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Treatment of Post-Inflammatory Hyperpigmentation in Patients With Darker Skin Types Using a Low Energy 1,927 nm Non-Ablative Fractional Laser: A Retrospective Photographic Review Analysis [Case Report]

Bae, Yoon-Soo Cindy; Rettig, Samantha; Weiss, Elliot; Bernstein, Leonard; Geronemus, Roy
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:Post inflammatory hyperpigmentation (PIH) can be difficult to treat especially in patients with darker skin types as darker skin carries increased epidermal melanin content. Various treatments available to improve the appearance of PIH may incite further pigmentation thus making treatment extremely difficult and frustrating. The purpose of this study was to perform a retrospective chart and photographic review to evaluate the efficacy and safety profile of a low energy low density non-ablative fractional1927 nm wavelength laser treatment for PIH in patients with Fitzpatrick skin types IV-VI. STUDY DESIGN/METHODS:A retrospective evaluation of 61 patients with PIH treated with a 1927 nm laser was conducted at a single center. Inclusion criteria required at least 2 treatment sessions so that before and after treatment photographs would be available for comparison and study purposes. Two blinded physician-evaluators using a visual analog scale for percentage of pigmentary clearance in standard photographs assessed treatment efficacy. RESULTS:The mean percent improvement after treatment, evaluated by two dermatologists was 43.24%. The correlation between raters was statistically significant (Pearson's correlation coefficienct of r = 0.59, p < 0.0001). No side effects were observed in the patients treated with the 1927 nm laser. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:The low energy low density non-ablative fractional 1927 nm wavelength laser is a safe and effective modality for improving post inflammatory hyperpigmentation in patients with darker skin types. Lasers Surg. Med. © 2019 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
PMID: 31663147
ISSN: 1096-9101
CID: 4163272

Pulsed Dye Laser at Subpurpuric Settings for the Treatment of Pulsed Dye Laser-Induced Ecchymoses in Patients With Port-Wine Stains

Brauer, Jeremy A; Farhadian, Joshua A; Bernstein, Leonard J; Bae, Yoon-Soo; Geronemus, Roy G
BACKGROUND: Post-procedure purpura is a major complaint of patients with port-wine stains (PWSs) treated with pulsed dye laser (PDL). OBJECTIVE: To assess the safety and efficacy of using PDL at nonpurpuric settings to treat ecchymoses that develop within PWSs after treatment with PDL. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Prospective, randomized, controlled study using 595-nm PDL for treatment of PWSs and laser-induced ecchymoses. Port-wine stains were treated in entirety at baseline. Two days later, ecchymoses on randomly selected half of the lesion were re-treated with PDL at subpurpuric settings. Treatment series was repeated 4 to 8 weeks later, and follow-up was at 1 month. Reduction in bruising and PWS clearance were assessed. Three masked evaluators graded clinical improvement using a 4-point scale (1 = 1%-25% improvement, 2 = 26%-50% improvement, 3 = 51%-75% improvement, and 4 = 76%-100% improvement). RESULTS: Twenty adults with 21 PWSs on the head, trunk, and extremities were treated. After first treatment, reduction of bruising was graded a mean value of 2.43 for the treatment side, compared with 1.93 for the control side (p = .012); after the second treatment, 2.83 compared with 2.40 (p = .021). No significant adverse events occurred. CONCLUSION: Pulsed dye laser can be used safely and effectively to reduce treatment-induced purpura in patients with PWSs.
PMID: 28858925
ISSN: 1524-4725
CID: 2679652

Treatment of recalcitrant port-wine stains (PWS) using a combined pulsed dye laser (PDL) and radiofrequency (RF) energy device

