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Insights from CREDENCE trial indicate an acute drop in estimated glomerular filtration rate during treatment with canagliflozin with implications for clinical practice

Oshima, Megumi; Jardine, Meg J; Agarwal, Rajiv; Bakris, George; Cannon, Christopher P; Charytan, David M; de Zeeuw, Dick; Edwards, Robert; Greene, Tom; Levin, Adeera; Lim, Soo Kun; Mahaffey, Kenneth W; Neal, Bruce; Pollock, Carol; Rosenthal, Norman; Wheeler, David C; Zhang, Hong; Zinman, Bernard; Perkovic, Vlado; Heerspink, Hiddo J L
Canagliflozin slows the progression of chronic kidney disease in patients with type 2 diabetes and induces a reversible acute drop in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), believed to be a hemodynamic effect. Predictors of the initial drop and its association with long-term eGFR trajectories and safety outcomes are unknown. To assess this, we performed a post-hoc analysis of 4289 participants in the CREDENCE trial with type 2 diabetes and chronic kidney disease equally split into treatment and placebo groups who had eGFR measured at both baseline and week three. The eGFR was categorized at week three as greater than a 10% decline; between 0 and 10% decline; and no decline. Long-term eGFR trajectories and safety outcomes were estimated in each category of acute eGFR change by linear mixed effects models and Cox regression after adjustment for baseline characteristics and medications use. Significantly more participants in the canagliflozin (45%) compared to the placebo (21%) group experienced an acute drop in eGFR over 10%. An over 30% drop occurred infrequently (4% of participants with canagliflozin and 2% with placebo). The odds ratio for a drop in eGFR over 10% with canagliflozin compared to placebo was significant at 3.03 (95% confidence interval 2.65, 3.47). Following the initial drop in eGFR, multivariable adjusted long-term eGFR trajectories, as well as overall and kidney safety profiles, in those treated with canagliflozin were similar across eGFR decline categories. Thus, although acute drops in eGFR over 10% occurred in nearly half of all participants following initiation of canagliflozin, the clinical benefit of canagliflozin was observed regardless. Additionally, safety outcomes were similar among subgroups of acute eGFR drop.
PMID: 33316282
ISSN: 1523-1755
CID: 4759462

Decreasing Incidence of AKI in Patients with COVID-19 critical illness in New York City

Charytan, David M; Parnia, Sam; Khatri, Minesh; Petrilli, Christopher M; Jones, Simon; Benstein, Judith; Horwitz, Leora I
Introduction/UNASSIGNED:Reports from the United States suggest that acute kidney injury (AKI) frequently complicates COVID-19, but understanding of AKI risks and outcomes is incomplete. Additionally, whether kidney outcomes have evolved during the course of the pandemic is unknown. Methods/UNASSIGNED:We used electronic records to identify COVID-19 patients with and without AKI admitted to 3 New York Hospitals between March 2 and August 25, 2020. Outcomes included AKI overall and according to admission week, AKI stage, the requirement for new renal replacement therapy (RRT), mortality and recovery of kidney function. Logistic regression was utilized to assess associations of patient characteristics and outcomes. Results/UNASSIGNED:Out of 4732 admissions 1386 (29.3%) patients had AKI. Among those with AKI, 717 (51.7%) had Stage 1, 132 (9.5%) Stage 2, 537 (38.7%) stage 3, and 237 (17.1%) required RRT initiation. In March 536/1648 (32.5%) of patients developed AKI compared with 15/87 (17.2%) in August (P<0.001 for monthly trend) whereas RRT initiation was required in 6.9% and 0% of admission, in March and August respectively. Mortality was higher with than without AKI (51.6% vs 8.6%) and was 71.9% in individuals requiring RRT. However, most patients with AKI who survived hospitalization (77%) recovered to within 0.3 mg/dL of baseline creatinine. Among those surviving to discharge, 62% discontinued RRT. Conclusions/UNASSIGNED:AKI impacts a high proportion of admitted COVID-19 patients and is associated with high mortality, particularly when RRT is required. AKI incidence appears to be decreasing over time and kidney function frequently recovers in those who survive.
PMCID:7857986
PMID: 33558853
ISSN: 2468-0249
CID: 4779502

