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Nerve root retraction time during lumbar endoscopic discectomy: association with new onset radiculitis, a post-operative neurologic complication

Gerling, Michael C; Baker, Melissa; Stanton, Eloise; Chaladoff, Evan; Buser, Zorica
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the relationship between nerve root retraction time, post-operative radiculitis and patient reported outcomes. METHODS:Patients who underwent single- or multi-level lumbar discectomy between 2020 and 2022 for lumbar disk herniations were prospectively followed with pre-operative, interoperative and post-operative variables including radiculitis and patient reported outcomes including VAS, ODI and CAT domains Pain interference, Pain intensity and Physical function. Intraoperative nerve root retraction time was recorded. Paired sample two-tailed t-test and multivariate regression were utilized with p < 0.05 being significant. RESULTS:A total of 157 patients who underwent single- or multi-level endoscopic lumbar discectomy. Average patient age was 44 years, and 64% were male patients. Nerve retraction time ranged from 4 to 15 min. Eighteen percent reported new radiculitis at 2-weeks post-operatively. In patients with new-onset radiculitis 79.2% reported significantly worse VAS leg at 2 weeks post-operative (4.2 vs. 8.3, p < 0.001) compared to 12.5% who had improved VAS leg (9.3 vs. 7, p = 0.1181). Patients with radiculitis and worse VAS scores had substantially longer nerve retraction time (13.8 ± 7.5 min) than patients with improved VAS leg (6.7 ± 1.2 min). At 6 months, patients with longer nerve retraction time had no significant improvement in the ODI or CAT compared to the baseline. CONCLUSIONS:This is the first study in discectomy literature to show that new onset radiculitis and poorer outcomes in VAS leg correlate with longer nerve retraction time at early and later time points.
PMID: 37747545
ISSN: 1432-0932
CID: 5627852

The Influence of Hospital Type, Insurance Type, and Patient Income on 30-Day Complication and Readmission Rates Following Lumbar Spine Fusion

Chen, Matthew; Ton, Andy; Shahrestani, Shane; Chen, Xiao; Ballatori, Alexander; Wang, Jeffrey C; Buser, Zorica
BACKGROUND CONTEXT/BACKGROUND:Several studies have shown that factors such as insurance type and patient income are associated with different readmission rates following certain orthopaedic procedures. The literature, however, remains sparse with regard to these demographic characteristics and their associations to perioperative lumbar spine fusion outcomes. PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:The purpose of this study was to assess the associations between hospital type, insurance type, and patient median income to both 30-day complication and readmission rates following lumbar spine fusion. PATIENT SAMPLE/METHODS:Patients who underwent primary lumbar spine fusion (n = 596,568) from 2010-2016 were queried from the National Readmissions Database (NRD). OUTCOME MEASURES/METHODS:Incidence of 30-day complication and readmission rates. METHODS:All relevant diagnoses and procedures were identified using International Classification of Disease, 9th and 10th Edition (ICD-9, 10) codes. Hospital types were categorized as metropolitan non-teaching (n = 212,131), metropolitan teaching (n = 364,752), and rural (n = 19,685). Insurance types included: Medicare (n = 213,534), Medicaid (n = 78,520), private insurance (n = 196,648), and out-of-pocket (n = 45,025). Patient income was divided into the following quartiles: Q1 (n = 112,083), Q2 (n = 145,755), Q3 (n = 156,276), and Q4 (n = 147,289), wherein quartile 1 corresponded to lower income ranges and quartile 4 to higher ranges. Statistical analysis was conducted in R. Kruskal-Wallis tests with Dunn's pairwise comparisons were performed to analyze differences in 30-day readmission and complication rates in patients who underwent lumbar spine fusion. Complications analyzed included infection, wound injury, hematoma, neurological injury, thromboembolic event, and hardware failure. RESULTS:< .001). Patients in Quartile 4 experienced significantly greater rates of hematoma formation compared to those in Quartiles 1 and 2 and were more likely to experience a thromboembolic event compared to all other groups. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Patients undergoing lumbar spine fusion at metropolitan non-teaching hospitals and paying with private insurance had significantly lower 30-day readmission rates than their counterparts. Complications within 30 days following lumbar spine fusion were significantly higher in patients treated at metropolitan teaching hospitals and in Medicare and Medicaid beneficiaries. Aside from a few exceptions, however, patient income was generally not associated with differential complication rates.
PMID: 38103012
ISSN: 2192-5682
CID: 5589092

