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Altered Prevalence of Pulp Diagnoses in Diabetes Mellitus Patients: A Retrospective Study

Gonzalez Marrero, Yandy; Kobayashi, Yoshifumi; Ihsan, Mohammad Saqib; Pilch, Lisa A; Chen, Liyaa; Jiang, Shuying; Ye, Yi; Fine, Daniel H; Falcon, Carla Y; Falcon, Paul A; Hirschberg, Craig S; Shimizu, Emi
INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND:Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a complex multisystemic disorder that affects an estimated 21 million Americans. No studies have evaluated the association of DM with the prevalence of each pulpal diagnosis. The objective of this study was to compare the prevalence of each pulp diagnosis including symptomatic irreversible pulpitis (SIP), asymptomatic irreversible pulpitis, reversible pulpitis, normal pulp, and pulp necrosis (PN) in DM patients against a nondiabetic control group. METHODS:A retrospective chart review was approved by Rutgers University Institutional Review Board. The prevalence of the diagnoses SIP, asymptomatic irreversible pulpitis, reversible pulpitis, normal pulp, and PN was calculated from AxiUm (Exan software, Las Vegas, NV) electronic health records at Rutgers School of Dental Medicine. The chi-square test was used to see the relationship between the 2 categoric variables. Second, binary logistic regression analyses were performed for each group. RESULTS:A total of 2979 teeth were diagnosed with a pulp condition between April 2013 and November 2018. The total tooth number of DM patients was 682, whereas the tooth number of nondiabetic patients was 2297. In the subgroup of patients younger than 40 years old, SIP was notably more prevalent in DM patients. In addition, the prevalence of PN in elderly DM patients (60-69 years old) was significantly higher than in the control group. CONCLUSIONS:The prevalence of SIP in DM patients was significantly higher compared with the control group (<40 years old), suggesting the possibility that DM could hypersensitize the subgroup of patients younger than 40 years old to pulpitis pain.
PMID: 34780805
ISSN: 1878-3554
CID: 5147642

Remote Eradication of Bacteria on Orthopedic Implants via Delayed Delivery of Polycaprolactone Stabilized Polyvinylpyrrolidone Iodine

Wang, Y; Teng, W; Zhang, Z; Ma, S; Jin, Z; Zhou, X; Ye, Y; Zhang, C; Gou, Z; Yu, X; Ye, Z; Ren, Y
Bacteria-associated late infection of the orthopedic devices would further lead to the failure of the implantation. However, present ordinary antimicrobial strategies usually deal with early infection but fail to combat the late infection of the implants due to the burst release of the antibiotics. Thus, to fabricate long-term antimicrobial (early antibacterial, late antibacterial) orthopedic implants is essential to address this issue. Herein, we developed a sophisticated MAO-I2-PCLx coating system incorporating an underlying iodine layer and an upper layer of polycaprolactone (PCL)-controlled coating, which could effectively eradicate the late bacterial infection throughout the implantation. Firstly, micro-arc oxidation was used to form a microarray tubular structure on the surface of the implants, laying the foundation for iodine loading and PCL bonding. Secondly, electrophoresis was applied to load iodine in the tubular structure as an efficient bactericidal agent. Finally, the surface-bonded PCL coating acts as a controller to regulate the release of iodine. The hybrid coatings displayed great stability and control release capacity. Excellent antibacterial ability was validated at 30 days post-implantation via in vitro experiments and in vivo rat osteomyelitis model. Expectedly, it can become a promising bench-to-bedside strategy for current infection challenges in the orthopedic field.
ISSN: 2079-4983
CID: 5510252

Glia and Orofacial Pain: Progress and Future Directions

Ye, Yi; Salvo, Elizabeth; Romero-Reyes, Marcela; Akerman, Simon; Shimizu, Emi; Kobayashi, Yoshifumi; Michot, Benoit; Gibbs, Jennifer
Orofacial pain is a universal predicament, afflicting millions of individuals worldwide. Research on the molecular mechanisms of orofacial pain has predominately focused on the role of neurons underlying nociception. However, aside from neural mechanisms, non-neuronal cells, such as Schwann cells and satellite ganglion cells in the peripheral nervous system, and microglia and astrocytes in the central nervous system, are important players in both peripheral and central processing of pain in the orofacial region. This review highlights recent molecular and cellular findings of the glia involvement and glia-neuron interactions in four common orofacial pain conditions such as headache, dental pulp injury, temporomandibular joint dysfunction/inflammation, and head and neck cancer. We will discuss the remaining questions and future directions on glial involvement in these four orofacial pain conditions.
PMID: 34069553
ISSN: 1422-0067
CID: 4891382