Bae, Yoon-Soo Cindy; Alabdulrazzaq, Hamad; Brauer, Jeremy A; Geronemus, Roy G
BACKGROUND: Pulsed dye laser (PDL) is the treatment of choice for port-wine stains (PWS). Some PWS are recalcitrant to this modality. A number of reasons for PDL treatment resistance have been described, including inadequate heat generation. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated PDL combined with radiofrequency (RF) energy into a single device to target larger and deeper blood vessels and overcome PDL resistance. METHOD: This was an open-label, prospective, single-center investigation of a novel device combining RF energy with PDL conducted to treat recalcitrant PWS. Ten patients with 11 recalcitrant PWS were enrolled. Each PWS was divided into 5 treatment areas: PDL alone, RF alone, PDL+RF, RF+PDL, and untreated control. Patients underwent a maximum of 6 treatments, scheduled 4 to 6 weeks apart with follow-up evaluation at 4 and 12 weeks after the final treatment. Colorimetry and standardized digital photography were performed at all visits. Lesional biopsy specimens were collected for selected patients. RESULTS: Areas treated with RF followed by PDL and PDL followed by RF showed the greatest improvement based on blinded review of digital photographs, reaching statistical significance (P value < .05) at the 12-week follow-up evaluation when compared with baseline. Adverse events, including purpura, erythema, edema, scabbing, crusting, and blistering, resolved without sequelae; a small residual scar was noted in 1 patient. LIMITATIONS: Small sample size and short follow-up period are limitations. CONCLUSION: Combined RF/PDL technology is promising for the treatment of recalcitrant PWS.
PMID: 28088993
ISSN: 1097-6787
CID: 2412912

Successful treatment of paradoxical darkening

Bae, Yoon-Soo Cindy; Alabdulrazzaq, Hamad; Brauer, Jeremy; Geronemus, Roy
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Tattoo removal can inadvertently lead to paradoxical darkening after laser procedure. We present a new laser device that may treat this unwanted outcome. STUDY DESIGN/PATIENTS AND METHODS: We report two cases from a clinical trial, using a novel picosecond 532 nm and 1,064 nm laser to treat unwanted red tattoos. RESULTS: Two cases of paradoxical darkening improved with the use of a novel picosecond 532 nm and 1,064 nm laser. CONCLUSION: The use of a picosecond 532 nm and 1,064 nm laser may treat paradoxical darkening in red colored tattoos. Lasers Surg. Med. (c) 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
PMID: 26833886
ISSN: 1096-9101
CID: 1933062

Successful treatment of two pediatric port wine stains in darker skin types using 595 nm laser

Bae, Yoon-Soo Cindy; Ng, Elise; Geronemus, Roy G
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Port wine stain (PWS) is a congenital vascular malformation of skin involving post-capillary venules, which commonly occurs on the face. While successful treatment has been reported with Caucasian, Hispanic, and Asian skin, physicians have battled treating these progressive lesions in patients of darker skin color, as the targeted chromophore (hemoglobin) shares a similar absorption coefficient as melanin. There are no reports of favorable outcomes in African-American children or adults. Although treatment in darker skin types has been previously discouraged we present a case series of patients of African descent with port wine stains treated using a pulsed-dye laser (Vbeam Perfecta, Candela Laser,Wayland, Mass) with significant improvement and no complications. STUDY DESIGN/MATERIAL AND METHODS: Presentation of two pediatric patients of African descent (skin types 4 and 5) ages 1 month and 4 years old seen and treated in our office using a pulsed-dye laser until resolution. Laser parameters were spot size 10 mm; fluence 7-8.25 J/cm2 ; wavelength 595 nm; pulse duration 1.5 Millisecond with dynamic cooling. RESULTS: Resolution of the port wine stain without complication. CONCLUSION: This early approach represents a new and safe therapeutic option for treating port wine stains in this patient population. To our knowledge, the successful use of pulsed dye laser for the treatment of port wine stain in patients of African descent without complications has not yet been reported. Lasers Surg. Med. (c) 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
PMID: 26749116
ISSN: 1096-9101
CID: 1912542

Treatment of pigmentary disorders in patients with skin of color with a novel 755 nm picosecond, Q-switched ruby, and Q-switched Nd:YAG nanosecond lasers: A retrospective photographic review

