Periodontal Inflamed Surface Area (PISA) associates with composites of salivary cytokines
BACKGROUND:Periodontal disease (PerioD) is a chronic, complex inflammatory condition resulting from the interaction between subgingival dysbiotic bacteria and the host immune response leading to local inflammation. Since periodontal inflammation is characterized by multiple cytokines effects we investigated whether Periodontal Inflamed Surface Area (PISA), a continuous measure of clinical periodontal inflammation is a predictor of composite indexes of salivary cytokines. METHODS AND FINDINGS/RESULTS:In a cross-sectional study of 67 healthy, well-educated individuals, we evaluated PISA and several cytokines expressed in whole stimulated saliva. Two salivary cytokine indexes were constructed using weighted and unweighted approaches based on a Principal Component Analysis [named Cytokine Component Index (CCI)] or averaging the (standardized) level of all cytokines [named Composite Inflammatory Index (CII)]. In regression analysis we found that PISA scores were significantly associated with both salivary cytokine constructs, (CCI: part R = 0.51, p<0.001; CII: part R = 0.40, p = 0.001) independent of age, gender and BMI showing that single scores summarizing salivary cytokines correlated with severity of clinical periodontal inflammation. CONCLUSIONS:Clinical periodontal inflammation may be reflected by a single score encompassing several salivary cytokines. These results are consistent with the complexity of interactions characterizing periodontal disease. In addition, Type I error is likely to be avoided.