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Association of Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate and Albuminuria with Venous Thromboembolism

Zheng, Zhong; Pandit, Krutika; Chang, Alex R; Shin, Jung-Im; Charytan, David M; Grams, Morgan E; Surapaneni, Aditya
BACKGROUND:Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has been implicated as a risk factor for venous thromboembolism, but the evidence is limited to relatively healthy populations. The objective of the current study was to discern whether parameters of kidney function and damage are associated with the occurrence of venous thromboembolism after hospitalization. METHODS:We conducted a retrospective study including 23,899 and 11,552 adult individuals hospitalized within Geisinger Health System and NYU Langone Health from 2004 to 2019 and 2012 to 2022, respectively. A Poisson model was used to evaluate adjusted incidence rates of venous thromboembolism according to estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and albuminuria categories in each cohort. Cox proportional hazards models were used to analyze associations of eGFR and urinary albumin to creatinine ratio (UACR) with venous thromboembolism and hazard ratios were meta-analyzed across cohorts. RESULTS:Both lower eGFR and higher UACR were associated with higher risks of venous thromboembolism. In the Geisinger cohort, the incidence of venous thromboembolism after hospital discharge ranged from 10.7 (95% CI 9.2 - 12.6) events per 1000 person-years in individuals in G1A1 (eGFR >90 mL/min/1.73 m2 and UACR <30 mg/g) to 27.7 (95% CI 20.6 - 37.2) events per 1000 person-years in individuals with G4-5A3 (eGFR <30 mL/min/1.73 m2 and UACR >300 mg/g). A similar pattern was observed in the NYU cohort. Meta-analyses of the two cohorts showed that every 10 mL/min/1.73m2 reduction in eGFR below 60 mL/min/1.73m2 was associated with a 6% higher risk of venous thromboembolism (HR 1.06 [1.02 - 1.11], P = 0.01), and each two-fold higher UACR was associated with a 5% higher risk of venous thromboembolism (HR 1.05 [1.03 - 1.07], P <0.001). CONCLUSIONS:Both eGFR and UACR were independently associated with higher risk of venous thromboembolism after hospitalization. The incidence rate was higher with greater severity of CKD.
PMID: 37971889
ISSN: 1555-905x
CID: 5610872

Organic Pollutant Exposure and CKD: A Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort Pilot Study

Charytan, David M; Wu, Wenbo; Liu, Mengling; Li, Zhong-Min; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Trasande, Leonardo; Pal, Vineet Kumar; Lee, Sunmi; Trachtman, Howard; Appel, Lawrence J.; Chen, Jing; Cohen, Debbie L.; Feldman, Harold I.; Go, Alan S.; Lash, James P.; Nelson, Robert G.; Rahman, Mahboob; Rao, Panduranga S.; Shah, Vallabh O; Unruh, Mark L
ISSN: 2590-0595
CID: 5634782

The design and baseline characteristics for the HOPE Consortium Trial to reduce pain and opioid use in hemodialysis

Dember, Laura M; Hsu, Jesse Y; Bernardo, Leah; Cavanaugh, Kerri L; Charytan, David M; Crowley, Susan T; Cukor, Daniel; Doorenbos, Ardith Z; Edwards, David A; Esserman, Denise; Fischer, Michael J; Jhamb, Manisha; Joffe, Steven; Johansen, Kirsten L; Kalim, Sahir; Keefe, Francis J; Kimmel, Paul L; Krebs, Erin E; Kuzla, Natalie; Mehrotra, Rajnish; Mishra, Puneet; Pellegrino, Bethany; Steel, Jennifer L; Unruh, Mark L; White, David M; Yabes, Jonathan G; Becker, William C; ,
The HOPE Consortium Trial to Reduce Pain and Opioid Use in Hemodialysis (HOPE Trial) is a multicenter randomized trial addressing chronic pain among patients receiving maintenance hemodialysis for end-stage kidney disease. The trial uses a sequential, multiple assignment design with a randomized component for all participants (Phase 1) and a non-randomized component for a subset of participants (Phase 2). During Phase 1, participants are randomized to Pain Coping Skills Training (PCST), an intervention designed to increase self-efficacy for managing pain, or Usual Care. PCST consists of weekly, live, coach-led cognitive behavioral therapy sessions delivered by video- or tele-conferencing for 12 weeks followed by daily interactive voice response sessions delivered by telephone for an additional 12 weeks. At 24 weeks (Phase 2), participants in both the PCST and Usual Care groups taking prescription opioid medications at an average dose of ≥20 morphine milligram equivalents per day are offered buprenorphine, a partial opioid agonist with a more favorable safety profile than full-agonist opioids. All participants are followed for 36 weeks. The primary outcome is pain interference ascertained at 12 weeks for the primary analysis. Secondary outcomes include additional patient-reported measures and clinical outcomes including falls, hospitalizations, and death. Exploratory outcomes include acceptability, tolerability, and efficacy of buprenorphine. The enrollment target of 640 participants was met 27 months after trial initiation. The findings of the trial will inform the management of chronic pain, a common and challenging issue for patients treated with maintenance hemodialysis. NCT04571619.
PMID: 38086444
ISSN: 1559-2030
CID: 5589202