Kidney, Cardiovascular, and Safety Outcomes of Canagliflozin according to Baseline Albuminuria: A CREDENCE Secondary Analysis

Jardine, Meg; Zhou, Zien; Lambers Heerspink, Hiddo J; Hockham, Carinna; Li, Qiang; Agarwal, Rajiv; Bakris, George L; Cannon, Christopher P; Charytan, David M; Greene, Tom; Levin, Adeera; Li, Jing-Wei; Neuen, Brendon L; Neal, Bruce; Oh, Richard; Oshima, Megumi; Pollock, Carol; Wheeler, David C; de Zeeuw, Dick; Zhang, Hong; Zinman, Bernard; Mahaffey, Kenneth W; Perkovic, Vlado
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:The kidney protective effects of renin-angiotensin system inhibitors are greater in people with higher levels of albuminuria at treatment initiation. Whether this applies to sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors is uncertain, particularly in patients with a very high urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR; ≥3000 mg/g). We examined the association between baseline UACR and the effects of the SGLT2 inhibitor, canagliflozin, on efficacy and safety outcomes in the Canagliflozin and Renal Endpoints in Diabetes with Established Nephropathy Clinical Evaluation (CREDENCE) randomized controlled trial. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS/METHODS:=506). In addition, we examined the effects of canagliflozin on UACR itself, eGFR slope, and the intermediate outcomes of glycated hemoglobin, body weight, and systolic BP. RESULTS:=0.02). Rates of kidney-related adverse events were lower with canagliflozin, with a greater relative reduction in higher UACR categories. CONCLUSIONS:Canagliflozin safely reduces kidney and cardiovascular events in people with type 2 diabetes and severely increased albuminuria. In this population, the relative kidney benefits were consistent over a range of albuminuria levels, with greatest absolute kidney benefit in those with an UACR ≥3000 mg/g. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRY NAME AND REGISTRATION NUMBER/UNASSIGNED:ClinicalTrials.gov: CREDENCE, NCT02065791. PODCAST/UNASSIGNED:This article contains a podcast at https://www.asn-online.org/media/podcast/CJASN/2021_02_22_CJN15260920_final.mp3.
PMID: 33619120
ISSN: 1555-905x
CID: 4814942

Cardiovascular autonomic nervous system dysfunction in chronic kidney disease and end-stage kidney disease: disruption of the complementary forces

Soomro, Qandeel H; Charytan, David M
PURPOSE OF REVIEW/OBJECTIVE:Several nontraditional risk factors have been the focus of research in an attempt to understand the disproportionately high cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) populations. One such category of risk factors is cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction. Its true prevalence in the CKD/ESKD population is unknown but existing evidence suggests it is common. Due to lack of standardized diagnostic and treatment options, this condition remains undiagnosed and untreated in many patients. In this review, we discuss current evidence pointing toward the role of autonomic nervous system (ANS) dysfunction in CKD, building off of crucial historical evidence and thereby highlighting the areas in need for future research interest. RECENT FINDINGS/RESULTS:There are several key mediators and pathways leading to cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction in CKD and ESKD. We review studies exploring the mechanisms involved and discuss the current measurement tools and indices to evaluate the ANS and their pitfalls. There is a strong line of evidence establishing the temporal sequence of worsening autonomic function and kidney function and vice versa. Evidence linking ANS dysfunction and arrhythmia, sudden cardiac death, intradialytic hypotension, heart failure and hypertension are discussed. SUMMARY/CONCLUSIONS:There is a need for early recognition and referral of CKD and ESKD patients suspected of cardiovascular ANS dysfunction to prevent the downstream effects described in this review.There are many unknowns in this area and a clear need for further research.
PMID: 33395034
ISSN: 1473-6543
CID: 4785732

Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in patients with severe respiratory failure from COVID-19

Shaefi, Shahzad; Brenner, Samantha K; Gupta, Shruti; O'Gara, Brian P; Krajewski, Megan L; Charytan, David M; Chaudhry, Sobaata; Mirza, Sara H; Peev, Vasil; Anderson, Mark; Bansal, Anip; Hayek, Salim S; Srivastava, Anand; Mathews, Kusum S; Johns, Tanya S; Leonberg-Yoo, Amanda; Green, Adam; Arunthamakun, Justin; Wille, Keith M; Shaukat, Tanveer; Singh, Harkarandeep; Admon, Andrew J; Semler, Matthew W; Hernán, Miguel A; Mueller, Ariel L; Wang, Wei; Leaf, David E
PURPOSE:Limited data are available on venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) in patients with severe hypoxemic respiratory failure from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: < 100). Patients were followed until hospital discharge, death, or a minimum of 60 days. We adjusted for confounding using a multivariable Cox model. RESULTS: < 80 (HR 0.55; 95% CI 0.40-0.77). CONCLUSION:In select patients with severe respiratory failure from COVID-19, ECMO may reduce mortality.
PMCID:7851810
PMID: 33528595
ISSN: 1432-1238
CID: 4799132

An Exploratory Qualitative Study of Patient and Caregiver Perspectives of Ambulatory Kidney Palliative Care

Bristol, Alycia A; Chaudhry, Sobaata; Assis, Dana; Wright, Rebecca; Moriyama, Derek; Harwood, Katherine; Brody, Abraham A; Charytan, David M; Chodosh, Joshua; Scherer, Jennifer S
OBJECTIVES/UNASSIGNED:The ideal clinical model to deliver palliative care to patients with advanced kidney disease is currently unknown. Internationally, ambulatory kidney palliative care clinics have emerged with positive outcomes, yet there is limited data from the United States (US). In this exploratory study we report perceptions of a US-based ambulatory kidney palliative care clinic from the perspective of patient and caregiver attendees. The objective of this study was to inform further improvement of our clinical program. METHODS/UNASSIGNED:Semi-structured interviews were conducted to elicit the patient and caregiver experience. Eleven interviews (8 patients with chronic kidney disease stage IV or V and 3 caregivers) were analyzed using qualitative description design. RESULTS/UNASSIGNED:We identified 2 themes: "Communication addressing the emotional and physical aspects of disease" and "Filling gaps in care"; Subthemes include perceived value in symptom management, assistance with coping with disease, engagement in advance care planning, program satisfaction and patient activation. SIGNIFICANCE OF RESULTS/UNASSIGNED:Qualitative analysis showed that attendees of an ambulatory kidney palliative care clinic found the clinic enhanced the management of their kidney disease and provided services that filled current gaps in their care. Shared experiences highlight the significant challenges of life with kidney disease and the possible benefits of palliative care for this population. Further study to determine the optimal model of care for kidney palliative care is needed. Inclusion of the patient and caregiver perspective will be essential in this development.
PMID: 33438435
ISSN: 1938-2715
CID: 4746812

Association Between Early Treatment With Tocilizumab and Mortality Among Critically Ill Patients With COVID-19