TNFα promotes oral cancer growth, pain, and Schwann cell activation

Salvo, Elizabeth; Tu, Nguyen H; Scheff, Nicole N; Dubeykovskaya, Zinaida A; Chavan, Shruti A; Aouizerat, Bradley E; Ye, Yi
Oral cancer is very painful and impairs a patient's ability to eat, talk, and drink. Mediators secreted from oral cancer can excite and sensitize sensory neurons inducing pain. Cancer mediators can also activate Schwann cells, the peripheral glia that regulates neuronal function and repair. The contribution of Schwann cells to oral cancer pain is unclear. We hypothesize that the oral cancer mediator TNFα activates Schwann cells, which further promotes cancer progression and pain. We demonstrate that TNFα is overexpressed in human oral cancer tissues and correlates with increased self-reported pain in patients. Antagonizing TNFα reduces oral cancer proliferation, cytokine production, and nociception in mice with oral cancer. Oral cancer or TNFα alone increases Schwann cell activation (measured by Schwann cell proliferation, migration, and activation markers), which can be inhibited by neutralizing TNFα. Cancer- or TNFα-activated Schwann cells release pro-nociceptive mediators such as TNFα and nerve growth factor (NGF). Activated Schwann cells induce nociceptive behaviors in mice, which is alleviated by blocking TNFα. Our study suggests that TNFα promotes cancer proliferation, progression, and nociception at least partially by activating Schwann cells. Inhibiting TNFα or Schwann cell activation might serve as therapeutic approaches for the treatment of oral cancer and associated pain.
PMID: 33469141
ISSN: 2045-2322
CID: 4760532

Targeting the endothelin axis as a therapeutic strategy for oral cancer metastasis and pain

Dang, Dongmin; Ye, Yi; Aouizerat, Bradley E; Patel, Yogin K; Viet, Dan T; Chan, King Chong; Ono, Kentaro; Doan, Coleen; Figueroa, Johnny D; Yu, Gary; Viet, Chi T
Metastasis reduces survival in oral cancer patients and pain is their greatest complaint. We have shown previously that oral cancer metastasis and pain are controlled by the endothelin axis, which is a pathway comprised of the endothelin A and B receptors (ETAR and ETBR). In this study we focus on individual genes of the pathway, demonstrating that the endothelin axis genes are methylated and dysregulated in cancer tissue. Based on these findings in patients, we hypothesize that ETAR and ETBR play dichotomous roles in oral carcinogenesis and pain, such that ETAR activation and silenced ETBR expression result in increased carcinogenesis and pain. We test a treatment strategy that targets the dichotomous functions of the two receptors by inhibiting ETAR with macitentan, an ETAR antagonist approved for treatment of pulmonary hypertension, and re-expressing the ETBR gene with adenovirus transduction, and determine the treatment effect on cancer invasion (i.e., metastasis), proliferation and pain in vitro and in vivo. We demonstrate that combination treatment of macitentan and ETBR gene therapy inhibits invasion, but not proliferation, in cell culture and in a mouse model of tongue cancer. Furthermore, the treatment combination produces an antinociceptive effect through inhibition of endothelin-1 mediated neuronal activation, revealing the analgesic potential of macitentan. Our treatment approach targets a pathway shown to be dysregulated in oral cancer patients, using gene therapy and repurposing an available drug to effectively treat both oral cancer metastasis and pain in a preclinical model.
PMID: 33257729
ISSN: 2045-2322
CID: 4694032

Peripheral nerve injury and sensitization underlie pain associated with oral cancer perineural invasion

