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Early Initiation of Antitumor Necrosis Factor Therapy Reduces Postoperative Recurrence of Crohn's Disease Following Ileocecal Resection

Axelrad, Jordan E; Li, Terry; Bachour, Salam P; Nakamura, Takahiro I; Shah, Ravi; Sachs, Michael C; Chang, Shannon; Hudesman, David P; Holubar, Stefan D; Lightner, Amy L; Barnes, Edward L; Cohen, Benjamin L; Rieder, Florian; Esen, Eren; Remzi, Feza; Regueiro, Miguel; Click, Benjamin
BACKGROUND:Postoperative recurrence (POR) of Crohn's disease (CD) is common after surgical resection. We aimed to compare biologic type and timing for preventing POR in adult CD patients after ileocecal resection (ICR). METHODS:We performed a retrospective cohort study of CD patients who underwent an ICR at 2 medical centers. Recurrence was defined by endoscopy (≥ i2b Rutgeerts score) or radiography (active inflammation in neoterminal ileum) and stratified by type and timing of postoperative prophylactic biologic within 12 weeks following an ICR (none, tumor necrosis factor antagonists [anti-TNF], vedolizumab, and ustekinumab). RESULTS:We identified 1037 patients with CD who underwent an ICR. Of 278 (26%) who received postoperative prophylaxis, 80% were placed on an anti-TNF agent (n = 223) followed by ustekinumab (n = 28, 10%) and vedolizumab (n = 27, 10%). Prophylaxis was initiated in 35% within 4 weeks following an ICR and in 65% within 4 to 12 weeks. After adjusting for factors associated with POR, compared with no biologic prophylaxis, the initiation of an anti-TNF agent within 4 weeks following an ICR was associated with a reduction in POR (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.40-0.93). Prophylaxis after 4 weeks following an ICR or with vedolizumab or ustekinumab was not associated with a reduction in POR compared with those who did not receive prophylaxis. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Early initiation of an anti-TNF agent within 4 weeks following an ICR was associated with a reduction in POR. Vedolizumab or ustekinumab, at any time following surgery, was not associated with a reduction in POR, although sample size was limited.
PMID: 35905032
ISSN: 1536-4844
CID: 5276992

Development of the Endoscopic Pouch Score for Assessment of Inflammatory Conditions of the Pouch

Barnes, E L; Long, M D; Raffals, L; Isaacs, K; Stidham, R W; Herfarth, H H; Deepak, P; Beniwal-Patel, P; Kayal, M; Dubinsky, M; Chang, S; Higgins, P D R; Barr, J I; Jiang, Y; Cross, R K
Pouchoscopy provides a critical objective measure in the evaluation of patients with suspected inflammatory conditions of the pouch; however, there remain significant gaps in the reliability of the endoscopic scales used in the assessment of these conditions.1,2 Reliability and reproducibility in the assessment of patients after ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) are critical, as evidenced by recent efforts to improve standardization in the evaluation of patients with pouch-related disorders.3.
PMID: 35568303
ISSN: 1542-7714
CID: 5311992

Shedding New Light on High-Risk Phenotypes for Pouchitis

Barnes, Edward L; Chang, Shannon
PMID: 36869847
ISSN: 1536-4844
CID: 5432462

The Real-World Effectiveness and Safety of Ustekinumab in the Treatment of Crohn's Disease: Results from the SUCCESS Consortium

