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104


Oral and gastric microbiome in relation to gastric intestinal metaplasia

Wu, Fen; Yang, Liying; Hao, Yuhan; Zhou, Boyan; Hu, Jiyuan; Yang, Yaohua; Bedi, Sukhleen; Sanichar, Navin Ganesh; Cheng, Charley; Perez-Perez, Guillermo; Tseng, Wenche; Tseng, Wenzhi; Tseng, Mengkao; Francois, Fritz; Khan, Abraham R; Li, Yihong; Blaser, Martin J; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Long, Jirong; Li, Huilin; Pei, Zhiheng; Chen, Yu
Evidence suggests that Helicobacter pylori plays a role in gastric cancer (GC) initiation. However, epidemiologic studies on the specific role of other bacteria in the development of GC are lacking. We conducted a case-control study of 89 cases with gastric intestinal metaplasia (IM) and 89 matched controls who underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy at three sites affiliated with NYU Langone Health. We performed shotgun metagenomic sequencing using oral wash samples from 89 case-control pairs and antral mucosal brushing samples from 55 case-control pairs. We examined the associations of relative abundances of bacterial taxa and functional pathways with IM using conditional logistic regression with and without elastic-net penalty. Compared with controls, oral species Peptostreptococcus stomatis, Johnsonella ignava, Neisseria elongata and Neisseria flavescens were enriched in cases (odds ratios [ORs] = 1.29-1.50, P = .004-.01) while Lactobacillus gasseri, Streptococcus mutans, S parasanguinis and S sanguinis were under-represented (ORs = 0.66-0.76, P = .006-.042) in cases. Species J ignava and Filifactor alocis in the gastric microbiota were enriched (ORs = 3.27 and 1.43, P = .005 and .035, respectively), while S mutans, S parasanguinis and S sanguinis were under-represented (ORs = 0.61-0.75, P = .024-.046), in cases compared with controls. The lipopolysaccharide and ubiquinol biosynthesis pathways were more abundant in IM, while the sugar degradation pathways were under-represented in IM. The findings suggest potential roles of certain oral and gastric microbiota, which are correlated with regulation of pathways associated with inflammation, in the development of gastric precancerous lesions.
PMID: 34664721
ISSN: 1097-0215
CID: 5043202

Assessment of the Silver Penetration and Distribution in Carious Lesions of Deciduous Teeth Treated with Silver Diamine Fluoride

Li, Yihong; Liu, Yingyi; Psoter, Walter J; Nguyen, Olivia M; Bromage, Timothy G; Walters, Marc A; Hu, Bin; Rabieh, Sasan; Kumararaja, Fancy C
The aim of this study was to determine the effects of 38% silver diamine fluoride (SDF) on carious lesions of human deciduous teeth. Ten extracted deciduous incisors with caries were collected and treated with SDF. After the treatment, the teeth were sectioned through the center of the carious lesion. The extent of sliver precipitation was examined using quantitative backscattered electron scanning electron microscopy (qBSE-SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and micro-computed tomography (micro-CT). The qBSE-SEM images revealed that the silver particles could penetrate through the pellicle complex, along with the rod sheaths into the demineralized enamel rods and the dentinal tubules, and form silver-enriched barriers surrounding the carious lesions at depths up to 2,490.2 μm (mean 744.7 ± 448.7 μm) within the dentinal tubules of the carious lesions, but less likely in the sound enamel. The EDX spectrum analysis revealed that carbon, oxygen, phosphorus, chlorine, silver, and calcium were the main elements detected in the lesions treated with SDF. Additionally, sodium, magnesium, aluminum, silicon, zinc, sulfur, and fluorine were detected as the minor elements within the SDF precipitation "zone." The micro-CT analysis further showed that in the deep cavitated lesions, the silver precipitation could be observed in the pulp chamber. These findings provide new evidence defining the SDF mode of action for arresting caries and suggest that the application of a highly concentrated SDF solution on deciduous teeth should be used with caution for various carious lesions.
PMID: 30808824
ISSN: 1421-976x
CID: 3698972

