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Geographic and racial variability in kidney, cardiovascular and safety outcomes with canagliflozin: A secondary analysis of the CREDENCE randomized trial

Cardoza, Kathryn; Kang, Amy; Smyth, Brendan; Yi, Tae Won; Pollock, Carol; Agarwal, Rajiv; Bakris, George; Charytan, David M; de Zeeuw, Dick; Wheeler, David C; Zhang, Hong; Cannon, Christopher P; Perkovic, Vlado; Arnott, Clare; Levin, Adeera; Mahaffey, Kenneth W
AIM/OBJECTIVE:To explore the effect of canagliflozin on kidney and cardiovascular events and safety outcomes in individuals with type 2 diabetes and chronic kidney disease across geographic regions and racial groups. MATERIALS AND METHODS/METHODS:A stratified Cox proportional hazards model was used to assess efficacy and safety outcomes by geographic region and racial group. The primary composite outcome was a composite of end-stage kidney disease (ESKD), doubling of the serum creatinine (SCr) level, or death from kidney or cardiovascular causes. Secondary outcomes included: (i) cardiovascular death or heart failure (HF) hospitalization; (ii) cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction (MI) or stroke; (iii) HF hospitalization; (iv) doubling of the SCr level, ESKD or kidney death; (v) cardiovascular death; (vi) all-cause death; and (vii) cardiovascular death, MI, stroke, or hospitalization for HF or for unstable angina. RESULTS:The 4401 patients were divided into six geographic region subgroups: North America (n = 1182, 27%), Central and South America (n = 941, 21%), Eastern Europe (n = 947, 21%), Western Europe (n = 421, 10%), Asia (n = 749, 17%) and Other (n = 161, 4%). The analyses included four racial groups: White (n = 2931, 67%), Black or African American (n = 224, 5%), Asian (n = 877, 20%) and Other (n = 369, 8%). Canagliflozin reduced the relative risk of the primary composite outcome in the overall trial by 30% (hazard ratio 0.70, 95% confidence interval 0.59-0.82; P = 0.00001). Across geographic regions and racial groups, canagliflozin consistently reduced the primary composite endpoint without evidence of heterogeneity (interaction P values of 0.39 and 0.91, respectively) or significant safety outcome differences. CONCLUSIONS:Canagliflozin reduces the risk of kidney and cardiovascular events similarly across geographic regions and racial groups.
PMID: 38895796
ISSN: 1463-1326
CID: 5672102

Comparison of cardiac autonomic innervation in post-mortem tissue from individuals with kidney failure and preserved kidney function

Soomro, Qandeel; Mezzano, Valeria; Narula, Navneet; Rapkiewicz, Amy; Loomis, Cynthia; Charytan, David M
PMID: 38869950
ISSN: 1555-905x
CID: 5669312

New Insights on Cardiac Arrhythmias in Patients With Kidney Disease

Soomro, Qandeel H; Charytan, David M
The risk of arrhythmia and its management become increasingly complex as kidney disease progresses. This presents a multifaceted clinical challenge. Our discussion addresses these specific challenges relevant to patients as their kidney disease advances. We highlight numerous opportunities for enhancing the current standard of care within this realm. Additionally, this review delves into research concerning early detection, prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of various arrhythmias spanning the spectrum of kidney disease.
PMID: 38772780
ISSN: 1558-4488
CID: 5654452

Association of Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate and Albuminuria with Venous Thromboembolism

Zheng, Zhong; Pandit, Krutika; Chang, Alex R; Shin, Jung-Im; Charytan, David M; Grams, Morgan E; Surapaneni, Aditya
BACKGROUND:Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has been implicated as a risk factor for venous thromboembolism, but the evidence is limited to relatively healthy populations. The objective of the current study was to discern whether parameters of kidney function and damage are associated with the occurrence of venous thromboembolism after hospitalization. METHODS:We conducted a retrospective study including 23,899 and 11,552 adult individuals hospitalized within Geisinger Health System and NYU Langone Health from 2004 to 2019 and 2012 to 2022, respectively. A Poisson model was used to evaluate adjusted incidence rates of venous thromboembolism according to estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and albuminuria categories in each cohort. Cox proportional hazards models were used to analyze associations of eGFR and urinary albumin to creatinine ratio (UACR) with venous thromboembolism and hazard ratios were meta-analyzed across cohorts. RESULTS:Both lower eGFR and higher UACR were associated with higher risks of venous thromboembolism. In the Geisinger cohort, the incidence of venous thromboembolism after hospital discharge ranged from 10.7 (95% CI 9.2 - 12.6) events per 1000 person-years in individuals in G1A1 (eGFR >90 mL/min/1.73 m2 and UACR <30 mg/g) to 27.7 (95% CI 20.6 - 37.2) events per 1000 person-years in individuals with G4-5A3 (eGFR <30 mL/min/1.73 m2 and UACR >300 mg/g). A similar pattern was observed in the NYU cohort. Meta-analyses of the two cohorts showed that every 10 mL/min/1.73m2 reduction in eGFR below 60 mL/min/1.73m2 was associated with a 6% higher risk of venous thromboembolism (HR 1.06 [1.02 - 1.11], P = 0.01), and each two-fold higher UACR was associated with a 5% higher risk of venous thromboembolism (HR 1.05 [1.03 - 1.07], P <0.001). CONCLUSIONS:Both eGFR and UACR were independently associated with higher risk of venous thromboembolism after hospitalization. The incidence rate was higher with greater severity of CKD.
PMID: 37971889
ISSN: 1555-905x
CID: 5610872