Johnson, Amanda M; Barsky, Maria; Ahmed, Waseem; Zullow, Samantha; Galati, Jonathan; Jairath, Vipul; Narula, Neeraj; Peerani, Farhad; Click, Benjamin H; Coburn, Elliot S; Dang, ThucNhi Tran; Gold, Stephanie; Agrawal, Manasi; Garg, Rajat; Aggarwal, Manik; Mohammad, Danah; Halloran, Brendan; Kochhar, Gursimran S; Todorowski, Hannah; Ud Din, Nabeeha Mohy; Izanec, James; Teeple, Amanda; Gasink, Chris; Muser, Erik; Ding, Zhijie; Swaminath, Arun; Lakhani, Komal; Hogan, Dan; Datta, Samit; Ungaro, Ryan C; Boland, Brigid S; Bohm, Matthew; Fischer, Monika; Sagi, Sashidhar; Afzali, Anita; Ullman, Thomas; Lawlor, Garrett; Baumgart, Daniel C; Chang, Shannon; Hudesman, David; Lukin, Dana; Scherl, Ellen J; Colombel, Jean-Frederic; Sands, Bruce E; Siegel, Corey A; Regueiro, Miguel; Sandborn, William J; Bruining, David; Kane, Sunanda; Loftus, Edward V; Dulai, Parambir S
OBJECTIVE:We evaluated the real-world effectiveness and safety of ustekinumab (UST) in patients with Crohn's disease (CD). METHODS:This study utilized a retrospective, multicenter, multinational, consortium of UST-treated CD patients. Data included patient demographics, disease phenotype, disease activity, treatment history, and concomitant medications. Cumulative rates of clinical, steroid-free, endoscopic, and radiographic remission were assessed using time-to-event and clinical predictors were assessed by multivariate Cox proportional hazard analyses. Serious infections and adverse events were defined as those requiring hospitalization or treatment discontinuation. RESULTS:A total of 1113 patients (51.8% female, 90% prior anti-TNF exposure) were included, with a median follow-up of 386 days. Cumulative rates of clinical, steroid-free, endoscopic, and radiographic remission at 12 months were 40%, 32%, 39%, and 30%, respectively. Biologic-naïve patients achieved significantly higher rates of clinical and endoscopic remission at 63% and 55%, respectively. On multivariable analyses, prior anti-TNF (HR, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.49-0.99) and vedolizumab exposure (HR, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.48-0.88) were independently associated with lower likelihoods of achieving endoscopic remission. In patients who experienced loss of remission, 77/102 (75%) underwent dose optimization, and 44/77 (57%) achieved clinical response. An additional 152/681 (22.3%) patients were dose optimized as a result of primary non- or incomplete response to UST, of whom 40.1% (61/152) responded. Serious infections occurred in 3.4% of patients, while other non-infectious adverse events [lymphoma (n=1), arthralgia (n=6), rash (n=6), headache (n=3), hepatitis (n=3), hair loss (n=3), neuropathy (n=1), and vasculitis (n=1)] occurred in 2.4% of patients. CONCLUSIONS:UST represents a safe and effective treatment option for CD, with 40% of patients from a highly refractory cohort achieving clinical remission by 12 months. The greatest treatment effect of UST was seen in bio-naive patients, and dose escalation may recapture clinical response.
PMID: 36191274
ISSN: 1572-0241
CID: 5361632

Histologic Predictors of Clinical Outcomes and Healthcare Utilization in Patients With Ileal Pouch-Anal Anastomosis

Chang, Shannon; Hong, Simon; Hudesman, David; Remzi, Feza; Sun, Katherine; Cao, Wenqing; Tarik Kani, H; Axelrad, Jordan; Sarkar, Suparna A
BACKGROUND:The prognostic significance of histology in ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) remains unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate if histologic variables are predictive of IPAA clinical outcomes and healthcare utilization. METHODS:This was a retrospective cohort study of patients with IPAA undergoing surveillance pouchoscopy at a tertiary care institution. Pouch body biopsies were reviewed by gastrointestinal pathologists, who were blinded to clinical outcomes, for histologic features of acute or chronic inflammation. Charts were reviewed for clinical outcomes including development of acute pouchitis, chronic pouchitis, biologic or small molecule initiation, hospitalizations, and surgery. Predictors of outcomes were analyzed using univariable and multivariable logistic and Cox regression. RESULTS:A total of 167 patients undergoing surveillance pouchoscopy were included. Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (odds ratio [OR], 1.67), ulceration and erosion (OR, 2.44), chronic inflammation (OR, 1.97), and crypt distortion (OR, 1.89) were associated with future biologic or small molecule initiation for chronic pouchitis. Loss of goblet cells was associated with development of chronic pouchitis (OR, 4.65). Pyloric gland metaplasia was associated with hospitalizations (OR, 5.24). No histologic variables were predictive of development of acute pouchitis or surgery. In an exploratory subgroup analysis of new IPAA (<1 year), loss of goblet cells was associated with acute pouchitis (OR, 14.86) and chronic pouchitis (OR, 12.56). Pyloric gland metaplasia was again associated with hospitalizations (OR, 13.99). CONCLUSIONS:Histologic findings may be predictive of IPAA outcomes. Pathologists should incorporate key histologic variables into pouchoscopy pathology reports. Clinicians may need to more closely monitor IPAA patients with significant histologic findings.
PMID: 36702534
ISSN: 1536-4844
CID: 5419702

Ustekinumab and Vedolizumab Are Not Associated With Subsequent Cancer in IBD Patients with Prior Malignancy