Clinical effectiveness of reduction and fusion versus in situ fusion in the management of degenerative lumbar spondylolisthesis: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Wang, Dongfan; Wang, Wei; Han, Di; Muthu, Sathish; Cabrera, Juan P; Hamouda, Waeel; Ambrosio, Luca; Cheung, Jason P Y; Le, Hai V; Vadalà, Gianluca; Buser, Zorica; Wang, Jeffrey C; Cho, Samuel; Yoon, S Tim; Lu, Shibao; Chen, Xiaolong; Diwan, Ashish D; ,
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:To compare the clinical effectiveness of reduction and fusion with in situ fusion in the management of patients with degenerative lumbar spondylolisthesis (DLS). METHODS:The systematic review was conducted following the PRISMA guidelines. Relevant studies were identified from PubMed, Embase, Scopus, Cochrane Library,, and Google Scholar. The inclusion criteria were: (1) comparative studies of reduction and fusion versus in situ fusion for DLS patients, (2) outcomes reported as VAS/NRS, ODI, JOA score, operating time, blood loss, complication rate, fusion rate, or reoperation rate, (3) randomized controlled trials and observational studies published in English from the inception of the databases to January 2023. The exclusion criteria included: (1) reviews, case series, case reports, letters, and conference reports, (2) in vitro biomechanical studies and computational modeling studies, (3) no report on study outcomes. The risk of bias 2 (RoB2) tool and the Newcastle-Ottawa scale was conducted to assess the risk of bias of RCTs and observational studies, respectively. RESULTS:Five studies with a total of 704 patients were included (375 reduction and fusion, 329 in situ fusion). Operating time was significantly longer in the reduction and fusion group compared to in situ fusion group (weighted mean difference 7.20; 95% confidence interval 0.19, 14.21; P = 0.04). No additional significant intergroup differences were noted in terms of other outcomes analyzed. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:While the reduction and fusion group demonstrated a statistically longer operating time compared to the in situ fusion group, the clinical significance of this difference was minimal. The findings suggest no substantial superiority of lumbar fusion with reduction over without reduction for the management of DLS.
PMID: 38043128
ISSN: 1432-0932
CID: 5597502

The Effect of Hyperlipidemia as a Risk Factor on Postoperative Complications in Patients Undergoing Anterior Cervical Discectomy and Fusion

Son, Seung Min; Okada, Rintaro; Fresquez, Zoe; Formanek, Blake; Mertz, Kevin; Wang, Jeffrey C; Buser, Zorica
STUDY DESIGN/METHODS:Retrospective cohort study. OBJECTIVE:To analyze the effect of hyperlipidemia (HLD) on postoperative complications in patients who underwent anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF). SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA/BACKGROUND:ACDF represents the standard procedure performed for focal anterior nerve root or spinal cord compression with low complication rates. HLD is well known as a risk factor for major complications after vascular and transplant surgery, and orthopedic surgery. To date, there have been no studies on HLD as a risk factor for cervical spine surgery. PATIENTS AND METHODS/METHODS:Patients who underwent ACDF from 2010 through quarter 3 of 2020 were enrolled using the MSpine subset of the PearlDiver Patient Record Database. The patients were divided into single-level ACDF and multilevel ACDF groups. In addition, each group was divided into subgroups according to the presence or absence of HLD. The incidence of surgical and medical complications was queried using relevant International Classification of Disease and Current Procedural Terminology codes. Charlson Comorbidity Index was used as a broad measure of comorbidity. χ 2 analysis, with populations matched for age, sex, and Charlson Comorbidity Index, was performed. RESULTS:A total of 24,936 patients who underwent single-level ACDF and 26,921 patients who underwent multilevel ACDF were included. In the multilevel ACDF group, wound complications were significantly higher in the patients with HLD. Among medical complications, myocardial infarction, renal failure, and urinary tract infection/urinary incontinence were significantly higher in the patients with HLD in both groups. Revision surgery and readmission were significantly higher in the patients with HLD who underwent multilevel ACDF. CONCLUSIONS:In patients who underwent ACDF, several surgical and medical complications were found to be higher in patients with HLD than in patients without HLD. Preoperative serum lipid concentration levels and management of HLD should be considered during preoperative planning to prevent postoperative complications in patients undergoing ACDF.
PMID: 37651576
ISSN: 2380-0194
CID: 5611422

