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The Dubai Definition and Diagnostic Criteria of Laryngopharyngeal Reflux: The IFOS Consensus

Lechien, Jerome R; Vaezi, Michael F; Chan, Walter W; Allen, Jacqueline E; Karkos, Petros D; Saussez, Sven; Altman, Kenneth W; Amin, Milan R; Ayad, Tareck; Barillari, Maria R; Belafsky, Peter C; Blumin, Joel H; Johnston, Nikki; Bobin, Francois; Broadhurst, Matthew; Ceccon, Fabio P; Calvo-Henriquez, Christian; Eun, Young-Gyu; Chiesa-Estomba, Carlos M; Crevier-Buchman, Lise; Clarke, John O; Dapri, Giovanni; Eckley, Claudia A; Finck, Camille; Fisichella, P Marco; Hamdan, Abdul-Latif; Hans, Stephane; Huet, Kathy; Imamura, Rui; Jobe, Blair A; Hoppo, Toshitaka; Maron, Lance P; Muls, Vinciane; O'Rourke, Ashli K; Perazzo, Paulo S; Postma, Gregory; Prasad, Vyas M N; Remacle, Marc; Sant'Anna, Geraldo D; Sataloff, Robert T; Savarino, Edoardo V; Schindler, Antonio; Siupsinskiene, Nora; Tseng, Ping-Huei; Zalvan, Craig H; Zelenik, Karol; Fraysse, Bernard; Bock, Jonathan M; Akst, Lee M; Carroll, Thomas L
OBJECTIVE:The objective of this work was to gather an international consensus group to propose a global definition and diagnostic approach of laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR) to guide primary care and specialist physicians in the management of LPR. METHODS:Forty-eight international experts (otolaryngologists, gastroenterologists, surgeons, and physiologists) were included in a modified Delphi process to revise 48 statements about definition, clinical presentation, and diagnostic approaches to LPR. Three voting rounds determined a consensus statement to be acceptable when 80% of experts agreed with a rating of at least 8/10. Votes were anonymous and the analyses of voting rounds were performed by an independent statistician. RESULTS:After the third round, 79.2% of statements (N = 38/48) were approved. LPR was defined as a disease of the upper aerodigestive tract resulting from the direct and/or indirect effects of gastroduodenal content reflux, inducing morphological and/or neurological changes in the upper aerodigestive tract. LPR is associated with recognized non-specific laryngeal and extra-laryngeal symptoms and signs that can be evaluated with validated patient-reported outcome questionnaires and clinical instruments. The hypopharyngeal-esophageal multichannel intraluminal impedance-pH testing can suggest the diagnosis of LPR when there is >1 acid, weakly acid or nonacid hypopharyngeal reflux event in 24 h. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:A global consensus definition for LPR is presented to improve detection and diagnosis of the disease for otolaryngologists, pulmonologists, gastroenterologists, surgeons, and primary care practitioners. The approved statements are offered to improve collaborative research by adopting common and validated diagnostic approaches to LPR. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE/METHODS:5 Laryngoscope, 134:1614-1624, 2024.
PMID: 37929860
ISSN: 1531-4995
CID: 5639632

Management of Periodic Fever, Aphthous Stomatitis, Pharyngitis, Adenitis with Intracapsular Tonsillectomy [Case Report]

Ezeh, Uche C; Kahn, Philip J; April, Max M
OBJECTIVE:This study aimed to present 2 children clinically diagnosed with periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis, and adenitis (PFAPA) syndrome and treated with intracapsular tonsillectomy with adenoidectomy (ITA). METHODS:We conducted a retrospective analysis of 2 children who were referred for an otolaryngology consultation between 2019 and 2022 for surgical treatment of PFAPA syndrome. Both patients had symptoms strongly suggestive of PFAPA and were at risk for total tonsillectomy (TT) complications. ITA was performed using a microdebrider. Both patients were followed up postoperatively to assess for symptomatic resolution and complications. RESULTS:Two children exhibited recurrent febrile episodes prior to ITA. The procedure was efficacious in both patients, with neither experiencing postoperative complications or recurring PFAPA symptoms for over 1 year after surgery. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Our study reported on the use of ITA as a surgical treatment option for PFAPA. We showed that ITA eliminated febrile attacks and was safely performed without postoperative complications in 2 pediatric patients after 1-year follow-up. Future studies involving larger cohorts of PFAPA patients and lengthier follow-ups will need to be conducted to further evaluate ITA as a surgical option. Laryngoscope, 2023.
PMID: 37597172
ISSN: 1531-4995
CID: 5619232

