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Competency-based EEG education: a list of "must-know" EEG findings for adult and child neurology residents

Nascimento, Fábio A; Jing, Jin; Strowd, Roy; Sheikh, Irfan S; Weber, Dan; Gavvala, Jay R; Maheshwari, Atul; Tanner, Adriana; Ng, Marcus; Vinayan, K P; Sinha, Saurabh R; Yacubian, Elza M; Rao, Vikram R; Perry, M Scott; Fountain, Nathan B; Karakis, Ioannis; Wirrell, Elaine; Yuan, Fang; Friedman, Daniel; Tankisi, Hatice; Rampp, Stefan; Fasano, Rebecca; Wilmshurst, Jo M; O'Donovan, Cormac; Schomer, Donald; Kaplan, Peter W; Sperling, Michael R; Benbadis, Selim; Westover, M Brandon; Beniczky, Sándor
PMID: 35904042
ISSN: 1950-6945
CID: 5276952

Nationwide Clinical Practice Patterns of Anesthesiology Critical Care Physicians-A Survey to Members of the Society of Critical Care Anesthesiologists

Shaefi, Shahzad; Pannu, Ameeka; Mueller, Ariel L; Flynn, Brigid; Evans, Adam; Jabaley, Craig S; Mladinov, Domagoj; Wall, Michael; Siddiqui, Shahla; Douin, David J; Boone, M Dustin; Monteith, Erika; Abalama, Vivian; Nunnally, Mark E; Cobas, Miguel; Warner, Matthew A; Stevens, Robert D
BACKGROUND:Despite the growing contributions of critical care anesthesiologists to clinical practice, research, and administrative leadership of intensive care units (ICUs), relatively little is known about the subspecialty-specific clinical practice environment. An understanding of contemporary clinical practice is essential to recognize the opportunities and challenges facing critical care anesthesia, optimize staffing patterns, assess sustainability and satisfaction, and strategically plan for future activity, scope, and training. This study surveyed intensivists who are members of the Society of Critical Care Anesthesiologists (SOCCA) to evaluate practice patterns of critical care anesthesiologists, including compensation, types of ICUs covered, models of overnight ICU coverage, and relationships between these factors. We hypothesized that variability in compensation and practice patterns would be observed between individuals. METHODS:Board-certified critical care anesthesiologists practicing in the United States were identified using the SOCCA membership distribution list and invited to take a voluntary online survey between May and June 2021. Multiple-choice questions with both single- and multiple-select options were used for answers with categorical data, and adaptive questioning was used to clarify stem-based responses. Respondents were asked to describe practice patterns at their respective institutions and provide information about their demographics, salaries, effort in ICUs, as well as other activities. RESULTS:A total of 490 participants were invited to take this survey, and 157 (response rate 32%) surveys were completed and analyzed. The majority of respondents were White (73%), male (69%), and younger than 50 years of age (82%). The cardiothoracic/cardiovascular ICU was the most common practice setting, with 69.5% of respondents reporting time working in this unit. Significant variability was observed in ICU practice patterns. Respondents reported spending an equal proportion of their time in clinical practice in the operating rooms and ICUs (median, 40%; interquartile range [IQR], 20%-50%), whereas a smaller proportion-primarily those who completed their training before 2009-reported administrative or research activities. Female respondents reported salaries that were $36,739 less than male respondents; however, this difference was not statistically different, and after adjusting for age and practice type, these differences were less pronounced (-$27,479.79; 95% confidence interval [CI], -$57,232.61 to $2273.03; P = .07). CONCLUSIONS:These survey data provide a current snapshot of anesthesiology critical care clinical practice patterns in the United States. Our findings may inform decision-making around the initiation and expansion of critical care services and optimal staffing patterns, as well as provide a basis for further work that focuses on intensivist satisfaction and burnout.
PMID: 35950751
ISSN: 1526-7598
CID: 5287072

Cohort Profile Update: Cognition and dementia in the Health and Aging in Africa Longitudinal Study of an INDEPTH community in South Africa (HAALSI dementia)

Bassil, Darina T; Farrell, Meagan T; Wagner, Ryan G; Brickman, Adam M; Glymour, M Maria; Langa, Kenneth M; Manly, Jennifer J; Salinas, Joel; Tipping, Brent; Tollman, Stephen; Berkman, Lisa F
PMID: 34871405
ISSN: 1464-3685
CID: 5110132

Publisher Correction: Viral manipulation of functionally distinct interneurons in mice, non-human primates and humans