Levin, Melissa Kanchanapoomi; Ng, Elise; Bae, Yoon-Soo Cindy; Brauer, Jeremy A; Geronemus, Roy G
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Laser procedures in skin of color (SOC) patients are challenging due to the increased risk of dyspigmentation and scarring. A novel 755 nm alexandrite picosecond laser has demonstrated effectiveness for tattoo removal and treatment of acne scars. No studies to date have evaluated its applications in pigmentary disorders. The purpose of this retrospective study was to evaluate the safety profile and efficacy of the picosecond alexandrite laser compared to the current standard treatment, Q-switched ruby and neodynium (Nd):YAG nanosecond lasers, for pigmentary disorders in SOC patients. STUDY DESIGN/MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective photographic and chart evaluation of seventy 755 nm alexandrite picosecond, ninety-two Q-switched frequency doubled 532 nm and 1,064 nm Nd:YAG nanosecond, and forty-seven Q-switched 694 nm ruby nanosecond laser treatments, in forty-two subjects of Fitzpatrick skin types III-VI was conducted in a single laser specialty center. The picosecond laser was a research prototype device. Treatment efficacy was assessed by two blinded physician evaluators, using a visual analog scale for percentage of pigmentary clearance in standard photographs. Subject assessment of efficacy, satisfaction, and adverse events was performed using a questionnaire survey. RESULTS: The most common pigmentary disorder treated was Nevus of Ota (38.1%), followed by solar lentigines (23.8%). Other pigmentary disorders included post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation, congenital nevus, cafe au lait macule, dermal melanocytosis, Nevus of Ito, and Becker's nevus. Clinical efficacy of the Q-switched nanosecond lasers and picosecond laser treatments were comparable for lesions treated on the face with a mean visual analog score of 2.57 and 2.44, respectively, corresponding to approximately 50% pigmentary clearance. Subject questionnaires were completed in 58.8% of the picosecond subjects and 52.0% of the Q-switched subjects. Eighty four percent of subjects receiving Q-switched nanosecond laser treatments and 50% of the subjects receiving alexandrite 755 nm picosecond laser treatments felt satisfied to completely satisfied. Side effects observed in subjects treated with the alexandrite 755 nm picosecond laser were similar to those commonly observed and reported with the nanosecond Q-switched technology. All side effects were temporary, resolving within one month, and no long-term complications were noted. All patients who were very satisfied with their picosecond laser treatment for Nevus of Ota noted a delayed improvement only after 3 months. CONCLUSION: The 755 nm alexandrite picosecond, 694 nm ruby, 532 nm, and 1064 nm neodynium:YAG nanosecond lasers appear to be safe and effective modalities for removal of pigmentary disorders in skin of color patients with no long-term complications if used appropriately. This study demonstrates the potential of the 755 nm alexandrite picosecond laser in further clinical applications beyond tattoo removal. While the Q-switched lasers were effective, promising results were also observed using an early version of the novel picosecond laser for the removal of pigmentary lesions in SOC patients. As we continue to improve our understanding of the 755 nm picosecond laser, this device may prove to be a safe and effective alternative to the Q-switched lasers for the treatment of facial pigmented lesions in patients with skin of color. Lasers Surg. Med. 48:181-187, 2016. (c) 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
PMID: 26922302
ISSN: 1096-9101
CID: 2006232

Evaluation of a Low Energy, Low Density, Non-Ablative Fractional 1927nm Wavelength Laser for Facial Skin Resurfacing

Brauer, Jeremy A; Alabdulrazzaq, Hamad; Bae, Yoon-Soo Cindy; Geronemus, Roy G
OBJECTIVE: We investigated the safety, tolerability and efficacy of a low energy low density, non-ablative fractional 1,927-nm laser in the treatment of facial photodamage, melasma, and post inflammatory hyperpigmentation
DESIGN: Prospective non-randomized trial
SETTING: Single center, private practice with a dedicated research department
PARTICIPANTS: Subjects with clinically diagnosed facial photodamage, melasma, or post inflammatory hyperpigmentation
INTERVENTIONS: Subjects received four to six treatments at 14-day intervals (+/- 3days) with a low energy low density non-ablative fractional 1,927-nm laser (Solta Hayward, CA) with an energy level of 5 mJ, and density coverage of either 5%, 7.5%, or 10%, with a total of up to 8 passes
MAIN OUTCOME AND MEASURES: Blinded assessment of clinical photos for overall improvement at one and three months post final treatment. Investigator improvement scores, and subject pain and satisfaction scores for overall improvement were recorded as well
RESULTS: We enrolled 23 subjects, average age 45.0 years (range, 25-64 years), 22 with Fitzpatrick Skin Types I-IV and 1 with Type VI, with facial photodamage, melasma, or post inflammatory hyperpigmentation. Approximately 55% of subjects reported marked to very significant improvement at one and three months post final treatment. Blinded assessment of photography of 20 subjects revealed an average of moderate improvement at one-month follow up and mild to moderate improvement at three months. Average subject pain score was 3.4/10 during treatment
CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Favorable outcomes were demonstrated using the low energy low density, non-ablative fractional 1,927-nm laser in facial resurfacing for photodamage, melasma, and post inflammatory hyperpigmentation. Results were maintained at the 3-month follow up, as demonstrated by investigator and subject assessments, as well as blinded evaluations by three independent dermatologists utilizing photographs obtained from a standardized facial imaging device

