The effectiveness of propolis on gingivitis: a randomized controlled trial
Abstract Background: A randomized, double-blind, controlled clinical trial was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of a propolis rinse on induced gingivitis by using the co-twin study design. METHODS: Twenty-one twin pairs (n=42) were enrolled in a gingivitis study with oral hygiene promotion (14 days) and gingivitis induction (21 days). During the gingivitis induction phase, one member of the twin pair was randomly assigned to a 2% typified propolis rinse, and the other was assigned a color-matched 0.05% sodium fluoride plus 0.05% cetylpyridinium chloride rinse (positive control). Patients rinsed twice daily with 20 mL for 30 seconds for 21 days. Gingivitis was measured on days -14 (baseline), 0 (after hygiene phase), and 21 (after no-hygiene phase) by using the Papillary Bleeding Score (PBS) and by standard digital imaging of the gum tissues (G-parameter). RESULTS: The 38 persons who completed the study (age 13-22 years) were well balanced according to PBS at baseline and G-parameter after the initial hygiene phase. After 21 days without oral hygiene, the propolis rinse and positive control rinse groups did not differ significantly for average PBS measurements or G-parameter. CONCLUSIONS: Use of a 2% typified propolis rinse was equivalent to a positive control rinse during a 21-day no-hygiene period.
Periodontal disease and subgingival microbiota as contributors for rheumatoid arthritis pathogenesis: modifiable risk factors?
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Since the early 1900s, the role of periodontal disease in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis has been a matter of intense research. The last decade has witnessed many advances supporting a link between periodontitis, the presence of specific bacterial species (i.e. Porphyromonas gingivalis) and their effects in immune response. This review will examine available evidence on the individuals. RECENT FINDINGS: Epidemiological studies have stressed the commonalities shared by periodontal disease and rheumatoid arthritis. Many groups have focused their attention toward understanding the periodontal microbiota and its alterations in states of health and disease. The presence of circulating antibodies against periodontopathic bacteria and associated inflammatory response has been found in both rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients and individuals at-risk for disease development. Most recently, the periodontal microbiota of smokers and patients with RA has been elucidated, revealing profound changes in the bacterial communities compared with those of healthy controls. This has led to several small clinical trials of progressive disease treatment as adjuvant for disease-modifying therapy in RA. SUMMARY: Smoking and periodontal disease are emerging risk factors for the development of RA. Epidemiological, clinical, and basic research has further strengthened this association, pointing toward changes in the oral microbiota as possible contributors to systemic inflammation and arthritis.
Arginine metabolism in dental plaque is associated with tooth surface dental caries status
ARTICLE TITLE AND BIBLIOGRAPHIC INFORMATION: Oral arginine metabolism may decrease the risk for dental caries in children. Nascimento MM, Liu Y, Kalra R, Perry S, Adewumi A, Xu X, Primosch RE, Burne RA. J Dent Res 2013;92(7):604-8. REVIEWER: Walter A. Bretz, DDS, PhD PURPOSE/QUESTION: The main purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between oral arginine metabolism in dental plaque (assayed by the activity of the arginine deiminase system [ADS]) and caries experience, tooth surface caries status, and dentition type. SOURCE OF FUNDING: This work was supported by the University of Florida College of Dentistry and by the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research (Grant DE10362). TYPE OF STUDY/DESIGN: Cross-sectional study LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level 2: Limited-quality, patient-oriented evidence STRENGTH OF RECOMMENDATION GRADE: Not applicable.
Treatment Responses to Tooth Whitening in Twins
The aim of this study was to determine heritability estimates of treatment responses to a 10% hydrogen peroxide strip-based whitening system in twins. Eighty-five twin pairs were randomly assigned to 10% hydrogen peroxide whitening strips or placebo strips without peroxide. Both twins (monozygotic or dizygotic) received the same treatment. Maxillary teeth were treated for 30 minutes twice daily for 7 days. Efficacy was measured objectively as L* (light-dark), a* (red-green), and b* (yellow-blue) color change from digital images at baseline () and day 8. Heritability estimates for tooth whitening treatment responses for changes from day 8 to baseline were obtained using variance-component methodologies. Whitening treatment responses were highly heritable (h2 = 71.0) for b* and a*(p < .0001), but not for L* (h2 = 27.0), which was essentially modulated by environmental factors. This study has demonstrated that both genetic and environmental factors significantly contributed to seven-day whitening treatment responses achieved with 10% hydrogen peroxide strips.