Communication Under Sharply Degraded Auditory Input and the "2-Sentence" Problem

Svirsky, Mario A; Neukam, Jonathan D; Capach, Nicole Hope; Amichetti, Nicole M; Lavender, Annette; Wingfield, Arthur
OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:Despite performing well in standard clinical assessments of speech perception, many cochlear implant (CI) users report experiencing significant difficulties when listening in real-world environments. We hypothesize that this disconnect may be related, in part, to the limited ecological validity of tests that are currently used clinically and in research laboratories. The challenges that arise from degraded auditory information provided by a CI, combined with the listener's finite cognitive resources, may lead to difficulties when processing speech material that is more demanding than the single words or single sentences that are used in clinical tests. DESIGN/METHODS:Here, we investigate whether speech identification performance and processing effort (indexed by pupil dilation measures) are affected when CI users or normal-hearing control subjects are asked to repeat two sentences presented sequentially instead of just one sentence. RESULTS:Response accuracy was minimally affected in normal-hearing listeners, but CI users showed a wide range of outcomes, from no change to decrements of up to 45 percentage points. The amount of decrement was not predictable from the CI users' performance in standard clinical tests. Pupillometry measures tracked closely with task difficulty in both the CI group and the normal-hearing group, even though the latter had speech perception scores near ceiling levels for all conditions. CONCLUSIONS:Speech identification performance is significantly degraded in many (but not all) CI users in response to input that is only slightly more challenging than standard clinical tests; specifically, when two sentences are presented sequentially before requesting a response, instead of presenting just a single sentence at a time. This potential "2-sentence problem" represents one of the simplest possible scenarios that go beyond presentation of the single words or sentences used in most clinical tests of speech perception, and it raises the possibility that even good performers in single-sentence tests may be seriously impaired by other ecologically relevant manipulations. The present findings also raise the possibility that a clinical version of a 2-sentence test may provide actionable information for counseling and rehabilitating CI users, and for people who interact with them closely.
PMID: 38523125
ISSN: 1538-4667
CID: 5644382

Patient Characteristics Impacting Adherence to Serial Observation for Vestibular Schwannomas

Wang, Ronald S; Asfour, Leena; Yang, Wenqing; Zhang, Yan; Santacatterina, Michele; Jethanamest, Daniel
OBJECTIVE:To examine patient characteristics that impact serial observation adherence among vestibular schwannoma (VS) patients. STUDY DESIGN/METHODS:Retrospective chart review. SETTING/METHODS:Single tertiary care center. METHODS:We selected for VS patients from 201 to 2020 who elected for serial observation as initial management. Patients under 18, with previous management, bilateral or intralabyrinthine VS, and neurofibromatosis type 2 were excluded. Demographics, tumor characteristics, and follow-up status were extracted. Single and multiple logistic regression was used to identify patient characteristics impacting follow-up. RESULTS:We identified 507 VS patients who chose serial observation as initial management. Most were female (56.0%), white (73.0%), and married (72.8%). The mean age was 59.3 and most had private insurance (56.4%). Median Charlson Comorbidity Index was 2.00. Mean pure tone audiometry (PTA) average was 41.7 Hz. Average tumor size was 9.04 mm. Of 507 patients, 358 (70.6%) returned for at least one follow-up. On multiple logistic regression analysis, patients with private insurance (odds ratio [OR]: 0.39, confidence interval [CI]: 0.22-0.68; P = .001), racial minority background (OR: 0.54, CI: 0.35-0.83; P = .005), worse PTA averages (OR: 0.99, CI: 0.98-1.00; P = .044), and older age at diagnosis (OR: 0.97, CI: 0.95-1.00; P = .038) were less likely to follow-up. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Private health insurance, racial minority background, worse PTA average, and older age were associated with decreased follow-up among adult VS patients electing serial observation. Patients with these characteristics may require additional support to ensure serial observation adherence.
PMID: 38520200
ISSN: 1097-6817
CID: 5641062

Development and external validation of a dynamic risk score for early prediction of cardiogenic shock in cardiac intensive care units using machine learning

