Outside the Operating Room: Alternative Pathways for Doctors and Surgeons to Lead
In this article, we ask the reader to fully vet why they want to lead and who they want to lead. We then describe the different leaderships styles needed to effectively lead and deliver executive outcomes. We discuss the novel concept of different coachability styles and explain how an effective leader must understand when to apply one leadership style over another and which person of team will respond better to style over the others. The novel metric called the EQI-the efficiency quality index-by definition prevents this problem and is described and discussed.
Commentary: Scrubs united with suits to provide quality care and profits [Comment]
Pulmonary Open, Robotic and Thoracoscopic Lobectomy (PORTaL) Study: Survival Analysis of 6,646 Cases
OBJECTIVE:The aim of this study was to analyze overall survival of robotic-assisted lobectomy (RL), video-assisted thoracoscopic lobectomy (VATS) and open lobectomy (OL) performed by experienced thoracic surgeons across multiple institutions. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA/BACKGROUND:Surgeons have increasingly adopted RL for resection of early-stage lung cancer. Comparative survival data following these approaches is largely from single-institution case series or administrative datasets. METHODS:Retrospective data was collected from 21 institutions from 2013-2019. Consecutive cases performed for clinical stage IA-IIIA lung cancer were included. Induction therapy patients were excluded. The propensity-score method of inverse-probability of treatment weighting (IPTW) was used to balance baseline characteristics. Overall survival (OS) was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Multivariable Cox proportional hazard models were used to evaluate association among OS and relevant risk factors. RESULTS:A total of 2,789 RL, 2,661 VATS, and 1,196 OL cases were included. The unadjusted 5-year overall survival rate was highest for OL (84%) followed by RL (81%) and VATS (74%); P=0.008. Similar trends were also observed after IPTW adjustment (RL 81%; VATS 73%, OL 85%, P=0.001). Multivariable Cox regression analyses revealed that OL and RL were associated with significantly higher overall survival compared to VATS (OL vs. VATS: HR 0.64, P<0.001 and RL vs. VATS: HR 0.79; P=0.007). CONCLUSIONS:Our finding from this large multicenter study suggests that patients undergoing RL and OL have statistically similar OS, while the VATS group was associated with shorter OS. Further studies with longer follow-up are necessary to help evaluate these observations.
Resistance to Change from Super Performers: The EQI, Ego and the Safety Card
Assessment of the well-being of significant others of cardiothoracic surgeons
OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:We aimed to evaluate how the current working climate of cardiothoracic surgery and burnout experienced by cardiothoracic surgeons influences their spouses and significant others (SOs). METHODS:or independent samples t tests, as appropriate. RESULTS:Responses from 238 SOs were analyzed. Sixty-six percent reported that the stress on their cardiothoracic surgeon partner had a moderate to severe influence on their family, and 63% reported that their partner's work demands didn't leave enough time for family. Fifty-one percent reported that their partner rarely had time for intimacy, 27% reported poor work-life balance, and 23% reported that interactions at home were usually or always not good-natured. SOs were most affected when their partner was <5 years out from training, worked in private vs academic practice, and worked longer hours. Having children, particularly younger than age 19 years, and a lack of workplace support resources further diminished well-being. CONCLUSIONS:The current work culture of cardiothoracic surgeons adversely affects their SOs, and the risk for families is concerning. These data present a major area for exploration as we strive to understand and mitigate the factors that lead to burnout among cardiothoracic surgeons.
Scaling the ascent to mastery
Pulmonary Open, Robotic and Thoracoscopic Lobectomy (PORTaL) Study: An Analysis of 5,721 Cases
OBJECTIVE:The aim of this study was to analyze outcomes of open lobectomy (OL), video-assisted thoracoscopic lobectomy (VATS) and robotic-assisted lobectomy (RL). SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA/BACKGROUND:Robotic-assisted lobectomy has seen increasing adoption for treatment of early-stage lung cancer. Comparative data regarding these approaches is largely from single-institution case series or administrative datasets. METHODS:Retrospective data was collected from 21 institutions from 2013-2019. All consecutive cases performed for clinical stage IA-IIIA lung cancer were included. Neoadjuvant cases were excluded. Propensity-score matching (1:1) was based on age, gender, race, smoking-status, FEV1%, Zubrod score, ASA score, tumor size and clinical T and N stage. RESULTS:A total of 2,391 RL, 2,174 VATS, and 1,156 OL cases were included. After propensity-score matching there were 885 pairs of RL vs. OL, 1,711 pairs of RL vs. VATS, and 952 pairs of VATS vs. OL. Operative time for RL was shorter than VATS (p < 0.0001) and OL (p = 0.0004). Compared to OL, RL and VATS had less overall postoperative complications, shorter hospital stay (LOS), and lower transfusion rates (all p < 0.02). Compared to VATS, RL had lower conversion rate (p < 0.0001), shorter hospital stay (p < 0.0001) and a lower postoperative transfusion rate (p = 0.01). RL and VATS cohorts had comparable postoperative complication rates. In-hospital mortality was comparable between all groups. CONCLUSIONS:RL and VATS approaches were associated with favorable perioperative outcomes compared to OL. Robotic-assisted lobectomy was also associated with a reduced length of stay and decreased conversion rate when compared to VATS.
Surgical considerations in the resection of solitary fibrous tumors of the pleura
Solitary fibrous tumors (SFTs) are rare mesenchymal pleural neoplasms with an overall good prognosis and low recurrence rate if completely resected and if degree of differentiation is favorable. Within the last decade, advances in research have led to more reliable methods of differentiating SFTs from other soft tissue tumors. Historically, several markers were used to distinguish SFTs from similar tumors, but these markers had poor specificity. Recent evidence showed NAB2-STAT6 fusion gene to be a distinct feature of SFTs with 100% specificity and sensitivity. Surgical resection, with an emphasis on obtaining negative margins, is the mainstay of treatment for SFTs. Preoperative planning with detailed imaging is imperative to delineate the extent of disease and vascular supply. One important radiologic distinction to aid delineation of a pleural-based tumor compared to a pulmonary parenchymal-based tumor is the angle that the tumor forms with the chest wall, which is obtuse for a pleural-based tumor, and acute for tumors of the lung parenchyma. Often, preoperative tissue diagnosis is not available, and surgery is both diagnostic and curative. Intraoperatively, emphasis should be on complete resection with negative margins. SFTs are resected via several approaches: thoracotomy, sternotomy with the option of hemi-clamshell extension, video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery, and robotic approach, which is increasingly being used and is our preference. We recommend a minimally invasive approach for most lesions, and have resected SFTs of the pleura that are up to 12 cm with the robotic approach. However, the current literature often cites 5 cm as the cut off for an open thoracotomy. Nevertheless, even with larger tumors, a minimally invasive robotic approach is our preference and practice. For giant SFTs (> 20 cm), an open approach may be preferable. Multiple thoracotomies and rib resection may be required to gain adequate exposure and ensure complete resection in these tumors. However, it is noteworthy that most of these tumors have a soft consistency and thus, once bagged, can easily be removed minimally invasively, and thus minimally invasive approach should not be completely ruled out. Recurrence in SFTs usually results from incomplete resection and redo surgery may portend a favorable prognosis.
Commentary: Scrubs united with suits to provide quality care and profits
Editorial: Early chest drain removal following lung resection [Editorial]