Chronic kidney disease and risk of kidney or urothelial malignancy: systematic review and meta-analysis

Brooks, Emily R; Siriruchatanon, Mutita; Prabhu, Vinay; Charytan, David M; Huang, William C; Chen, Yu; Kang, Stella K
BACKGROUND:Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is highly prevalent, affecting approximately 11% of U.S. adults. Multiple studies have evaluated a potential association between CKD and urinary tract malignancies. Summary estimates of urinary tract malignancy risk in CKD patients with and without common co-existing conditions may guide clinical practice recommendations. METHODS:Four electronic databases were searched for original cohort studies evaluating the association between CKD and urinary tract cancers (kidney cancer and urothelial carcinoma) through May 25, 2023, in persons with at least moderate CKD and no dialysis or kidney transplantation. Quality assessment was performed for studies meeting inclusion criteria using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Meta-analysis with a random-effects model was performed for unadjusted incidence rate ratios (IRR) as well as adjusted hazard ratios (aHR) for confounding conditions (diabetes, hypertension, and/or tobacco use), shown to have association with kidney cancer and urothelial carcinoma. Sub-analysis was conducted for estimates associated with CKD stages separately. RESULTS:Six cohort studies with 8 617 563 persons were included. Overall, methodological quality of the studies was good. CKD was associated with both higher unadjusted incidence and adjusted hazard of kidney cancer (IRR, 3.36; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.32-4.88; aHR, 2.04; 95% CI, 1.77-2.36) and urothelial cancer (IRR, 3.96; 95% CI, 2.44-6.40; aHR, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.22-1.68) compared with persons without CKD. Examining incident urinary tract cancers by CKD severity, risks were elevated in stage 3 CKD (kidney aHR, 1.89; 95% CI, 1.56-2.30; urothelial carcinoma aHR, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.18-1.65) as well as in stages 4/5 CKD (kidney cancer aHR, 2.30; 95% CI, 2.00-2.66, UC aHR, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.04-1.49). CONCLUSIONS:Even moderate CKD is associated with elevated risk of kidney cancer and UC. Providers should consider these elevated risks when managing individuals with CKD, particularly when considering evaluation for the presence and etiology of hematuria.
PMID: 38037426
ISSN: 1460-2385
CID: 5617042

Gender Disparities in Nephrology Trials: A Meta-Analysis of Enrollment Trends between 2000 and 2021

Soomro, Qandeel H; McCarthy, Angela; Charytan, Amalya M; Keane, Colin; Varela, Dalila; Ways, Javaughn; Ramos, Giana; Nicholson, Joey; Charytan, David M
KEY POINTS:Women are under-represented in high-impact nephrology trials. Trends remain consistent over the past 20 years and on the basis of target condition. Addressing the imbalanced enrollment of women in trials could improve disparities in care and outcomes of kidney disease. BACKGROUND:Gender disparities in the incidence and complications of kidney diseases are well described. However, analysis to elucidate gender disparities in enrollment in nephrology randomized clinical trials (RCTs) has not been performed. METHODS:) kidney transplantation. We summarized trial characteristics according to reporting and enrollment of participants, enrollment site, publication year, trial category, and intervention type. Outcomes of interest include the proportion of enrolled male and female participants overall and according to trial category. In addition, we compared enrollment trends in the United States and globally to estimates of kidney disease prevalence. RESULTS:=133,082). Male participants formed most of trial cohorts in AKI (65%), CKD (62%), dialysis (55%), and transplant trials (65%), whereas women were majority enrollees in GN trials (61%). CKD trials under-represented women in both US trials and worldwide. CONCLUSIONS:Women are under-represented in high-impact nephrology trials with the exception of GN trials. This imbalance may contribute to disparities in outcomes and gaps in the care of women with kidney disease.
PMID: 37889579
ISSN: 2641-7650
CID: 5590252