Hu, Yuxuan; Lui, Albert; Goldstein, Mark; Sudarshan, Mukund; Tinsay, Andrea; Tsui, Cindy; Maidman, Samuel D; Medamana, John; Jethani, Neil; Puli, Aahlad; Nguy, Vuthy; Aphinyanaphongs, Yindalon; Kiefer, Nicholas; Smilowitz, Nathaniel R; Horowitz, James; Ahuja, Tania; Fishman, Glenn I; Hochman, Judith; Katz, Stuart; Bernard, Samuel; Ranganath, Rajesh
BACKGROUND:Myocardial infarction and heart failure are major cardiovascular diseases that affect millions of people in the US with the morbidity and mortality being highest among patients who develop cardiogenic shock. Early recognition of cardiogenic shock allows prompt implementation of treatment measures. Our objective is to develop a new dynamic risk score, called CShock, to improve early detection of cardiogenic shock in cardiac intensive care unit (ICU). METHODS:We developed and externally validated a deep learning-based risk stratification tool, called CShock, for patients admitted into the cardiac ICU with acute decompensated heart failure and/or myocardial infarction to predict onset of cardiogenic shock. We prepared a cardiac ICU dataset using MIMIC-III database by annotating with physician adjudicated outcomes. This dataset that consisted of 1500 patients with 204 having cardiogenic/mixed shock was then used to train CShock. The features used to train the model for CShock included patient demographics, cardiac ICU admission diagnoses, routinely measured laboratory values and vital signs, and relevant features manually extracted from echocardiogram and left heart catheterization reports. We externally validated the risk model on the New York University (NYU) Langone Health cardiac ICU database that was also annotated with physician adjudicated outcomes. The external validation cohort consisted of 131 patients with 25 patients experiencing cardiogenic/mixed shock. RESULTS:CShock achieved an area under the receiver operator characteristic curve (AUROC) of 0.821 (95% CI 0.792-0.850). CShock was externally validated in the more contemporary NYU cohort and achieved an AUROC of 0.800 (95% CI 0.717-0.884), demonstrating its generalizability in other cardiac ICUs. Having an elevated heart rate is most predictive of cardiogenic shock development based on Shapley values. The other top ten predictors are having an admission diagnosis of myocardial infarction with ST-segment elevation, having an admission diagnosis of acute decompensated heart failure, Braden Scale, Glasgow Coma Scale, Blood urea nitrogen, Systolic blood pressure, Serum chloride, Serum sodium, and Arterial blood pH. CONCLUSIONS:The novel CShock score has the potential to provide automated detection and early warning for cardiogenic shock and improve the outcomes for the millions of patients who suffer from myocardial infarction and heart failure.
PMID: 38518758
ISSN: 2048-8734
CID: 5640892

Pushing the Boundaries: Long-term Survival from Brain Metastases and the Path Ahead [Letter]

Mashiach, Elad; Alzate, Juan Diego; Schnurman, Zane; Berger, Assaf; De Nigris Vasconcellos, Fernando; Golfinos, John G; Kondziolka, Douglas
PMID: 38521224
ISSN: 1878-8769
CID: 5641132

Endoscopic Endonasal Approach for Direct Puncture Embolization of Cavernous Dural Arteriovenous Fistula: 2-Dimensional Operative Video

Sangwon, Karl L; Esparza, Rogelio; Sharashidze, Vera; Dastagirzada, Yosef; Shapiro, Maksim; Riina, Howard A; Lieberman, Seth; Pacione, Donato; Raz, Eytan; Nossek, Erez
PMID: 37831980
ISSN: 2332-4260
CID: 5604252

Reduced mouth opening in patients with head and neck cancer treated with radiation therapy: An analysis of the Clinical Registry of Dental Outcomes in Head and Neck Cancer Patients (OraRad)