J Drugs Dermatol. 2015;14(11):1262-1267.
PMID: 26580875
ISSN: 1545-9616
CID: 1881632

Clearance of yellow tattoo ink with a novel 532-nm picosecond laser

Alabdulrazzaq, Hamad; Brauer, Jeremy A; Bae, Yoon-Soo; Geronemus, Roy G
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Although technology and tattoo removal methods continue to evolve, yellow pigment clearance continues to be challenging and usually unsuccessful. We describe a case series of six tattoos containing yellow ink, successfully treated with a frequency-doubled Nd:YAG 532-nm picosecond laser. STUDY DESIGN/MATERIALS AND METHODS: Case series with six subjects participating for the treatment of multicolored tattoos that contain yellow pigment. Treatments performed with a frequency-doubled Nd:YAG 532-nm picosecond laser at 6-8 week intervals. RESULTS: One subject achieved complete clearance of the treated site after one session, and five subjects required 2-4 treatments to achieve over 75% clearance. Minimal downtime was experienced, and no scarring or textural skin changes were observed in any of the treated sites. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first case series that demonstrates effective and consistent reduction of yellow tattoo ink using a frequency doubled Nd:YAG 532-nm laser with a picosecond pulse duration. Treatments were well tolerated and subjects had positive outcomes. This is a small observational case series from an ongoing clinical trial, and studies with a larger sample size and comparative group are needed in the future. in vivo. Lasers Surg. Med. 47:285-288, 2015. (c) 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
PMID: 25899971
ISSN: 1096-9101
CID: 1543352

Use of a Picosecond Pulse Duration Laser With Specialized Optic for Treatment of Facial Acne Scarring

Brauer, Jeremy A; Kazlouskaya, Viktoryia; Alabdulrazzaq, Hamad; Bae, Yoon Soo; Bernstein, Leonard J; Anolik, Robert; Heller, Patricia A; Geronemus, Roy G
Importance: Fractional laser technology is routinely used in the treatment of acne scarring, with thermal injury resulting in collagen synthesis and remodeling. Use of a picosecond pulse duration with a diffractive lens array may be a new technologic advancement in the treatment of acne scarring. Objective: To investigate the safety and efficacy of a 755-nm alexandrite picosecond pulse duration laser with diffractive lens array for the treatment of facial acne scarring. Design, Setting, and Participants: This single-center, prospective study performed in a private practice with a dedicated research department included patients with clinically diagnosed scarring secondary to inflammatory or cystic acne. Interventions: Patients received 6 treatments with a 755-nm picosecond laser with a spot size of 6 mm, fluence of 0.71 J/cm2, repetition rate of 5 Hz, and pulse width of 750 picoseconds in combination with a diffractive lens array, allowing for greater surface area and pattern density per pulse. Main Outcomes and Measures: The pain and satisfaction scores for overall appearance and texture were recorded. Masked assessment of clinical photographs and analysis of 3-dimensional volumetric data were performed. Biopsy specimens were obtained for independent histologic evaluation by 2 investigators at baseline and at 3 months after last treatment. Results: Fifteen women and 5 men (mean age, 44 years; age range, 27-61 years) with Fitzpatrick skin types I through V and facial acne scarring were enrolled. The mean pain score was 2.83 of 10. Patients were satisfied to extremely satisfied with improvement in appearance and texture at their final treatment and follow-up visits. The masked assessment scores of 17 patients were 1.5 of 3 and 1.4 of 3 at 1 and 3 months, respectively (a score of 0 indicates 0%-25% improvement and a score of 3 indicates >75% improvement). A 3-dimensional analysis revealed a mean 24.3% improvement in scar volume, maintained at 1 (24.0%) and 3 (27.2%) months after treatment. Histologic analysis revealed elongation and increased density of elastic fibers, with an increase in dermal collagen and mucin. Conclusions and Relevance: Treatment of facial acne scars with a diffractive lens array and 755-nm picosecond laser produced improvement in appearance and texture at 3 months after the last treatment, with objective findings similar to those published for a series of fractional ablative laser treatments. Histologic findings suggest that improvement in scarring from this treatment goes beyond remodeling of collagen.
PMID: 25409158
ISSN: 2168-6084
CID: 1355962

Complications in laser surgery [Meeting Abstract]

Bae, Yoon-Soo Cindy; Geronemus, Roy
ISI:000360942902190
ISSN: 0190-9622
CID: 1881642