Child Externalizing Behavior Problems Linked to Genetic and Non-Genetic Variation in Dental Caries
The association of environmental and genetic variation in caries with child externalizing behavior problems (inattention, hyperactivity, impulsivity, and defiance) was studied in a sample of 239 pairs of 3- to 8-year-old impoverished Brazilian twins. It was hypothesized that externalizing problems would show a stronger positive association with environmental than genetic variation in caries. Univariate twin models were estimated to parse variation in caries into three components: additive genetic (A), shared environment (C) and non-shared environment/error (E). Age-adjusted associations between externalizing problems and each variance component were tested. Contrary to the hypothesis, modest but very consistent negative associations were found between externalizing problems and both genetic and environmental variation in caries. Mutans streptococci and sweetness preference did not explain the negative associations of caries and externalizing problems. Externalizing problems in non-medicated children were associated with less dental decay that could be explained by both genetic and environmental factors. (c) 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial on the effects of propolis and chlorhexidine mouthrinses on gingivitis
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare the effects of typified propolis and chlorhexidine mouthrinses on gingival health in a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Sixty participants were randomized to 3 mouthrinse study groups: 1) 2% typified propolis (n = 20); 2) 0.12% chlorhexidine (n = 20), and 3) placebo (n = 20). Participants rinsed unsupervised twice a day for 28 days. The Papillary Bleeding Score (PBS) was measured on the mesio-buccal surfaces of all teeth at baseline and 28 days thereafter. Co-variance analysis was employed to compare PBS average values and the number of sites with PBS >/= 2 among study groups. Sub-group analysis was further applied to participants who were < 40 years-old. RESULTS: The results show efficacy of propolis mouthrinse when comparing before and after treatment protocols significantly for a reduction of mean PBS scores. For younger participants propolis mouthrinse was superior to all groups in reducing mean PBS scores and significant when compared to 0.12% chlorhexidine mouthrinse. CONCLUSION: The efficacy of 2% typified propolis mouthrinse was demonstrated in reducing the levels of gingival inflammation. These results need to be duplicated by other investigators under similar study protocols.
Functional expression of dental plaque microbiota
Dental caries remains a significant public health problem and is considered pandemic worldwide. The prediction of dental caries based on profiling of microbial species involved in disease and equally important, the identification of species conferring dental health has proven more difficult than anticipated due to high interpersonal and geographical variability of dental plaque microbiota. We have used RNA-Seq to perform global gene expression analysis of dental plaque microbiota derived from 19 twin pairs that were either concordant (caries-active or caries-free) or discordant for dental caries. The transcription profiling allowed us to define a functional core microbiota consisting of nearly 60 species. Similarities in gene expression patterns allowed a preliminary assessment of the relative contribution of human genetics, environmental factors and caries phenotype on the microbiota's transcriptome. Correlation analysis of transcription allowed the identification of numerous functional networks, suggesting that inter-personal environmental variables may co-select for groups of genera and species. Analysis of functional role categories allowed the identification of dominant functions expressed by dental plaque biofilm communities, that highlight the biochemical priorities of dental plaque microbes to metabolize diverse sugars and cope with the acid and oxidative stress resulting from sugar fermentation. The wealth of data generated by deep sequencing of expressed transcripts enables a greatly expanded perspective concerning the functional expression of dental plaque microbiota.
Effects of typified propolis on mutans streptococci and lactobacilli: a randomized clinical trial
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial the effects of typified propolis and chlorhexidine rinses on salivary levels of mutans streptococci (MS) and lactobacilli (LACT). METHODS: One hundred patients were screened for salivary levels of MS >100,000 CFUs/mL of saliva. All patients presented with at least one cavitated decayed surface. Sixty patients met entry criteria. Subjects were adults 18-55 years old. After restoration of cavitated lesions patients were randomized to 3 experimental groups: 1) PROP-alcohol-free 2% typified propolis rinse (n = 20); 2) CHX- 0.12% chlorhexidine rinse; 3) PL-placebo mouthrinse. Patients rinsed unsupervised 15 mL of respective rinses twice a day for 1 min for 28 days. Patients were assessed for the salivary levels of MS (Dentocult SM) and LACT (Dentocult LB) at baseline, 7-day, 14-day, and at 28-day visits (experimental effects) and at 45-day visit (residual effects). General linear models were employed to analyze the data. RESULTS: PROP was superior to CHX at 14-day and 28-day visits in suppressing the salivary levels of MS (p < .05). PROP was superior to PL at all visits (p < .01). The residual effects of PROP in suppressing the salivary levels of MS could still be observed at the 45-day visit, where significant differences between PROP and CHX (p < .05), were demonstrated. PROP was significantly superior than CHX in suppressing the levels of salivary LACT at the 28-day visit (p < .05). CONCLUSION: Typified propolis rinse was effective in suppressing cariogenic infections in caries-active patients when compared to existing and placebo therapies.
Salivary Parameters of Competitive Swimmers at Gas-Chlorinated Swimming-Pools
The dental plaque microbiome in health and disease
Dental decay is one of the most prevalent chronic diseases worldwide. A variety of factors, including microbial, genetic, immunological, behavioral and environmental, interact to contribute to dental caries onset and development. Previous studies focused on the microbial basis for dental caries have identified species associated with both dental health and disease. The purpose of the current study was to improve our knowledge of the microbial species involved in dental caries and health by performing a comprehensive 16S rDNA profiling of the dental plaque microbiome of both caries-free and caries-active subjects. Analysis of over 50,000 nearly full-length 16S rDNA clones allowed the identification of 1,372 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) in the dental plaque microbiome. Approximately half of the OTUs were common to both caries-free and caries-active microbiomes and present at similar abundance. The majority of differences in OTU's reflected very low abundance phylotypes. This survey allowed us to define the population structure of the dental plaque microbiome and to identify the microbial signatures associated with dental health and disease. The deep profiling of dental plaque allowed the identification of 87 phylotypes that are over-represented in either caries-free or caries-active subjects. Among these signatures, those associated with dental health outnumbered those associated with dental caries by nearly two-fold. A comparison of this data to other published studies indicate significant heterogeneity in study outcomes and suggest that novel approaches may be required to further define the signatures of dental caries onset and progression.