Impact of parental migration on oral health outcomes of left-behind school-aged children in Luchuan, southern China

Qiu, Rongmin; Li, Yihong; Malla, Manisha; Yao, Junyu; Mo, Dan; Dhakal, Neha; Huang, Hua
BACKGROUND:With rapid urbanization in China, an increasing number of rural adults have migrated to cities to seek job opportunities, leaving their school-aged children behind. These left-behind children (LBC) without one or both parents usually receive less attention from their caregivers. Whether the parental migration affects the children's oral health is not well understood. This study aimed to explore the differences in dental caries status and oral health-related behaviors between children with different parental migration experiences in a rural area of Southern China. METHODS:A cross-sectional study was conducted in Luchuan County of Guangxi Province in 2015. A total of 1085 school children aged 8-12 participated in this study. Participants' demographic characteristics, parental migration information, and eating and oral hygiene habits were collected using a self-administered questionnaire. Dental caries of permanent teeth was examined using the decayed, missing, and filled tooth (DMFT) index recommended by the World Health Organization. Dental caries experience and oral health-related behaviors were compared between LBC and non-LBC, as well as children with different experiences of parental migrations. The impact of various parental migration attributes on LBC oral health outcomes was examined by univariate and multivariate analyses. RESULTS:Among the school-aged children examined, 60.9% of them were LBC. Only 29.7% of the children brushed their teeth regularly; 86.5% of them did not know what fluoride toothpaste was. Caries prevalence was 51.4% for LBC and 40.8% for non-LBC (p < 0.001). The LBC experienced a greater DMFT mean (1.20 ± 1.59) compared to the non-LBC (0.85 ± 1.30) (p < 0.001). Oral health-related behaviors were not significantly different between LBC and non-LBC. Dental caries experience and oral health-related behaviors were not related to the type or duration of parental migration. Multiple regression analyses showed that parental migration was one of significant predictors of children's caries outcome; LBC had a higher risk to caries than non-LBC (95% CI =1.26, 2.09). CONCLUSIONS:These findings indicate that parental migration could be a significant risk factor for caries development among 8- to 12-year-old school children in rural China.
PMCID:6290493
PMID: 30537963
ISSN: 1472-6831
CID: 3555952

Developmental defects of enamel increase caries susceptibility in Chinese preschool children

Li, Yihong; Chen, Xi; Chen, Shuli; Janal, Malvin N; Sarnat, Haim
OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:The present epidemiological study aimed to compare the prevalence and severity of developmental defects of enamel (DDE) and dental caries between urban and suburban Chinese preschool children. METHODS:A total of 1351 3- to 6-year-old children were invited to participate in this study and received dental examinations. A modified DDE index was used to assess the prevalence and severity of DDE. The dental caries diagnosis was based on the World Health Organization (WHO) health survey methods for field studies and was recorded using the decayed, missing and filled tooth (dmft) index. The caries status was further classified as caries or severe caries according to a modification of the American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry definition. RESULTS:Overall, the DDE prevalence was 48.3% among the 1351 preschool children. The DDE prevalence was higher in innercity children (54.1%) than in suburban children (42.0%; P < 0.001). In contrast, the suburban children had a higher prevalence of dental caries (65.2% vs 57.5%; P = 0.004) and a higher mean dmft score (3.5 ± 4.2 vs 2.9 ± 3.8; P = 0.005) than the innercity children. Only 23.9% of the children were free of both DDE and caries. The caries risk increased significantly and independently as DDE severity increased (linear trend, 95% confidence interval = [1.32, 1.69], age [1.60, 1.88], urban residence [1.18, 2.15] and breastfeeding experience [1.04, 1.60]) after controlling for other demographic risk factors. CONCLUSIONS:The study provides new evidence that DDE is a significant contributing factor for the highly prevalent and progressive dental caries observed in Chinese preschool children. These results highlight the importance of including DDE in caries risk assessments.
PMID: 30028027
ISSN: 1600-0528
CID: 3201992