Hong, Simon J; Zenger, Cameron; Pecoriello, Jillian; Pang, Alice; Vallely, Margaret; Hudesman, David P; Chang, Shannon; Axelrad, Jordan E
BACKGROUND:There is little data regarding the risk of new or recurrent cancer in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and a prior history of cancer who are exposed to ustekinumab or vedolizumab. We assessed the risk of subsequent cancer in patients exposed to these agents. METHODS:We performed a retrospective cohort study of patients with IBD and a history of cancer at an academic medical center between January 2013 and December 2020. We collected data on demographics, IBD and cancer disease characteristics, and drug exposures. The primary exposure was immunosuppressive therapy after diagnosis of cancer. The primary outcome was interval development of new or recurrent cancer. RESULTS:Of 390 patients with IBD and a previous history of cancer, 37 were exposed to vedolizumab, 14 ustekinumab, 41 antitumor necrosis factor (anti-TNF), and 31 immunomodulator; and 267 were not exposed to immunosuppression following cancer diagnosis. During a total median follow-up time of 52 months, 81 (20%) patients developed subsequent cancer: 6 (16%) were exposed to vedolizumab, 2 (14%) to ustekinumab, 3 (10%) to immunomodulators, 12 (29%) to anti-TNF, and 56 (21%) with no immunosuppression (P = .41). In a multivariable Cox model adjusting for age, IBD subtype, smoking, cancer recurrence risk, and cancer stage, there was no increase in subsequent cancer with vedolizumab (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.36; 95% CI, 0.27-7.01) or ustekinumab (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.17-5.41). Patients with more than 1 biologic exposure also did not have an increased risk of subsequent cancer. CONCLUSIONS:Exposure to ustekinumab or vedolizumab in patients with IBD and a prior history of cancer does not appear to be associated with an increased risk of subsequent new or recurrent cancer.
PMID: 35262671
ISSN: 1536-4844
CID: 5182262

Crohn's disease active inflammation assessment with iodine density from dual-energy CT enterography: comparison with endoscopy and conventional interpretation

Dane, Bari; Kernizan, Amelia; O'Donnell, Thomas; Petrocelli, Robert; Rabbenou, Wendy; Bhattacharya, Sumona; Chang, Shannon; Megibow, Alec
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:To compare terminal ileum (TI) mucosal iodine density obtained at dual-energy CT enterography (DECTE) with conventional CT interpretation and endoscopy in patients with Crohn's disease (CD). MATERIALS AND METHODS/METHODS:) from the distal 2 cm ileum (TI) mucosa obtained using semiautomatic prototype software were compared with endoscopic assessment using Mann Whitney tests. The optimal threshold I% and I were determined from receiver operating curves (ROC). Sensitivity and specificity of conventional interpretation and determined iodine thresholds were compared using McNemar's test. Inter-reader agreement was assessed using kappa. A p < 0.05 indicated statistical significance. RESULTS:was similar for patients with and without endoscopic active inflammation (0.82[0.33]mg/mL and 0.77[0.28]mg/mL, respectively, p = 0.37). Conventional interpretation sensitivity and specificity (R1/R2) were 83.3%/91.7% and 72.7%/54.5%, respectively (all p > 0.05) with moderate inter-reader agreement (Κ = 0.542[95% CI 0.0202-0.088]). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Mean normalized iodine density is highly sensitive and specific for endoscopic active inflammation. DECTE could be considered as a surrogate to endoscopy in CD patients. Despite trends towards improved sensitivity and specificity compared with conventional interpretation, future larger studies are needed.
PMID: 35833999
ISSN: 2366-0058
CID: 5269322

Correlation between imaging findings on outpatient MR enterography (MRE) in adult patients with Crohn disease and progression to surgery within 5 years

Dane, Bari; Qian, Kun; Krieger, Rachel; Smereka, Paul; Foster, Jonathan; Huang, Chenchan; Chang, Shannon; Kim, Sooah
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:To retrospectively evaluate which key imaging features described by SAR-AGA on outpatient surveillance MRE correlate with progression to surgery in adults with CD. METHODS:52 CD patients imaged with outpatient MRE from 10/2015 to 12/2016 and with available clinical information were included. Two abdominal radiologists reviewed the MRE for the presence of active inflammation, intramural edema, restricted diffusion, stricture, probable stricture, ulceration, sacculation, simple fistula, complex fistula, sinus tract, inflammatory mass, abscess, perienteric inflammation, engorged vasa recta, fibrofatty proliferation, and perianal disease. Bowel wall thickness, length of bowel involvement, and degree of upstream dilation in strictures were quantified. Subsequent bowel resection, prior bowel surgery, and available laboratory values were recorded. The association between progression to surgery and imaging features was evaluated using a logistic regression model adjusting for demographics, prior bowel surgery, medication usage, and body mass index. RESULTS:19.2% (10/52) of patients progressed to surgery. Restricted diffusion, greater degree of upstream dilation from stricture, complex fistula, perienteric inflammation, and fibrofatty proliferation were significantly more common in patients progressing to surgery (all p < 0.05). κ for these significant findings ranged 0.568-0.885. Patients progressing to surgery had longer length bowel involvement (p = 0.03). Platelet count, ESR, and fecal calprotectin were significantly higher, and serum albumin was significantly lower in patients progressing to surgery. Prior bowel surgery, sex, age, and all other parameters were similar. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Radiologists should carefully describe bowel dilation upstream from strictures, penetrating and perienteric findings on outpatient MRE in CD patients, as these findings may herald progression to surgery.
PMID: 35916941
ISSN: 2366-0058
CID: 5286132