Gupta, Shruti; Wang, Wei; Hayek, Salim S; Chan, Lili; Mathews, Kusum S; Melamed, Michal L; Brenner, Samantha K; Leonberg-Yoo, Amanda; Schenck, Edward J; Radbel, Jared; Reiser, Jochen; Bansal, Anip; Srivastava, Anand; Zhou, Yan; Finkel, Diana; Green, Adam; Mallappallil, Mary; Faugno, Anthony J; Zhang, Jingjing; Velez, Juan Carlos Q; Shaefi, Shahzad; Parikh, Chirag R; Charytan, David M; Athavale, Ambarish M; Friedman, Allon N; Redfern, Roberta E; Short, Samuel A P; Correa, Simon; Pokharel, Kapil K; Admon, Andrew J; Donnelly, John P; Gershengorn, Hayley B; Douin, David J; Semler, Matthew W; Hernán, Miguel A; Leaf, David E
Importance:Therapies that improve survival in critically ill patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are needed. Tocilizumab, a monoclonal antibody against the interleukin 6 receptor, may counteract the inflammatory cytokine release syndrome in patients with severe COVID-19 illness. Objective:To test whether tocilizumab decreases mortality in this population. Design, Setting, and Participants:The data for this study were derived from a multicenter cohort study of 4485 adults with COVID-19 admitted to participating intensive care units (ICUs) at 68 hospitals across the US from March 4 to May 10, 2020. Critically ill adults with COVID-19 were categorized according to whether they received or did not receive tocilizumab in the first 2 days of admission to the ICU. Data were collected retrospectively until June 12, 2020. A Cox regression model with inverse probability weighting was used to adjust for confounding. Exposures:Treatment with tocilizumab in the first 2 days of ICU admission. Main Outcomes and Measures:Time to death, compared via hazard ratios (HRs), and 30-day mortality, compared via risk differences. Results:Among the 3924 patients included in the analysis (2464 male [62.8%]; median age, 62 [interquartile range {IQR}, 52-71] years), 433 (11.0%) received tocilizumab in the first 2 days of ICU admission. Patients treated with tocilizumab were younger (median age, 58 [IQR, 48-65] vs 63 [IQR, 52-72] years) and had a higher prevalence of hypoxemia on ICU admission (205 of 433 [47.3%] vs 1322 of 3491 [37.9%] with mechanical ventilation and a ratio of partial pressure of arterial oxygen to fraction of inspired oxygen of <200 mm Hg) than patients not treated with tocilizumab. After applying inverse probability weighting, baseline and severity-of-illness characteristics were well balanced between groups. A total of 1544 patients (39.3%) died, including 125 (28.9%) treated with tocilizumab and 1419 (40.6%) not treated with tocilizumab. In the primary analysis, during a median follow-up of 27 (IQR, 14-37) days, patients treated with tocilizumab had a lower risk of death compared with those not treated with tocilizumab (HR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.56-0.92). The estimated 30-day mortality was 27.5% (95% CI, 21.2%-33.8%) in the tocilizumab-treated patients and 37.1% (95% CI, 35.5%-38.7%) in the non-tocilizumab-treated patients (risk difference, 9.6%; 95% CI, 3.1%-16.0%). Conclusions and Relevance:Among critically ill patients with COVID-19 in this cohort study, the risk of in-hospital mortality in this study was lower in patients treated with tocilizumab in the first 2 days of ICU admission compared with patients whose treatment did not include early use of tocilizumab. However, the findings may be susceptible to unmeasured confounding, and further research from randomized clinical trials is needed.
PMCID:7577201
PMID: 33080002
ISSN: 2168-6114
CID: 4683922

AKI Treated with Renal Replacement Therapy in Critically Ill Patients with COVID-19