Salvo, Elizabeth; Campana, Wendy M; Scheff, Nicole N; Tu, Nguyen Huu; Jeong, Se-Hee; Wall, Ian; Wu, Angie K; Zhang, Susanna; Kim, Hyesung; Bhattacharya, Aditi; Janal, Malvin N; Liu, Cheng; Albertson, Donna G; Schmidt, Brian L; Dolan, John C; Schmidt, Robert E; Boada, M Danilo; Ye, Yi
Cancer invading into nerves, termed perineural invasion (PNI), is associated with pain. Here we show that oral cancer patients with PNI report greater spontaneous pain and mechanical allodynia compared with patients without PNI, suggesting unique mechanisms drive PNI-induced pain. We studied the impact of PNI on peripheral nerve physiology and anatomy using a murine sciatic nerve PNI model. Mice with PNI exhibited spontaneous nociception and mechanical allodynia. PNI induced afterdischarge in A high threshold mechanoreceptors (AHTMRs), mechanical sensitization (i.e., decreased mechanical thresholds) in both A and C HTMRs, and mechanical desensitization in low threshold mechanoreceptors (LTMRs). PNI resulted in nerve damage, including axon loss, myelin damage, and axon degeneration. Electrophysiological evidence of nerve injury included decreased conduction velocity, and increased percentage of both mechanically-insensitive and electrically-unexcitable neurons. We conclude that PNI-induced pain is driven by nerve injury and peripheral sensitization in HTMRs.
PMID: 32658150
ISSN: 1872-6623
CID: 4527892

ADAM17-EGFR signaling contributes to oral cancer pain

Scheff, Nicole N; Ye, Yi; Conley, Zachary; Quan, Jen Wui; Ronald Lam, Yat Vong; Klares, Richard; Singh, Kamalpreet; Schmidt, Brian L; Aouizerat, Bradley E
Cancer cells secrete pro-nociceptive mediators that sensitize adjacent sensory neurons and cause pain. Identification and characterization of these mediators could pinpoint novel targets for cancer pain treatment. In the present study we identified candidate genes in cancer cell lines that encode for secreted or cell surface proteins that may drive nociception. To undertake this work, we utilized an acute cancer pain mouse model, transcriptomic analysis of publicly available human tumor-derived cell line data, and a literature review. Cancer cell line supernatants were assigned a phenotype based on evoked nociceptive behavior in an acute cancer pain mouse model. We compared gene expression data from nociceptive and non-nociceptive cell lines. Our analyses revealed differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and pathways; many of the identified genes were not previously associated with cancer pain signaling. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and disintegrin metalloprotease domain 17 (ADAM17) were identified as potential targets among the DEGs. We found that the nociceptive cell lines contained significantly more ADAM17 protein in the cell culture supernatant compared to non-nociceptive cell lines. Cytoplasmic EGFR was present in almost all (>90%) tongue primary afferent neurons in mice. Monoclonal antibody against EGFR, cetuximab, inhibited cell line supernatant-induced nociceptive behavior in an acute oral cancer pain mouse model. We infer from these data that ADAM17-EGFR signaling is involved in cancer mediator-induced nociception. The differentially expressed genes and their secreted protein products may serve as candidate therapeutic targets for oral cancer pain and warrant further evaluation.
PMID: 32453136
ISSN: 1872-6623
CID: 4451622

Oral cancer derived tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) activates Schwann cells to amplify pain [Meeting Abstract]

Salvo, E; Nguyen, T; Scheff, N; Schmidt, B; Albertson, D; Dolan, J; Ye, Y
Pain is rated by oral cancer patients as the worst symptom and significantly impairs a patient's ability to eat, talk, and drink. Mediators, secreted from oral cancer microenvironment, excite primary afferent neurons, which in turn generate pain. Oral cancer cells release TNFalpha which induces acute inflammation and nociception in mice. We hypothesize that TNFalpha activates Schwann cells to amplify pain signals. First, we confirmed the involvement of TNFalpha in oral cancer pain in patients and animal models. We found that oral cancer tissues collected from patients have higher TNFalpha concentration compared to anatomically matched normal tissues. Differences in TNFalpha concentration between the tumor and anatomically matched normal tissues correlate positively with total pain scores. In a Nitroquinoline 1-oxide (4NQO) mouse oral cancer model we demonstrated reduced mechanical hypersensitivity (P<0.05, N=8) with the dolognawmeter gnawing assay when TNFalpha was neutralized with C-87. Using a non-contact co-culture model, we found that HSC-3 cells induced a more activated human primary Schwann cells phenotype with increased proliferation (P<0.05) and migration (P<0.05); introduction of C-87 in the co-culture reduced Schwann cell proliferation (P<0.05) and migration (P<0.05) induced by HSC-3 cells. After removal of the co-cultured cancer cells, cancer-activated Schwann cells secrete greater amounts of TNFalpha and nerve growth factor (NGF), another known nociceptive mediator in the oral cancer microenvironment, compared to Schwann cells initially co-cultured with DOK (P<0.05) or naive Schwann cells (P<0.05). To determine whether activated Schwann cells mediate oral cancer pain, we cultured Schwann cells in hypoxic conditions - a known cancer stimulus that induces robust Schwann cell activation. Schwann cell supernatant was then collected and injected into the mouse cheek. Supernatant from hypoxia-activated Schwann cells induced greater facial allodynia (measured with von Frey filaments) in mice (P<0.05, N=7), compared to supernatant from Schwann cells cultured in normoxic conditions (N=5). C-87 significantly reduced facial allodynia caused by hypoxiaactivated Schwann cells (P<0.05, N=5). We infer from our results that TNFalpha plays a role in the activation of Schwann cells and that cancer-activated Schwann cells are a source of nociceptive mediators in the cancer microenvironment. Inhibition of Schwann cell activation might be clinically useful for alleviating oral cancer pain
ISSN: 1098-1136
CID: 4140962