The Association of Ejection Fraction With Hospital-Associated Cardiac Arrest and Heart Failure Hospitalization Differs According to Baseline Estimated GFR

Ravi, Katherine Scovner; Mavrakanas, Thomas A; Charytan, David M; Mc Causland, Finnian R
INTRODUCTION/UNASSIGNED:Chronic kidney disease (CKD) and left ventricular (LV) dysfunction are risk factors for cardiovascular events. We explore whether the association of LV ejection fraction (LVEF) with cardiac arrest, heart failure hospitalization, and all-cause mortality differs across stages of kidney impairment. METHODS/UNASSIGNED:and without end-stage kidney disease (ESKD). Cox regression models, incorporating an interaction term for eGFR and LVEF, were fit and adjusted for relevant covariates. RESULTS/UNASSIGNED:-interaction 0.26). CONCLUSION/UNASSIGNED:, the association of LVEF with cardiac arrest and heart failure hospitalization is attenuated at lower levels of kidney function. Further research is required to elucidate what factors beyond LVEF drive these observations.
PMID: 38025227
ISSN: 2468-0249
CID: 5617222

Point-of-Care Chemistry-Guided Dialysate Adjustment to Reduce Arrhythmias: A Pilot Trial

Pun, Patrick H; Santacatterina, Michele; Ways, Javaughn; Redd, Cynthia; Al-Khatib, Sana M; Smyth-Melsky, Jane; Chinitz, Larry; Charytan, David M
INTRODUCTION/UNASSIGNED:Excessive dialytic potassium (K) and acid removal are risk factors for arrhythmias; however, treatment-to-treatment dialysate modification is rarely performed. We conducted a multicenter, pilot randomized study to test the safety, feasibility, and efficacy of 4 point-of-care (POC) chemistry-guided protocols to adjust dialysate K and bicarbonate (HCO3) in outpatient hemodialysis (HD) clinics. METHODS/UNASSIGNED:Participants received implantable cardiac loop monitors and crossed over to four 4-week periods with adjustment of dialysate K or HCO3 at each treatment according to pre-HD POC values: (i) K-removal minimization, (ii) K-removal maximization, (iii) Acidosis avoidance, and (iv) Alkalosis avoidance. The primary end point was percentage of treatments adhering to the intervention algorithm. Secondary endpoints included pre-HD K and HCO variability, adverse events, and rates of clinically significant arrhythmias (CSAs). RESULTS/UNASSIGNED:Nineteen subjects were enrolled in the study. HD staff completed POC testing and correctly adjusted the dialysate in 604 of 708 (85%) of available HD treatments. There was 1 K ≤3, 29 HCO3 <20 and 2 HCO3 >32 mEq/l and no serious adverse events related to study interventions. Although there were no significant differences between POC results and conventional laboratory measures drawn concurrently, intertreatment K and HCO3 variability was high. There were 45 CSA events; most were transient atrial fibrillation (AF), with numerically fewer events during the alkalosis avoidance period (8) and K-removal maximization period (3) compared to other intervention periods (17). There were no significant differences in CSA duration among interventions. CONCLUSION/UNASSIGNED:Algorithm-guided K/HCO3 adjustment based on POC testing is feasible. The variability of intertreatment K and HCO3 suggests that a POC-laboratory-guided algorithm could markedly alter dialysate-serum chemistry gradients. Definitive end point-powered trials should be considered.
PMID: 38025214
ISSN: 2468-0249
CID: 5617212

Deep Learning on Electrocardiograms for Prediction of In-hospital Intradialytic Hypotension in ESKD Patients

Vaid, Akhil; Takkavatakarn, Kullaya; Divers, Jasmin; Charytan, David M; Chan, Lili; Nadkarni, Girish N
PMID: 37418626
ISSN: 2641-7650
CID: 5539462

The sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitor canagliflozin does not increase risk of non-genital skin and soft tissue infections in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus: A pooled post hoc analysis from the CANVAS Program and CREDENCE randomized double-blind trials