Vormstein-Schneider, Douglas; Lin, Jessica D; Pelkey, Kenneth A; Chittajallu, Ramesh; Guo, Baolin; Arias-Garcia, Mario A; Allaway, Kathryn; Sakopoulos, Sofia; Schneider, Gates; Stevenson, Olivia; Vergara, Josselyn; Sharma, Jitendra; Zhang, Qiangge; Franken, Tom P; Smith, Jared; Ibrahim, Leena A; Mastro, Kevin J; Sabri, Ehsan; Huang, Shuhan; Favuzzi, Emilia; Burbridge, Timothy; Xu, Qing; Guo, Lihua; Vogel, Ian; Sanchez, Vanessa; Saldi, Giuseppe A; Gorissen, Bram L; Yuan, Xiaoqing; Zaghloul, Kareem A; Devinsky, Orrin; Sabatini, Bernardo L; Batista-Brito, Renata; Reynolds, John; Feng, Guoping; Fu, Zhanyan; McBain, Chris J; Fishell, Gord; Dimidschstein, Jordane
PMID: 35945454
ISSN: 1546-1726
CID: 5286892

Spatiotemporal dynamics of human high gamma discriminate naturalistic behavioral states

Alasfour, Abdulwahab; Gabriel, Paolo; Jiang, Xi; Shamie, Isaac; Melloni, Lucia; Thesen, Thomas; Dugan, Patricia; Friedman, Daniel; Doyle, Werner; Devinsky, Orin; Gonda, David; Sattar, Shifteh; Wang, Sonya; Halgren, Eric; Gilja, Vikash
In analyzing the neural correlates of naturalistic and unstructured behaviors, features of neural activity that are ignored in a trial-based experimental paradigm can be more fully studied and investigated. Here, we analyze neural activity from two patients using electrocorticography (ECoG) and stereo-electroencephalography (sEEG) recordings, and reveal that multiple neural signal characteristics exist that discriminate between unstructured and naturalistic behavioral states such as "engaging in dialogue" and "using electronics". Using the high gamma amplitude as an estimate of neuronal firing rate, we demonstrate that behavioral states in a naturalistic setting are discriminable based on long-term mean shifts, variance shifts, and differences in the specific neural activity's covariance structure. Both the rapid and slow changes in high gamma band activity separate unstructured behavioral states. We also use Gaussian process factor analysis (GPFA) to show the existence of salient spatiotemporal features with variable smoothness in time. Further, we demonstrate that both temporally smooth and stochastic spatiotemporal activity can be used to differentiate unstructured behavioral states. This is the first attempt to elucidate how different neural signal features contain information about behavioral states collected outside the conventional experimental paradigm.
PMID: 35939509
ISSN: 1553-7358
CID: 5286572

Pepinemab antibody blockade of SEMA4D in early Huntington's disease: a randomized, placebo-controlled, phase 2 trial

Feigin, Andrew; Evans, Elizabeth E; Fisher, Terrence L; Leonard, John E; Smith, Ernest S; Reader, Alisha; Mishra, Vikas; Manber, Richard; Walters, Kimberly A; Kowarski, Lisa; Oakes, David; Siemers, Eric; Kieburtz, Karl D; Zauderer, Maurice
SIGNAL is a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 2 study (no. NCT02481674) established to evaluate pepinemab, a semaphorin 4D (SEMA4D)-blocking antibody, for treatment of Huntington's disease (HD). The trial enrolled a total of 265 HD gene expansion carriers with either early manifest (EM, n = 179) or late prodromal (LP, n = 86) HD, randomized (1:1) to receive 18 monthly infusions of pepinemab (n = 91 EM, 41 LP) or placebo (n = 88 EM, 45 LP). Pepinemab was generally well tolerated, with a relatively low frequency of serious treatment-emergent adverse events of 5% with pepinemab compared to 9% with placebo, including both EM and LP participants. Coprimary efficacy outcome measures consisted of assessments within the EM cohort of (1) a two-item HD cognitive assessment family comprising one-touch stockings of Cambridge (OTS) and paced tapping (PTAP) and (2) clinical global impression of change (CGIC). The differences between pepinemab and placebo in mean change (95% confidence interval) from baseline at month 17 for OTS were -1.98 (-4.00, 0.05) (one-sided P = 0.028), and for PTAP 1.43 (-0.37, 3.23) (one-sided P = 0.06). Similarly, because a significant treatment effect was not observed for CGIC, the coprimary endpoint, the study did not meet its prespecified primary outcomes. Nevertheless, a number of other positive outcomes and post hoc subgroup analyses-including additional cognitive measures and volumetric magnetic resonance imaging and fluorodeoxyglucose-positron-emission tomography imaging assessments-provide rationale and direction for the design of a phase 3 study and encourage the continued development of pepinemab in patients diagnosed with EM HD.
PMID: 35941373
ISSN: 1546-170x
CID: 5286732

