Treatment of pouchitis, Crohn's disease, cuffitis, and other inflammatory disorders of the pouch: consensus guidelines from the International Ileal Pouch Consortium
Pouchitis, Crohn's disease of the pouch, cuffitis, polyps, and extraintestinal manifestations of inflammatory bowel disease are common inflammatory disorders of the ileal pouch. Acute pouchitis is treated with oral antibiotics and chronic pouchitis often requires anti-inflammatory therapy, including the use of biologics. Aetiological factors for secondary pouchitis should be evaluated and managed accordingly. Crohn's disease of the pouch is usually treated with biologics and its stricturing and fistulising complications can be treated with endoscopy or surgery. The underlying cause of cuffitis determines treatment strategies. Endoscopic polypectomy is recommended for large, symptomatic inflammatory polyps and polyps in the cuff. The management principles of extraintestinal manifestations of inflammatory bowel disease in patients with pouches are similar to those in patients without pouches.
Implementation of an Inpatient IBD Service Is Associated with Improvement in Quality of Care and Long-Term Outcomes
BACKGROUND:There is wide variation in the quality of care of hospitalized patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Prior studies have demonstrated that a specialized inpatient IBD service improves short-term outcomes. In this study, we assessed the impact of a dedicated IBD service on the quality of care and long-term outcomes. METHODS:This retrospective cohort study included adult patients admitted for a complication of IBD between March 2017 and February 2019 to a tertiary referral center. In March 2018, a dedicated inpatient IBD service co-managed by IBD gastroenterologists and colorectal surgeons was implemented. Quality of care outcomes included C. difficile stool testing, confirmed VTE prophylaxis administration and opiate avoidance. Long-term outcomes were clinical remission, IBD-related surgery, ED visits, and hospital readmissions at 90 days and 12 months. RESULTS:In total, 143 patients were included; 66 pre- and 77 post-implementation of the IBD service. Fifty-two percent had ulcerative colitis and 48% had Crohn's disease. After implementation, there was improvement in C.difficile testing (90% vs. 76%, Pâ€‰=â€‰0.04), early VTE prophylaxis (92% vs. 77%, Pâ€‰=â€‰0.01) and decreases in narcotic use (14% vs. 30%, Pâ€‰=â€‰0.02), IBD-related ED visits at 90Â days (7% vs 18%, Pâ€‰=â€‰0.03) and 12Â months (16% vs 30%, Pâ€‰=â€‰0.04), and IBD readmissions at 90Â days (16% vs. 30%, Pâ€‰=â€‰0.04). There were no differences in rates of clinical remission or surgery. CONCLUSIONS:The creation of a dedicated inpatient IBD service improved quality of IBD care and reduced post-discharge ED visits and readmissions and broader implementation of this strategy may help optimize care of hospitalized IBD patients.
Inter-reader agreement of the Society of Abdominal Radiology-American Gastroenterological Association (SAR-AGA) consensus reporting for key phenotypes at MR enterography in adults with Crohn disease: impact of radiologist experience
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:To assess inter-reader agreement of key features from the SAR-AGA recommendations for the interpretation and reporting of MRE in adult patients with CD, focusing on the impact of radiologist experience on inter-reader agreement of CD phenotypes. METHODS:Two experienced and two less-experienced radiologists retrospectively evaluated 99 MRE in CD patients (50 initial MRE, 49 follow-up MRE) performed from 1/1/2019 to 3/20/2020 for the presence of active bowel inflammation (stomach, proximal small bowel, ileum, colon), stricture, probable stricture, penetrating disease, and perianal disease. The MRE protocol did not include dedicated perianal sequences. Inter-rater agreement was determined for each imaging feature using prevalence-adjusted bias-adjusted kappa and compared by experience level. RESULTS:All readers had almost-perfect inter-reader agreement (Îºâ€‰>â€‰0.90) for penetrating disease, abscess, and perianal abscess in all 99 CD patients. All readers had strong inter-reader agreement (Îº: 0.80-0.90) in 99 CD patients for active ileum inflammation, proximal small bowel inflammation, and stricture. Less-experienced readers had significantly lower inter-reader agreement for active ileum inflammation on initial than follow-up MRE (Îº 0.68 versus 0.96, pâ€‰=â€‰0.018) and for strictures on follow-up than initial MRE (Îº 0.76 versus 1.0, pâ€‰=â€‰0.027). Experienced readers had significantly lower agreement for perianal fistula on follow-up than initial MRE (Îº: 0.55 versus 0.92, pâ€‰=â€‰0.008). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:There was strong to almost-perfect inter-reader agreement for key CD phenotypes described in the SAR-AGA consensus recommendations including active ileum and proximal small bowel inflammation, stricture, penetrating disease, abscess, and perianal abscess. Areas of lower inter-reader agreement could be targeted for future education efforts to further standardize CD MRE reporting. Dedicated perianal sequences should be included on follow-up MRE.