Kang, Amy; Smyth, Brendan; Neuen, Brendon L; Heerspink, Hiddo J L; Di Tanna, Gian Luca; Zhang, Hong; Arnott, Clare; Hockham, Carinna; Agarwal, Rajiv; Bakris, George; Charytan, David M; de Zeeuw, Dick; Greene, Tom; Levin, Adeera; Pollock, Carol; Wheeler, David C; Mahaffey, Kenneth W; Perkovic, Vlado; Jardine, Meg J
AIMS/OBJECTIVE:To assess whether the sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitor canagliflozin affects risk of non-genital skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs). MATERIALS AND METHODS/METHODS:We performed a post hoc pooled individual participant analysis of the CANVAS Program and CREDENCE trials that randomized people with type 2 diabetes at high cardiovascular risk and/or with chronic kidney disease to either canagliflozin or placebo. Investigator-reported adverse events were assessed by two blinded authors following predetermined criteria for non-genital SSTIs. Risks of non-genital SSTIs, overall and within prespecified subgroups, and risk of non-genital fungal SSTIs, were analysed using Cox regression models. Factors associated with non-genital SSTIs were assessed using multivariable Cox regression models. RESULTS:Overall, 903 of 14 531 participants (6%) experienced non-genital SSTIs over a median follow-up of 26 months. No difference was observed in non-genital SSTI rates between canagliflozin and placebo (24.0 events/1000 person-years vs. 23.9 events/1000 person-years, respectively; hazard ratio [HR] 0.97, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.85-1.11; P = 0.70), with consistent results across subgroups (all P interaction > 0.05). The risk of recurrent events and non-genital fungal infection also did not differ significantly between canagliflozin and placebo (HR 1.06, 95% CI 0.94-1.19 [P = 0.32] and HR 1.18, 95% CI 0.88-1.60 [P = 0.27], respectively). Baseline factors independently associated with non-genital SSTIs were younger age, male sex, higher body mass index, higher glycated haemoglobin, lower estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), established peripheral vascular disease, and history of neuropathy. CONCLUSIONS:Canagliflozin did not affect risk of non-genital SSTIs or non-genital fungal SSTIs compared with placebo. These findings suggest that any SGLT2 inhibitor-mediated change in skin microenvironment is unlikely to have meaningful clinical consequences.
PMID: 37161691
ISSN: 1463-1326
CID: 5509342

Representation of Racial and Ethnic Minorities in Nephrology Clinical Trials: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Soomro, Qandeel H; McCarthy, Angela; Varela, Dalila; Keane, Colin; Ways, Javaughn; Charytan, Amalya M; Ramos, Giana; Nicholson, Joey; Charytan, David M
SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT:Racial and ethnic disparities in clinical trial enrollment are well described. However, whether these disparities are present in nephrology randomized clinical trials has not been previously reported. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of 380 randomized clinical trials involving different aspects of kidney disease published between 2000 and 2021. Our results indicate that worldwide reporting of race and ethnicity is poor and that White individuals account for most of the randomized participants with decreased enrollment of Black participants in more recent trials. However, trials conducted in the United States have representation of Black and Hispanic participants consistent with the population prevalence of disease and under-representation of Asian participants. BACKGROUND:Under-representation of racial and ethnic minorities in clinical trials could worsen disparities, but reporting and enrollment practices in nephrology randomized clinical trials have not been described. METHODS:PubMed was searched to capture randomized clinical trials for five kidney disease-related conditions published between 2000 and 2021 in ten high-impact journals. We excluded trials with <50 participants and pilot trials. Outcomes of interest were the proportion of trials reporting race and ethnicity and the proportions of enrolled participants in each race and ethnicity category. RESULTS:Among 380 trials worldwide, race was reported in just over half and ethnicity in 12%. Most enrolled participants were White, and Black individuals accounted for ≤10% of participants except in dialysis trials where they accounted for 26% of participants. However, Black participants were enrolled at high proportions relative to disease and population prevalence in US CKD, dialysis, and transplant trials representing 19% of participants in AKI, 26% in CKD, 44% in GN, 40% in dialysis, and 26% in transplant trials. Enrollment of Asian participants was low worldwide except in GN trials with marked under-representation in US CKD, dialysis, and transplant trials. Hispanic individuals represented only 13% of participants in US dialysis trials compared with 29% of US dialysis population. CONCLUSION:More complete reporting of race and ethnicity in nephrology trials is needed. Black and Hispanic patients are well-represented in kidney disease trials in the United States. Asian patients are poorly represented in kidney trials both globally and in the United States.
PMID: 37022114
ISSN: 1533-3450
CID: 5537172