Association of Hyperlipidemia With Perioperative Complications in Posterior Cervical Spine Fusion: A Comparative Retrospective Study

Okada, Rintaro; Son, Seung Min; Fresquez, Zoe; Formanek, Blake; Mertz, Kevin; Buser, Zorica; Wang, Jeffrey C
STUDY DESIGN/METHODS:A retrospective database study. OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:The purpose of the current study was to investigate the impact of hyperlipidemia (HLD) on the incidence of perioperative complications associated with posterior cervical spine fusion (PCF). BACKGROUND:HLD is a very common disease that leads to atherosclerosis. Therefore, it can cause fatal diseases as well as lifestyle-related diseases. The possible impact of HLD on outcomes after PCF has not yet been investigated. METHODS:Patients with cervical degeneration underwent initial PCF from 2010 through the third quarter of 2020 using the MSpine subset of the PearlDiver Patient Record Database. The incidence of perioperative complications was queried using relevant ICD-9, 10, and CPT codes. χ 2 analysis was performed in age-, sex-, and Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI)-matched populations to compare between non-HLD and HLD patients in each single-level and multilevel PCF. RESULTS:Through propensity score matching, 1600 patients each in the HLD and non-HLD groups were analyzed in the single-level PCF, 6855 patients were analyzed in the multilevel PCF were analyzed. The comorbidity of HLD significantly decreased the incidence of respiratory failure in single-level PCF (OR=0.58, P <0.01). In the multilevel PCF, the presence of HLD increased the incidence of cervicalgia (OR=1.26, P =0.030). On the contrary, the incident of spinal cord injury (OR=0.72, P <0.01), dysphagia (OR=0.81, P =0.023), respiratory failure (OR=0.85, P =0.030), pneumonia (OR=0.70, P =0.045), neurological bladder (OR=0.84, P =0.041), and urinary tract infection (OR=0.85, P =0.021) in the HLD group were significantly lower than those in non-HLD group. CONCLUSIONS:In the current study, the presence of HLD significantly increased the incidence of postoperative cervicalgia in multilevel PCF. On the other hand, the incidence of some complications was significantly decreased with HLD. Further studies are needed taking into account other factors such as the treatment of HLD, its efficacy, and intraoperative events. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE/METHODS:Level III.
PMID: 37482645
ISSN: 2380-0194
CID: 5611322

Evaluating the Prevalence of Motion Abnormalities at Treatment Levels and Nontreatment Levels in Lumbar Stenosis and Spondylolisthesis Patients

Grieco, Trevor F; McKnight, Braden; Wang, Jeffrey C; Buser, Zorica
PMID: 37000692
ISSN: 1528-1159
CID: 5593942

What does degeneration at the cervicothoracic junction tell us? A kinematic MRI study of 93 individuals