Active Probiotic Therapeutics may Prevent Oral Candida Infections in the Elderly Population, but the Evidence is Insufficient

Li, Yihong
ARTICLE TITLE AND BIBLIOGRAPHIC INFORMATION/BACKGROUND:A meta-analysis of randomized trials assessing the effects of probiotic preparations on oral candidiasis in the elderly. Ai R, Wei J, Ma D, et al. Arch Oral Biol 2017;83:187-92. SOURCE OF FUNDING/BACKGROUND:Chinese government research foundation funds. TYPE OF STUDY/DESIGN/METHODS:Systematic review with meta-analysis of data.
PMID: 30077378
ISSN: 1532-3390
CID: 3237302

Caries outcome following an intensive fluoride varnish treatment regimen for children at high risk for early childhood caries

Paek, Agelina E; Li, Yihong; Wang, Zhemeng; So, Patrick; Janal, Malvin N; Herman, Neal G; Hopkins, Andrew; Chinn, Courtney
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the caries relapse rate for a cohort of 2- to 4-year-old children at high risk of early childhood caries when treated with an intensive fluoride varnish (FV) regimen. METHODS:Eighty paediatric patients were recruited. Forty of these patients were high risk and received the FV treatment (three applications within 2 weeks and additional applications at 1 and 3 months) during 2009-2010. Mutans streptococci (MS) levels in the saliva were evaluated during the treatment period. A comparative group of 40 children, selected from an electronic record search at the New York University College of Dentistry to be of similar age, gender, and ethnicity, but not at elevated risk for ECC, received the standard of care (semi-annual FV treatment). Detailed caries examination and treatment records were obtained for all patients from 2009 to 2014. RESULTS:A significant reduction (P < 0.001) in MS levels was observed in the intensive FV treatment group at the 3-month visit compared with baseline. There was no effect of the intensive FV treatment on caries outcome in the anterior teeth, and the overall caries scores were significantly increased on the posterior teeth. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:The intensive FV regimen appears insufficient to prevent caries relapse in children at high risk for caries.
PMID: 29314344
ISSN: 1365-263x
CID: 2906222

A screening method for gastric cancer by oral microbiome detection

Sun, Jing-Hua; Li, Xiao-Lin; Yin, Jie; Li, Yi-Hong; Hou, Ben-Xiang; Zhang, Zhongtao
Gastric cancer is the second most common malig-nancy and one of the principal causes of cancer‑related mortality worldwide. Early diagnostic and screening methods for gastric cancer are limited at present, most of them involving invasive procedures. We aimed to investigate the characteristics of the oral microbiome in gastric cancer individuals and to conduct a screening method for gastric cancer by oral microbiome detection. We used high‑throughput sequencing to examine the total bacterial profile of saliva and plaque samples of 50 subjects, including 37 individuals with gastric cancer and 13 controls. The Venn diagram and species abundance clusters were generated from the data. The results indicated that the oral bacteria were more complex in patients with gastric cancer. Based on the characteristics of the oral microbiome in individuals with gastric cancer, a scoring system was designed to screen gastric cancer. In the present study, 36 out of 37 individuals in the gastric cancer group were identified as a high‑risk population, giving a sensitivity rate of 97%. One out of 13 individuals in the control group was identified as a high‑risk population, providing a false-positive rate of 7.7%. The scoring system we designed may be a potential method for screening suspected gastric cancer patients by oral microbiome detection. Further calibration of this scoring system is needed by recruiting a larger study population.
PMID: 29498406
ISSN: 1791-2431
CID: 2965622

Diagnosing Developmental Defects of Enamel: Pilot Study of Online Training and Accuracy