Comparative Evaluation of Conventional Stool Testing and Multiplex Molecular Panel in Outpatients With Relapse of Inflammatory Bowel Disease
BACKGROUND:Differentiating between enteric infection and relapse of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a common clinical challenge. Few studies have evaluated the impact of multiplex gastrointestinal polymerase chain reaction (GI PCR) pathogen panels on clinical practice compared to stool culture. Our aim was to compare the impact of PCR stool testing to conventional stool testing in outpatients presenting with relapse of IBD. METHODS:In a retrospective cohort study of outpatients with IBD presenting to NYU Langone Health with flare from September 2015 to April 2019, we compared patients who underwent stool testing with GI PCR to age-, sex-, and IBD-subtype-matched patients who underwent culture and ova and parasite exam (conventional testing). The primary outcome was IBD therapy escalation after testing. Secondary outcomes included rates of posttesting endoscopy, abdominal radiography, antibiotics, and IBD-related emergency department visits, hospitalizations, and abdominal surgeries. RESULTS:We identified 134 patients who underwent GI PCR matched to 134 patients who underwent conventional testing. Pathogens were more frequently identified on GI PCR (26 vs 5%; Pâ€…<â€…0.01). We found that GI PCR was associated with less escalation in IBD therapy (16 vs 29%; Pâ€…<â€…0.01) and fewer posttest endoscopies (10% vs 18%; Pâ€…=â€…0.04), with no differences in IBD outcomes. On multivariate analysis, testing with GI PCR was associated with an odds ratio of 0.26 (95% confidence interval, 0.08-0.84; Pâ€…=â€…0.02) for escalation of IBD therapies. CONCLUSIONS:Testing with GI PCR was associated with higher rates of pathogen detection and lower rates of IBD therapy escalation and endoscopy in the outpatient setting. These changes in management were not associated with a difference in IBD outcomes.
Diagnosis and classification of ileal pouch disorders: consensus guidelines from the International Ileal Pouch Consortium
Restorative proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis is an option for most patients with ulcerative colitis or familial adenomatous polyposis who require colectomy. Although the construction of an ileal pouch substantially improves patients' health-related quality of life, the surgery is, directly or indirectly, associated with various structural, inflammatory, and functional adverse sequelae. Furthermore, the surgical procedure does not completely abolish the risk for neoplasia. Patients with ileal pouches often present with extraintestinal, systemic inflammatory conditions. The International Ileal Pouch Consortium was established to create this consensus document on the diagnosis and classification of ileal pouch disorders using available evidence and the panellists' expertise. In a given individual, the condition of the pouch can change over time. Therefore, close monitoring of the activity and progression of the disease is essential to make accurate modifications in the diagnosis and classification in a timely manner.
Crohn Disease Active Inflammation Assessment with Iodine Density from Dual-Energy CT Enterography: Comparison with Histopathologic Analysis
Background Dual-energy CT enterography (DECTE) has been shown to be useful in characterizing Crohn disease activity compared with clinical markers of inflammation but, to the knowledge of the authors, comparison has not been made with histopathologic specimens. Purpose To compare mucosal iodine density obtained at DECTE from Crohn disease-affected bowel with histopathologic specimens from surgically resected ileocolectomy bowel segments or terminal ileum colonoscopic biopsies in the same patients. Materials and Methods This was a retrospective study. Bowel segments in adults with Crohn disease who underwent DECTE from January 2017 to April 2019 within 90 days of ileocolectomy or colonoscopy were retrospectively evaluated with prototype software allowing the semiautomatic determination of inner hyperdense bowel wall (mucosal) mean iodine density, normalized to the aorta. Mean normalized iodine density and clinical activity indexes (Crohn Disease Activity Index [CDAI] and Harvey-Bradshaw Index [HBI]) were compared with histologic active inflammation grades by using two-tailed t tests. Receiver operating characteristic curves were generated for mean normalized iodine density, CDAI, and HBI to determine sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy. A P value less than .05 was considered to indicate statistical significance. Results The following 16 patients were evaluated (mean age, 41 years Â± 14 [standard deviation]): 10 patients (five men, five women; mean age, 41 years Â± 15) with 19 surgical resection specimens and six patients with terminal ileum colonoscopic mucosal biopsies (four men, two women; mean age, 43 years Â± 14). Mean normalized iodine density was 16.5% Â± 5.7 for bowel segments with no active inflammation (n = 8) and 34.7% Â± 9.7 for segments with any active inflammation (n = 17; P < .001). A 20% mean normalized iodine density threshold had sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of 17 of 17 (100%; 95% CI: 80.5, 100), six of eight (75%; 95% CI: 35, 97), and 23 of 25 (92%; 95% CI: 74, 99), respectively, for active inflammation. Clinical indexes were similar for patients with and without active inflammation at histopathologic analysis (CDAI score, 261 vs 251, respectively [P = .77]; HBI score, 7.8 vs 6.4, respectively [P = .36]). Conclusion Iodine density from dual-energy CT enterography may be used as a radiologic marker of Crohn disease activity as correlated with histopathologic analysis. Â© RSNA, 2021 See also the editorial by Ohliger in this issue.