IN-HOME-PD: The effects of longitudinal telehealth-enhanced interdisciplinary home visits on care and quality of life for homebound individuals with Parkinson's disease

Fleisher, Jori E; Hess, Serena P; Klostermann, Ellen C; Lee, Jeanette; Myrick, Erica; Mitchem, Daniela; Niemet, Claire; Woo, Katheryn; Sennott, Brianna J; Sanghvi, Maya; Witek, Natalie; Beck, James C; Wilkinson, Jayne R; Ouyang, Bichun; Hall, Deborah A; Chodosh, Joshua
INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND:Homebound individuals with advanced Parkinson's disease (PD) are underrepresented in research and care. We tested the impact of interdisciplinary, telehealth-enhanced home visits (IN-HOME-PD) on patient quality of life (QoL) compared with usual care. METHODS:Nonrandomized controlled trial of quarterly, structured, telehealth-enhanced interdisciplinary home visits focused on symptom management, home safety, medication reconciliation, and psychosocial needs ( NCT03189459). We enrolled homebound participants with advanced PD (Hoehn & Yahr (HY) stage ≥3). Usual care participants had ≥2 visits in the Parkinson's Outcomes Project (POP) registry. We compared within- and between-group one-year change in QoL using the Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire. RESULTS:Sixty-five individuals enrolled in IN-HOME-PD (32.3% women; mean age 78.9 (SD 7.6) years; 74.6% white; 78.5% HY ≥ 4) compared with 319 POP controls, with differences in age, race, and PD severity (37.9% women; mean age 70.1 (7.8) years; 96.2% white; 15.1% HY ≥ 4). Longitudinally, the intervention group's QoL remained unchanged (within-group p = 0.74, Cohen's d = 0.05) while QoL decreased over time in POP controls (p < 0.001, Cohen's d = 0.27). The difference favored the intervention (between-group p = 0.04). POP participants declined in 7/8 dimensions while IN-HOME-PD participants' bodily discomfort improved and hospice use and death at home-markers of goal-concordant care-far exceeded national data. CONCLUSIONS:Telehealth-enhanced home visits can stabilize and may improve the predicted QoL decline in advanced PD via continuity of care and facilitating goal-concordant care, particularly among diverse populations. Extrapolating features of this model may improve continuity of care and outcomes in advanced PD.
PMID: 35963046
ISSN: 1873-5126
CID: 5287442

Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on people with epilepsy: findings from the US arm of the COV-E study

Dugan, Patricia; Carroll, Elizabeth; Thorpe, Jennifer; Jette, Nathalie; Agarwal, Parul; Ashby, Samantha; Hanna, Jane; French, Jacqueline; Devinsky, Orrin; Sen, Arjune
OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:As part of the COVID-19 and Epilepsy (COV-E) global study, we aimed to understand the impact of COVID-19 on the medical care and well-being of people with epilepsy (PWE) in the United States, based on their perspectives and those of their caregivers. METHODS:Separate surveys designed for PWE and their caregivers were circulated from April 2020 to July 2021; modifications in March 2021 included a question about COVID-19 vaccination status. RESULTS:We received 788 responses, 71% from PWE (n = 559) and 29% (n=229) from caregivers of persons with epilepsy. A third (n = 308) of respondents reported a change in their health or in the health of the person they care for. Twenty-seven percent (n = 210) reported issues related to worsening mental health. Of respondents taking ASMs (n = 769), 10% (n= 78) reported difficulty taking medications on time, mostly due to stress causing forgetfulness. Less than half of respondents received counseling on mental health and stress. Less than half of the PWE reported having discussions with their healthcare providers about sleep, ASMs and potential side effects, while a larger proportion of caregivers (81%) reported having had discussions with their healthcare providers on the same topics. More PWE and caregivers reported that COVID-19 related measures caused adverse impact on their health in the post-vaccine period than during the pre-vaccine period, citing mental health issues as the primary reason. SIGNIFICANCE/CONCLUSIONS:Our findings indicate that the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic in the US on PWE is multifaceted. Apart from the increased risk of poor COVID-19 outcomes, the pandemic has also had negative effects on mental health and self-management. Healthcare providers must be vigilant for increased emotional distress in PWE during the pandemic and consider the importance of effective counseling to diminish risks related to exacerbated treatment gaps.
PMID: 35929180
ISSN: 2470-9239
CID: 5288312