Sollecito, Thomas P; Helgeson, Erika S; Lalla, Rajesh V; Treister, Nathaniel S; Schmidt, Brian L; Patton, Lauren L; Lin, Alexander; Brennan, Michael T
OBJECTIVE:Trismus/reduced mouth opening (RMO) is a common side effect of radiotherapy (RT) for head and neck cancer (HNC). The objective was to measure RMO, identify risk factors for RMO, and determine its impact on quality of life (QOL). STUDY DESIGN/METHODS:OraRad is an observational, prospective, multicenter cohort study of patients receiving curative intent RT for HNC. Interincisal mouth opening measurements (n = 565) and patient-reported outcomes were recorded before RT and every 6 months for 2 years. Linear mixed-effects models were used to evaluate change in mouth opening and assess the relationship between trismus history and change in QOL measures. RESULTS:Interincisal distance decreased from a mean (SE) of 45.1 (0.42) mm at baseline to 42.2 (0.44) at 6 months, with slight recovery at 18 months (43.3, 0.46 mm) but no additional improvement by 24 months. The odds of trismus (opening <35 mm) were significantly higher at 6 months (odds ratio [OR] = 2.21, 95% CI: 1.30 to 3.76) and 12 months (OR = 1.87, 95% CI: 1.08 to 3.25) compared with baseline. Females were more likely to experience trismus at baseline and during follow-up (P < .01). Patients with oral cavity cancer had the highest risk for trismus at baseline and post-RT (P < .01). RMO was associated with higher RT dose to the primary site and receiving concomitant chemotherapy (P < .01). Trismus was associated with self-reported difficulty opening the mouth and dry mouth (P < .01). CONCLUSIONS:A decrease in mouth opening is a common treatment-related toxicity after RT, with some recovery by 18 months. Trismus has a significant impact on survivor QOL.
PMID: 38262773
ISSN: 2212-4411
CID: 5625602

Sex difference in the effect of environmental enrichment on food restriction-induced persistence of cocaine conditioned place preference and mechanistic underpinnings

Weiner, Sydney P; Vasquez, Carolina; Song, Soomin; Zhao, Kaiyang; Ali, Omar; Rosenkilde, Danielle; Froemke, Robert C; Carr, Kenneth D
Psychosocial and environmental factors, including loss of natural reward, contribute to the risk of drug abuse. Reward loss has been modeled in animals by removal from social or sexual contact, transfer from enriched to impoverished housing, or restriction of food. We previously showed that food restriction increases the unconditioned rewarding effects of abused drugs and the conditioned incentive effects of drug-paired environments. Mechanistic studies provided evidence of decreased basal dopamine (DA) transmission, adaptive upregulation of signaling downstream of D1 DA receptor stimulation, synaptic upscaling and incorporation of calcium-permeable AMPA receptors (CP-AMPARs) in medium spiny neurons (MSNs) of nucleus accumbens (NAc). These findings align with the still evolving 'reward deficiency' hypothesis of drug abuse. The present study tested whether a compound natural reward that is known to increase DA utilization, environmental enrichment, would prevent the persistent expression of cocaine conditioned place preference (CPP) otherwise observed in food restricted rats, along with the mechanistic underpinnings. Because nearly all prior investigations of both food restriction and environmental enrichment effects on cocaine CPP were conducted in male rodents, both sexes were included in the present study. Results indicate that environmental enrichment curtailed the persistence of CPP expression, decreased signaling downstream of the D1R, and decreased the amplitude and frequency of spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) in NAc MSNs of food restricted male, but not female, rats. The failure of environmental enrichment to significantly decrease food restriction-induced synaptic insertion of CP-AMPARs, and how this may accord with previous pharmacological findings that blockade of CP-AMPARs reverses behavioral effects of food restriction is discussed. In addition, it is speculated that estrous cycle-dependent fluctuations in DA release, receptor density and MSN excitability may obscure the effect of increased DA signaling during environmental enrichment, thereby interfering with development of the cellular and behavioral effects that enrichment produced in males.
PMID: 38323217
ISSN: 2772-3925
CID: 5632652

Effect of Return Electrode Placement at Apical Cochleostomy on Current Flow With a Cochlear Implant

Landsberger, David M; Long, Christopher J; Kirk, Jonathon R; Stupak, Natalia; Roland, J Thomas
OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:A method for stimulating the cochlear apex using perimodiolar electrode arrays is described. This method involves implanting an electrode (ECE1) into the helioctrema in addition to standard cochlear implant placement. One objective is to verify a suitable approach for implanting ECE1 in the helicotrema. Another is to determine how placement of ECE1 reshapes electric fields. DESIGN/METHODS:Two cadaveric half-heads were implanted, and electric voltage tomography was measured with ECE1 placed in many positions. RESULTS:An approach for placing ECE1 was identified. Changes in electric fields were only observed when ECE1 was placed into the fluid in the helicotrema. When inside the helicotrema, electric voltage tomography modeling suggests an increased current flow toward the apex. CONCLUSIONS:Placement of ECE1 into the cochlear apex is clinically feasible and has the potential to reshape electric fields to stimulate regions of the cochlea more apical than those represented by the electrode array.
PMID: 38047764
ISSN: 1538-4667
CID: 5595192