary staff to the concept of using a palliative approach early (ePA) in outpatient HIV care management to enable them to consider the patient-level complexity of these young men. Young MSM (18-35 years of age) enrolled in and cared for at the intervention site of the Care and Support Access Study (CASA), completed serial surveys over 18 months. Patients' Global and Summary quality of life (QoL) increased during the study at the intervention site (IS) where staff learned about ePA, compared with patients attending the control site (CS) (p=.021 and p=.018, respectively). Using serial surveys of staff members, we found that in the era of HIV disease control, outpatient staff are stressed more by environmental factors than by patients' disease status seen historically in the HIV epidemic. A Community Advisory Panel of HIV stakeholders contributed to all phases of this study and altered language used in educational activities with staff members to describe the patient cohort.
Gerontological social work and cardiac rehabilitation
Cardiac rehabilitation is a setting in which integrating social work services can benefit older adults. Many cardiac rehabilitation patients endorse symptoms of stress and depression following a cardiac event, impeding their ability to participate fully in cardiac rehabilitation services or recover from a heart attack. Gerontologically trained social workers can improve the care of older adults with heart disease in a variety of ways and this paper discusses the potential roles social workers can play in enhancing care. Two examples demonstrating how community academic partnerships can lead to improved options for older adults following a heart attack are discussed. First, using a microsystems approach, social workers embedded within cardiac rehabilitation may improve patient quality of life, address social service needs, provide mental health treatment, and assist in the completion of standard cardiac rehabilitation assessments. Second, using a macrosystems approach, social workers can help communities by developing partnerships to establish infrastructure for new cardiac rehabilitation clinics that are integrated with mental health services in rural areas. Social workers can serve an important role in addressing the psychological or social service needs of cardiac rehabilitation patients while increasing access to care.
Relationships Among Self-perception of Aging, Physical Functioning, and Self-efficacy in Late Life
Objectives: The purpose of the current study was to examine the longitudinal relationship between 2 central concepts in the study of subjective well-being in old age-self-perception of aging (SPA) and physical functioning, and to assess the mediating role of self-efficacy beliefs in this relationship. Methods: Interviews were conducted in the home with 1,216 randomly selected persons aged 75+ years (T1) and repeated with 892 of them 2 years later (T2). We collected data on SPA, physical functioning, self-efficacy, self-rated health, and demographics. Using SEM techniques, we examined cross-lagged autoregressive relationships between SPA and physical functioning and between SPA and self-efficacy, and the mediating effect of self-efficacy. Results: Findings indicated that it was SPA that affected physical functioning and self-efficacy and not vice versa, while controlling for age, gender, education, economic status and self-rated health. Evaluation of a mediation model showed that self-efficacy fully mediated the longitudinal relationship between SPA-T1 and physical functioning -T2. Discussion: Our results indicated a psychological pathway by which SPA affected physical functioning through self-efficacy. SPA also affected self-efficacy, which in turn probably motivated people to use effective coping patterns for maintaining their physical functioning.
Parental Expressed Concerns about Silver Diamine Fluoride (SDF) Treatment
Background: The staining associated with its caries arrest may be a deterrent for the use of Silver Diamine Fluoride (SDF). This study aims to elucidate the concerns that inform parents' perceptions and acceptance of SDF as a treatment option for their child. Study Design: We analyzed qualitative data obtained through an investigation in which parents attending a pediatric dental appointment participated in a survey, which included an open-ended question to evaluate their opinions about SDF staining. Thematic analysis of the comments, offered by the subsample of participants who replied to this question (n=43), yielded insights about perception of SDF therapy. Results: Most parents who provided comments were mothers (83.7%), college graduates (72.1%), primarily white (48.8%) or Hispanic (27.9%). Six themes emerged from the thematic analysis of the parents' responses: Esthetic Concerns, Psychosocial Concerns, SDF Treatment Process, Risks and Side Effects, Situational Benefits, and Dental Treatment Process. While many of the parents' comments are related to appearance, other topics that merit consideration when discussing SDF treatment were mentioned. Conclusions: Although parents are concerned about the esthetic impact of SDF, they understand the risks of alternative treatments and welcome information that will allow them to make an informed decision. Location of the cavities and visibility of the staining appear to heavily influence the decision to accept or reject this therapy.
Care and Support Access Study (CASA) for Early Implementation of a Palliative Approach with HIV Treatment to Retain Young Same-Gender-Loving Men in Care [Meeting Abstract]
Reciprocal relationships between the will-to-live and successful aging
OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:The search for concomitants and predictors of successful aging is of theoretical and practical importance. In this study, we assessed the reciprocal relationships between the will-to-live (WTL) and both objective and subjective successful aging (SA) among older adults. METHODS:Interviews were conducted with 1,216 randomly selected persons aged 75+ years (T1) and repeated with 1,019 of these participants one year later (T2). At each session, we collected data on WTL, subjective SA, and objective SA (medical conditions, disability, pain symptoms), and demographics. Using SEM techniques, we examined cross-lagged autoregressive relationships between WTL and both objective and subjective SA. RESULTS:Significant reciprocal relationships were found among WTL, objective SA, and subjective SA. Higher WTL at T1 predicted higher objective and subjective SA at T2 (i.e., fewer medical conditions, less disability, less pain symptoms and higher ratings of subjective SA). Higher objective and subjective SA at T1 predicted higher WTL at T2. Comparison of the bidirectional temporal relationship between WTL and SA showed that the effect of WTL on objective SA was as strong as the reverse effect, but the influence of WTL on subjective SA was stronger than the reverse effect. Finally, objective SA at T1 predicted subjective SA at T2, but the reverse effect was not significant. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:WTL is an important precursor for both objective and subjective SA. It may also be maintained and further strengthened by successful aging. Policy makers and practitioners should consider WTL in their efforts to help older adults enhance and preserve SA.
Is a Decline in Will to Live a Consequence or Predictor of Depression in Late Life?
OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:To assess the causal directions of interaction between depression and decline in will to live (WTL) over 2 years in community-dwelling older adults. DESIGN/METHODS:Community-based longitudinal study. SETTING/METHODS:Three large cities in Israel. PARTICIPANTS/METHODS:Individuals aged 75 and older (N=870). MEASUREMENTS/METHODS:We tested a cross-lagged structural equation model in which WTL and depressive symptoms (DS) were tested as latent variables at each of three annual points of measurement. RESULTS:Of the health and sociodemographic covariates examined, only self-rated health predicted WTL and DS, and age predicted WTL. WTL predicted DS at each point of measurement. In addition to these cross-sectional effects, WTL also predicted DS 12 months later at the second and third year. In other words, the direction of prediction was exclusively from WTL to DS, concomitantly and over time. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Our results indicate that WTL predicts DS rather than vice versa, suggesting that decline in WTL contributes and leads to depression at present and in future. Health strategies designed to promote WTL in older adults may help forestall depression. Moreover, psychotherapeutic interventions targeting WTL might be effective in the treatment of depression.