Cullin5 deficiency promotes small-cell lung cancer metastasis by stabilizing integrin β1

Zhao, Gaoxiang; Gong, Liyan; Su, Dan; Jin, Yujuan; Guo, Chenchen; Yue, Meiting; Yao, Shun; Qin, Zhen; Ye, Yi; Tang, Ying; Wu, Qibiao; Zhang, Jian; Cui, Binghai; Ding, Qiurong; Huang, Hsinyi; Hu, Liang; Chen, Yuting; Zhang, Peiyuan; Hu, Guohong; Chen, Luonan; Wong, Kwok-Kin; Gao, Daming; Ji, Hongbin
Metastasis is the dominant cause of patient death in small-cell lung cancer (SCLC), and a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying SCLC metastasis may potentially improve clinical treatment. Through genome-scale screening for key regulators of mouse Rb1-/- Trp53-/- SCLC metastasis using the pooled CRISPR/Cas9 library, we identified Cullin5 (CUL5) and suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3), two components of the Cullin-RING E3 ubiquitin ligase complex, as top candidates. Mechanistically, the deficiency of CUL5 or SOCS3 disrupted the functional formation of the E3 ligase complex and prevented the degradation of integrin β1, which stabilized integrin β1 and activated downstream focal adhesion kinase/SRC (FAK/SRC) signaling and eventually drove SCLC metastasis. Low expression levels of CUL5 and SOCS3 were significantly associated with high integrin β1 levels and poor prognosis in a large cohort of 128 clinical patients with SCLC. Moreover, the CUL5-deficient SCLCs were vulnerable to the treatment of the FDA-approved SRC inhibitor dasatinib. Collectively, this work identifies the essential role of CUL5- and SOCS3-mediated integrin β1 turnover in controlling SCLC metastasis, which might have therapeutic implications.
PMID: 30688657
ISSN: 1558-8238
CID: 3626332

Reciprocal interactions between cancer and Schwann cells contribute to oral cancer progression and pain

Salvo, Elizabeth; Saraithong, Prakaimuk; Curtin, Jared G; Janal, Malvin N; Ye, Yi
Pain associated with oral squamous cell carcinoma (oral SCC) decreases quality of life and survival. The interaction between cancer and the peripheral nerves is known to initiate and amplify pain and contribute to carcinogenesis. Schwann cells envelop peripheral nerves and are activated in response to neuronal damage. The contributions of Schwann cells to oral SCC progression and pain are unknown. Using a non-contact co-culture model, we demonstrate that Schwann cells (RSC-96) and oral SCC cells (HSC-3) reciprocally interact to promote proliferation, migration, and invasion. Schwann cell-oral SCC interaction leads to increased production of adenosine, which stimulates cell proliferation and migration of both cell types. The adenosine receptor A2B (ADORA2B) is expressed on RSC-96 cells. We show that supernatant from the RSC-96 cells co-cultured with HSC-3 cells induces increased mechanical hypersensitivity in mice compared to supernatant from control RSC-96 cells. Treatment with the ADORA2B antagonist PSB603 significantly inhibits co-culture interactions - proliferation and migration, and co-culture supernatant induced mechanical hypersensitivity. RSC-96 cells co-cultured with HSC-3 cells secrete increased amounts of the pronociceptive mediator, interleukin-6 (IL-6), which can be reduced by adding PSB603 into the co-culture. Our data support a reciprocal interaction between oral SCC and Schwann cells mediated by adenosine with potential to promote oral SCC progression and pain via increased secretion of IL-6.
PMID: 30815600
ISSN: 2405-8440
CID: 3699002