"Something for us": Co-development of the COVID-19 Social Site, a web app for long-term care workers

Saunders, Catherine; Sierpe, Ailyn; Stevens, Gabrielle; Elwyn, Glyn; Cantrell, Matthew; Engel, Jaclyn; Gonzalez, Melissa; Hayward, Martha; Huebner, Joellen; Johnson, Lisa; Jimenez, Alejandro; Little, Ruth; McKenna, Corinne; Onteeru, Manu; Oo Khine, May; Pogue, Jacqueline; Salinas Vargas, José Luis; Schmidt, Peter; Thomeer, Rachael; Durand, Marie-Anne
BACKGROUND:Improving confidence in and uptake of the COVID-19 vaccines and boosters among long-term care workers (LTCWs) is a crucial public health goal, given their role in the care of the elderly and people at risk. While difficult to reach with workplace communication interventions, most LTCWs regularly use social media and smartphones. Various social media interventions have improved attitudes and uptake for other vaccines and hold promise for the LTCW population. OBJECTIVE:e aimed to develop a curated social web app (interactive website) to increase COVID-19 vaccine confidence (three-arm randomized trial underway). METHODS:Following user-centric design and participatory research approaches, we undertook three steps: 1) content identification, 2) platform development, and 3) community building. A LTCW and stakeholder advisory group provided iterative input. For content identification, we identified topics of concern about COVID-19 vaccines via desktop research (published literature, public opinion polls and social media monitoring), refined by interviewing and polling LTCWs. We also conducted a national online panel survey. We curated and fact-checked posts from popular social media platforms that addressed the identified concerns. During platform development, we solicited preferences for design and functionality via interviews and user experience (UX) testing with LTCWs. We also identified best practices for online community building, like comment moderation. RESULTS:In the interviews (n=9), we found three themes: LTCWs 1) are proud of their work but feel undervalued; 2) have varying levels of trust in COVID-19 related information, and 3) would welcome a curated COVID-19 resource that is easy to understand and use. Desktop research, LTCW interviews and our national online panel survey (n=592) found participants are interested in information about COVID-19 in general, vaccine benefits, vaccine risks, and vaccine development. Content identification resulted in 434 posts addressing these topic areas, with 209 uploaded to the final web app. Our LTCW poll (n=8) revealed preferences for personal stories and video content. The platform we developed is an accessible WordPress-based social media web app, refined through formal (n=3) and informal UX testing. Users can sort posts by topic or subtopic and react to or comment on them. To build an online community, we recruited three LTCW 'community ambassadors' and instructed them to encourage discussion, acknowledge concerns and offer factual information on COVID-19 vaccines. We also set 'community standards' for the web app. CONCLUSIONS:An iterative, user-centric, participatory approach led to the launch of an accessible social media web app with curated content for COVID-19 vaccines targeting LTCWs in the U.S. Through our trial, we will determine if this approach successfully improves vaccine confidence. If so, a similar social media resource could be used to develop curated social media interventions in other populations and with other public health goals. CLINICALTRIAL/BACKGROUND:This effort is part of a broader clinical trial; NCT05168800.
PMID: 35926074
ISSN: 1438-8871
CID: 5288232

Behçet's disease risk-variant HLA-B51/ERAP1-Hap10 alters human CD8 T cell immunity

Cavers, Ann; Kugler, Matthias Christian; Ozguler, Yesim; Al-Obeidi, Arshed Fahad; Hatemi, Gulen; Ueberheide, Beatrix M; Ucar, Didar; Manches, Olivier; Nowatzky, Johannes
OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:, the classical risk factor for the disease. The mechanistic implications and biological consequences of this epistatic relationship are unknown. Here, we aimed to determine its biological relevance and functional impact. METHODS:LCL, analysed the HLA class I-bound peptidome for peptide length differences and assessed immunogenicity of genome-edited cells in CD8 T cell co-culture systems. RESULTS:KO cells showed peptidomes with longer peptides above 9mer and significant differences in their ability to stimulate alloreactive CD8 T cells compared with wild-type control cells. CONCLUSIONS:at the cellular level and point to an HLA-B51-restricted process. Our findings suggest that variant ERAP1-Hap10 partakes in BD pathogenesis by generating HLA-B51-restricted peptides, causing a change in immunodominance of the ensuing CD8 T cell response.
PMID: 35922122
ISSN: 1468-2060
CID: 5288102