Indications, functional and quality of life outcomes of new pouch creation during re-do ileal pouch anal anastomosis: A comparative study with existing pouch salvage
BACKGROUND:Salvage of the existing ileal pouch is favored during re-do ileal pouch anal anastomosis if the pouch is not damaged after pelvic dissection and there are no other mechanical reasons that may necessitate construction of a new pouch. Excision of the existing pouch may be associated with some concerns for short-bowel syndrome and poor functional outcomes. This study aimed to report indications and compare functional and quality of life outcomes of new pouch creation versus salvage of the existing pouch during re-do ileal pouch anal anastomosis. METHODS:Patients who underwent re-do ileal pouch anal anastomosis between September 2016 and June 2020 were included. The reasons for pouch excision and new pouch creation were reported. Perioperative, functional outcomes and quality of life were compared between patients who had creation of a new pouch versus salvage of existing pouch. RESULTS:A total of 105 patients with re-do ileal pouch anal anastomosis (new pouch, nÂ = 63) were included. Most common indications for a new pouch creation were chronic pelvic infection that compromised the integrity and viability of the existing pouch (nÂ = 32) and small pouch (nÂ = 21). No patient developed short-bowel syndrome. The number of bowel movements, daily restrictions and Cleveland Global Quality of Life score scores were similar between 2 groups. Day-time seepage, day-time and night-time pad usage were more common after new pouch creation. Two-year pouch survival rates were comparable (new pouch: 92% versus existing pouch: 85%, PÂ = .31). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:New pouch creation can be safely performed at the time of re-do ileal pouch anal anastomosis. It provides acceptable functional and quality of life outcomes if existing pouch salvage is not feasible.
Ustekinumab Does Not Increase Risk of Adverse Events: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials
GOALS AND BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE:Ustekinumab (UST) is a monoclonal antibody inhibitor of IL-12/IL-23 approved for the treatment of Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). We conducted a meta-analysis to compare rates of adverse events (AEs) in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of UST for all indications. STUDY/METHODS:A systematic search was performed of MEDLINE, Embase, and PubMed databases through November 2019. Study inclusion included RCTs comparing UST to placebo or other biologics in patients aged 18Â years or older with a diagnosis of an autoimmune condition. RESULTS:Thirty RCTs with 16,068 patients were included in our analysis. Nine thousand six hundred and twenty-six subjects were included in the UST vs placebo analysis. There was no significant difference in serious or mild/moderate AEs between UST and placebo with an OR of 0.83 (95% CI 0.66, 1.05) and 1.08 (95% CI 0.99, 1.18), respectively, over a median follow-up time of 16Â weeks. In a sub-analysis of CD and UC trials, no difference in serious or mild/moderate AEs in UST versus placebo was seen. CONCLUSIONS:UST was not associated with an increase in short-term risk of AEs.
From the American Epicenter: Coronavirus Disease 2019 in Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease in the New York City Metropolitan Area
BACKGROUND:We aimed to characterize patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS:We performed a case series of patients with IBD and confirmed or highly suspected COVID-19 to assess rates of severe outcomes. RESULTS:We identified 83 patients with IBD with confirmed (54%) or highly suspected (46%) COVID-19. The overall hospitalization rate was 6%, generally comprising patients with active Crohn's disease or older men with comorbidities, and 1 patient expired. DISCUSSION/CONCLUSIONS:In this series of patients with IBD, severe outcomes of COVID-19 were rare and comparable to similarly aged individuals in the general population.
Single Cell Transcriptional Survey of Ileal-Anal Pouch Immune Cells from Ulcerative Colitis Patients
BACKGROUND & AIMS/OBJECTIVE:Restorative proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis is a surgical procedure in patients with ulcerative colitis refractory to medical therapies. Pouchitis, the most common complication, is inflammation of the pouch of unknown etiology. To define how the intestinal immune system is distinctly organized during pouchitis, we analyzed tissues from patients with and without pouchitis and from patients with ulcerative colitis using single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq). METHODS:We examined pouch lamina propria CD45+ hematopoietic cells from intestinal tissues of ulcerative colitis patients with (n=15) and without an ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (n=11). Further in silico meta-analysis was performed to generate transcriptional interaction networks and identify biomarkers for patients with inflamed pouches. RESULTS:In addition to tissue-specific signatures, we identified a population of IL1B/LYZ+ myeloid cells and FOXP3/BATF+ T cells that distinguish inflamed tissues which we further validated in other single cell RNA-seq datasets from IBD patients. Cell type specific transcriptional markers obtained from single-cell RNA-sequencing was used to infer representation from bulk RNA sequencing datasets, which further implicated myeloid cells expressing IL1B and S100A8/A9 calprotectin as interacting with stromal cells, and Bacteroidiales and Clostridiales bacterial taxa. We found that non-responsiveness to anti-integrin biologic therapies in ulcerative colitis patients was associated with the signature of IL1B+/LYZ+ myeloid cells in a subset of patients. CONCLUSIONS:Features of intestinal inflammation during pouchitis and ulcerative colitis are similar, which may have clinical implications for the management of pouchitis. scRNA-seq enables meta-analysis of multiple studies, which may facilitate the identification of biomarkers to personalize therapy for IBD patients.