Kim, Michael S; Gilbert, Zachary D; Bajouri, Zabi; Telang, Sagar; Fresquez, Zoe; Pickering, Trevor A; Son, Seung Min; Alluri, R Kiran; Wang, Jeffrey C; Buser, Zorica
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:Current decision-making in multilevel cervical fusion weighs the potential to protect adjacent levels and reduce reoperation risk by crossing the cervicothoracic junction (C7/T1) against increased operative time and risk of complication. Careful planning is required, and the planned distal and adjacent levels should be assessed for degenerative disc disease (DDD). This study assessed whether DDD at the cervicothoracic junction was associated with DDD, disc height, translational motion, or angular variation in the adjacent superior (C6/C7) or inferior (T1/T2) levels. METHODS:This study retrospectively analyzed 93 cases with kinematic MRI. Cases were randomly selected from a database with inclusion criteria being no prior spine surgery and images having sufficient quality for analysis. DDD was assessed using Pfirrmann classification. Vertebral body bone marrow lesions were assessed using Modic changes. Disc height was measured at the mid-disc in neutral and extension. Translational motion and angular variation were calculated by assessing translational or angular motion segment integrity respectively in flexion and extension. Statistical associations were assessed with scatterplots and Kendall's tau. RESULTS:DDD at C7/T1 was positively associated with DDD at C6/C7 (tau = 0.53, p < 0.01) and T1/T2 (tau = 0.58, p < 0.01), with greater disc height in neutral position at T1/T2 (tau = 0.22, p < 0.01), and with greater disc height in extended position at C7/T1 (tau = 0.17, p = 0.04) and at T1/T2 (tau = 0.21, p < 0.01). DDD at C7/T1 was negatively associated with angular variation at C6/C7 (tau = - 0.23, p < 0.01). No association was appreciated between DDD at C7/T1 and translational motion. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:The association of DDD at the cervicothoracic junction with DDD at the adjacent levels emphasizes the necessity for careful selection of the distal level in multilevel fusion in the distal cervical spine.
PMID: 37148392
ISSN: 1432-0932
CID: 5539792

Can't See the Forest for the Trees: A Common Issue With Osteobiologics [Editorial]

Buser, Zorica; Meisel, Hans-Jörg
PMID: 37263742
ISSN: 2192-5682
CID: 5543422

Global Coronal Malalignment in Degenerative Lumbar Scoliosis and Priority-Matching Correction Technique to Prevent Postoperative Coronal Decompensation

Lu, Shibao; Zhu, Weiguo; Diwan, Ashish D; Wang, Jeffrey C; Zhao, Guoguang; Buser, Zorica; Wang, Dongfan; Cui, Peng; Wang, Yu; Kong, Chao; Wang, Wei; Chen, Xiaolong
STUDY DESIGN/METHODS:A prospective case-control study. OBJECTIVE:To analyze global coronal malalignment (GCM) in degenerative lumbar scoliosis (DLS) and to prospectively investigate the performance of priority-matching correction technique on preventing postoperative coronal imbalance. METHODS:A total of 444 DLS inpatients and outpatients were recruited. GCMs were classified into 2 types: Type 1, GCM with thoracolumbar (TL/L) curve as the main contribution on coronal imbalance; Type 2, GCM with lumbosacral (LS) curve as the main contribution on coronal imbalance. Patients receiving priority-matching correction were assigned to Group P-M and receiving traditional correction were assigned to Group T form August 2020. The fundamental principle of priority-matching technique was to first correct the key curve contributing to coronal imbalance rather than the curve with greater magnitude. RESULTS:Type 1 GCM accounted for 45% and Type 2 GCM accounted for 55% of patients. Type 2 GCM was detected to have greater LS Cobb angle and L4 tilt. At 1-year follow-up, 29.8% of patients with Type 2 GCM, whereas 11.7% of patients with Type 1 GCM were observed to have postoperative coronal decompensation. Patients with postoperative imbalance were revealed to have greater preoperative LS Cobb angle and L4 tilt and smaller correction extent of LS curve and L4 tilt. 6.25% of patients developed postoperative coronal imbalance in Group P-M, whereas 40.5% developed in Group T. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Highlighting priority and aggressive correction of the key curve to coronal imbalance, priority-matching technique was proved to be able to limit the development of postoperative coronal decompensation.
PMID: 37217200
ISSN: 2192-5682
CID: 5543672

The potential reversibility of Cutibacterium acnes-related disc degeneration: a rabbit model

Fresquez, Zoe; Chang, Ki-Eun; Pereira, Renata; Hunter, Christopher; Myntti, Matthew; Wang, Jeffrey C; Buser, Zorica
PMID: 36708926
ISSN: 1878-1632
CID: 5426652