Management of pouch neoplasia: consensus guidelines from the International Ileal Pouch Consortium

Kiran, Ravi P; Kochhar, Gursimran S; Kariv, Revital; Rex, Douglas K; Sugita, Akira; Rubin, David T; Navaneethan, Udayakumar; Hull, Tracy L; Ko, Huaibin Mabel; Liu, Xiuli; Kachnic, Lisa A; Strong, Scott; Iacucci, Marietta; Bemelman, Willem; Fleshner, Philip; Safyan, Rachael A; Kotze, Paulo G; D'Hoore, André; Faiz, Omar; Lo, Simon; Ashburn, Jean H; Spinelli, Antonino; Bernstein, Charles N; Kane, Sunanda V; Cross, Raymond K; Schairer, Jason; McCormick, James T; Farraye, Francis A; Chang, Shannon; Scherl, Ellen J; Schwartz, David A; Bruining, David H; Philpott, Jessica; Bentley-Hibbert, Stuart; Tarabar, Dino; El-Hachem, Sandra; Sandborn, William J; Silverberg, Mark S; Pardi, Darrell S; Church, James M; Shen, Bo
Surveillance pouchoscopy is recommended for patients with restorative proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis in ulcerative colitis or familial adenomatous polyposis, with the surveillance interval depending on the risk of neoplasia. Neoplasia in patients with ileal pouches mainly have a glandular source and less often are of squamous cell origin. Various grades of neoplasia can occur in the prepouch ileum, pouch body, rectal cuff, anal transition zone, anus, or perianal skin. The main treatment modalities are endoscopic polypectomy, endoscopic ablation, endoscopic mucosal resection, endoscopic submucosal dissection, surgical local excision, surgical circumferential resection and re-anastomosis, and pouch excision. The choice of the treatment modality is determined by the grade, location, size, and features of neoplastic lesions, along with patients' risk of neoplasia and comorbidities, and local endoscopic and surgical expertise.
PMID: 35798022
ISSN: 2468-1253
CID: 5280562

Treatment Patterns and Standardized Outcome Assessments Among Patients With Inflammatory Conditions of the Pouch in a Prospective Multicenter Registry

Barnes, Edward L; Deepak, Parakkal; Beniwal-Patel, Poonam; Raffals, Laura; Kayal, Maia; Dubinsky, Marla; Chang, Shannon; Higgins, Peter D R; Barr, Jennifer I; Galanko, Joseph; Jiang, Yue; Cross, Raymond K; Long, Millie D; Herfarth, Hans H
Background/UNASSIGNED:Much of our understanding about the natural history of pouch-related disorders has been generated from selected populations. We designed a geographically diverse, prospective registry to study the disease course among patients with 1 of 4 inflammatory conditions of the pouch. The primary objectives in this study were to demonstrate the feasibility of a prospective pouch registry and to evaluate the predominant treatment patterns for pouch-related disorders. Methods/UNASSIGNED:We used standardized diagnostic criteria to prospectively enroll patients with acute pouchitis, chronic antibiotic-dependent pouchitis (CADP), chronic antibiotic refractory pouchitis (CARP), or Crohn's disease (CD) of the pouch. We obtained detailed clinical and demographic data at the time of enrollment, along with patient-reported outcome (PRO) measures. Results/UNASSIGNED:< .001). Among patients with active disease at the time of enrollment, 23% with CARP and 40% with CD of the pouch were in clinical remission at 6 months after enrollment. Conclusions/UNASSIGNED:In a population where most patients had refractory inflammatory conditions of the pouch, we established a framework to evaluate PROs and clinical effectiveness. This infrastructure will be valuable for long-term studies of real-world effectiveness for pouch-related disorders.
PMID: 36082341
ISSN: 2631-827x
CID: 5337272