Gupta, Shruti; Coca, Steven G; Chan, Lili; Melamed, Michal L; Brenner, Samantha K; Hayek, Salim S; Sutherland, Anne; Puri, Sonika; Srivastava, Anand; Leonberg-Yoo, Amanda; Shehata, Alexandre M; Flythe, Jennifer E; Rashidi, Arash; Schenck, Edward J; Goyal, Nitender; Hedayati, S Susan; Dy, Rajany; Bansal, Anip; Athavale, Ambarish; Nguyen, H Bryant; Vijayan, Anitha; Charytan, David M; Schulze, Carl E; Joo, Min J; Friedman, Allon N; Zhang, Jingjing; Sosa, Marie Anne; Judd, Eric; Velez, Juan Carlos Q; Mallappallil, Mary; Redfern, Roberta E; Bansal, Amar D; Neyra, Javier A; Liu, Kathleen D; Renaghan, Amanda D; Christov, Marta; Molnar, Miklos Z; Sharma, Shreyak; Kamal, Omer; Boateng, Jeffery Owusu; Short, Samuel A P; Admon, Andrew J; Sise, Meghan E; Wang, Wei; Parikh, Chirag R; Leaf, David E
BACKGROUND:AKI is a common sequela of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, few studies have focused on AKI treated with RRT (AKI-RRT). METHODS:We conducted a multicenter cohort study of 3099 critically ill adults with COVID-19 admitted to intensive care units (ICUs) at 67 hospitals across the United States. We used multivariable logistic regression to identify patient-and hospital-level risk factors for AKI-RRT and to examine risk factors for 28-day mortality among such patients. RESULTS:A total of 637 of 3099 patients (20.6%) developed AKI-RRT within 14 days of ICU admission, 350 of whom (54.9%) died within 28 days of ICU admission. Patient-level risk factors for AKI-RRT included CKD, men, non-White race, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, higher body mass index, higher d-dimer, and greater severity of hypoxemia on ICU admission. Predictors of 28-day mortality in patients with AKI-RRT were older age, severe oliguria, and admission to a hospital with fewer ICU beds or one with greater regional density of COVID-19. At the end of a median follow-up of 17 days (range, 1-123 days), 403 of the 637 patients (63.3%) with AKI-RRT had died, 216 (33.9%) were discharged, and 18 (2.8%) remained hospitalized. Of the 216 patients discharged, 73 (33.8%) remained RRT dependent at discharge, and 39 (18.1%) remained RRT dependent 60 days after ICU admission. CONCLUSIONS:AKI-RRT is common among critically ill patients with COVID-19 and is associated with a hospital mortality rate of >60%. Among those who survive to discharge, one in three still depends on RRT at discharge, and one in six remains RRT dependent 60 days after ICU admission.
PMID: 33067383
ISSN: 1533-3450
CID: 4642792

A Systematic Review of the Incidence of Arrhythmias in Hemodialysis Patients Undergoing Long-Term Monitoring With Implantable Loop Recorders

Roberts, Paul R; Stromberg, Kurt; Johnson, Lawrence C; Wiles, Benedict M; Mavrakanas, Thomas A; Charytan, David M
Introduction/UNASSIGNED:Establishing the frequency and nature of arrhythmias in hemodialysis (HD) is an important step in improving outcomes of these patients. We undertook this systematic review and meta-analysis to characterize arrhythmia frequency in maintenance HD patients. Methods/UNASSIGNED:statistic was used to quantify heterogeneity. Results/UNASSIGNED: < 0.001) than the rate of bradycardia/asystole reported in the same patients. Incidence of atrial fibrillation (AF) varied significantly across the studies (from 0.07 to 0.83 patients per year) reflecting variable definitions (new-onset vs. total number of episodes). Conclusion/UNASSIGNED:The incidence of arrhythmias among chronic HD patients is high, with bradycardia/asystole occurring more frequently than ventricular arrhythmias. Additional studies to refine estimates particularly of AF are needed.
PMCID:7783576
PMID: 33426385
ISSN: 2468-0249
CID: 4762332

Acute Peritoneal Dialysis During the COVID-19 Pandemic at Bellevue Hospital in New York City

Caplin, Nina J; Zhadanova, Olga; Tandon, Manish; Thompson, Nathan; Patel, Dhwanil; Soomro, Qandeel; Ranjeeta, Fnu; Joseph, Leian; Scherer, Jennifer; Joshi, Shivam; Dyal, Betty; Chawla, Harminder; Iyer, Sitalakshmi; Bails, Douglas; Benstein, Judith; Goldfarb, David S; Gelb, Bruce; Amerling, Richard; Charytan, David M
ORIGINAL:0015108
ISSN: n/a
CID: 4874982