Dabiri, Darya; Eckert, George J; Li, Yihong; Seow, Kim; Schroth, Robert J; Warren, John; Wright, J Timothy; Zhao, Shi; Fontana, Margherita
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:The purpose of this study was to assess dentists' ability to correctly identify and classify development defects of enamel (DDE). METHODS:The modified DDE (MDDE) index was used to classify enamel defects into two types: (1) enamel hypoplasia-pitted, grooved, or missing enamel; or (2) enamel opacity-translucency of enamel not caused by dental caries or fluorosis (can be either demarcated or diffuse). A panel of six experts selected and scored 36 images using the MDDE, and the consensus score was used as the gold standard score in the evaluation of survey respondents. A short training table was developed to match training images to descriptors for the MDDE. A survey, including the training table, was then distributed electronically to 2,036 U.S. dentists and expanded function dental assistants from the Indian Health Service and 6,174 members of American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry. The percent of correct responses was evaluated for each image. RESULTS:Survey respondents (348 total) showed great variability in correct responses for each image, ranging from 41 to 97 percent, for each category of the MDDE. CONCLUSIONS:Enhanced training and calibration on the ability of dental providers is needed to identify the different types of development defects of enamel.
PMID: 29663909
ISSN: 1942-5473
CID: 3042842

Chronic Periodontal Disease, Periodontal Pathogen Colonization, and an Increased Risk of Precancerous Gastric Lesions

Sun, Jinghua; Zhou, Min; Salazar, Christian R; Hays, Rosemary; Bedi, Sukhleen; Chen, Yu; Li, Yihong
BACKGROUND: The present study assessed the association between periodontal pathogen colonization and the potential risk of developing precancerous lesions of gastric cancer (PLGC) in a clinical setting. METHODS: The present study included 35 newly diagnosed patients with PLGC and 70 age-matched individuals without PLGC. A full-mouth intra-oral examination was performed to assess the periodontal conditions. Stimulated whole saliva and pooled plaque samples were collected to evaluate colonization by Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola, Tannerella forsythia and Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans and to characterize the oral microbial diversity in the saliva and dental plaque. RESULTS: Compared with the control group, the patients with PLGC experienced a higher prevalence of bleeding on probing (BOP; 31.5% vs. 22.4%, P < 0.05), higher levels of T. denticola (P < 0.01) and A. actinomycetemcomitans (P <0.01), and less bacterial diversity in their saliva (P < 0.01). The final multivariate logistic regression model comprising all key socio-demographic characteristics, oral health behavioral factors and periodontal assessments revealed that elevated colonization with periodontal pathogens, specifically T. forsythia, T. denticola, and A. actinomycetemcomitans, decreased bacterial diversity in the dental plaque, and not flossing teeth regularly were significant predictors of an increased risk of PLGC (P = 0.022). CONCLUSION: The findings of the present study provide new evidence suggesting that periodontal pathogen burdens and bacterial diversity in the oral cavity are important factors contributing to a potential increased risk of developing precancerous gastric lesions.
PMID: 28671506
ISSN: 1943-3670
CID: 2617042

Midgut bacterial communities in the giant Asian honeybee (Apisdorsata) across four developmental stages: a comparative study

Saraithong, Prakaimuk; Li, Yihong; Saenphet, Kanokporn; Chen, Zhou; Chantawannakul, Panuwan
Bacterial communities are known to play important roles during the developmental stages of insects, but current knowledge of bacteria associated with the midgut of Apisdorsata,the giant Asian honeybee, is limited.Using polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis (PCR-DGGE) and 16S rRNA sequencing, the aim of this study was to determine the dynamics of bacterialcommunity structure across four A. dorsata life stages in different geographical locations. The results reveal that bacterial diversity increased as the bee progressed through larval stage to newly emerged worker and oldworker. However, in the pupal stage, no bands identified as bacteria couldbe observed. Overall, twobacterial phyla (Proteobacteria and Firmicutes) and four classes (Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, and Bacilli) were identified, but the frequency varied among the different stages and locations. The classes of Gammaproteobacteria and Bacilli dominated among larval, newly emerged worker and old worker developmental stages
PMID: 26299408
ISSN: 1744-7917
CID: 1742322