Organic Pollutant Exposure and CKD: A Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort Pilot Study

Charytan, David M; Wu, Wenbo; Liu, Mengling; Li, Zhong-Min; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Trasande, Leonardo; Pal, Vineet Kumar; Lee, Sunmi; Trachtman, Howard; Appel, Lawrence J.; Chen, Jing; Cohen, Debbie L.; Feldman, Harold I.; Go, Alan S.; Lash, James P.; Nelson, Robert G.; Rahman, Mahboob; Rao, Panduranga S.; Shah, Vallabh O; Unruh, Mark L
ISSN: 2590-0595
CID: 5634782

New Insights on Cardiac Arrhythmias in Patients With Kidney Disease

Soomro, Qandeel H.; Charytan, David M.
The risk of arrhythmia and its management become increasingly complex as kidney disease progresses. This presents a multifaceted clinical challenge. Our discussion addresses these specific challenges relevant to patients as their kidney disease advances. We highlight numerous opportunities for enhancing the current standard of care within this realm. Additionally, this review delves into research concerning early detection, prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of various arrhythmias spanning the spectrum of kidney disease.
ISSN: 0270-9295
CID: 5660802

The design and baseline characteristics for the HOPE Consortium Trial to reduce pain and opioid use in hemodialysis

Dember, Laura M; Hsu, Jesse Y; Bernardo, Leah; Cavanaugh, Kerri L; Charytan, David M; Crowley, Susan T; Cukor, Daniel; Doorenbos, Ardith Z; Edwards, David A; Esserman, Denise; Fischer, Michael J; Jhamb, Manisha; Joffe, Steven; Johansen, Kirsten L; Kalim, Sahir; Keefe, Francis J; Kimmel, Paul L; Krebs, Erin E; Kuzla, Natalie; Mehrotra, Rajnish; Mishra, Puneet; Pellegrino, Bethany; Steel, Jennifer L; Unruh, Mark L; White, David M; Yabes, Jonathan G; Becker, William C; ,
The HOPE Consortium Trial to Reduce Pain and Opioid Use in Hemodialysis (HOPE Trial) is a multicenter randomized trial addressing chronic pain among patients receiving maintenance hemodialysis for end-stage kidney disease. The trial uses a sequential, multiple assignment design with a randomized component for all participants (Phase 1) and a non-randomized component for a subset of participants (Phase 2). During Phase 1, participants are randomized to Pain Coping Skills Training (PCST), an intervention designed to increase self-efficacy for managing pain, or Usual Care. PCST consists of weekly, live, coach-led cognitive behavioral therapy sessions delivered by video- or tele-conferencing for 12 weeks followed by daily interactive voice response sessions delivered by telephone for an additional 12 weeks. At 24 weeks (Phase 2), participants in both the PCST and Usual Care groups taking prescription opioid medications at an average dose of ≥20 morphine milligram equivalents per day are offered buprenorphine, a partial opioid agonist with a more favorable safety profile than full-agonist opioids. All participants are followed for 36 weeks. The primary outcome is pain interference ascertained at 12 weeks for the primary analysis. Secondary outcomes include additional patient-reported measures and clinical outcomes including falls, hospitalizations, and death. Exploratory outcomes include acceptability, tolerability, and efficacy of buprenorphine. The enrollment target of 640 participants was met 27 months after trial initiation. The findings of the trial will inform the management of chronic pain, a common and challenging issue for patients treated with maintenance hemodialysis. NCT04571619.
PMID: 38086444
ISSN: 1559-2030
CID: 5589202

Chronic kidney disease and risk of kidney or urothelial malignancy: systematic review and meta-analysis

Brooks, Emily R; Siriruchatanon, Mutita; Prabhu, Vinay; Charytan, David M; Huang, William C; Chen, Yu; Kang, Stella K
BACKGROUND:Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is highly prevalent, affecting approximately 11% of U.S. adults. Multiple studies have evaluated a potential association between CKD and urinary tract malignancies. Summary estimates of urinary tract malignancy risk in CKD patients with and without common co-existing conditions may guide clinical practice recommendations. METHODS:Four electronic databases were searched for original cohort studies evaluating the association between CKD and urinary tract cancers (kidney cancer and urothelial carcinoma) through May 25, 2023, in persons with at least moderate CKD and no dialysis or kidney transplantation. Quality assessment was performed for studies meeting inclusion criteria using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Meta-analysis with a random-effects model was performed for unadjusted incidence rate ratios (IRR) as well as adjusted hazard ratios (aHR) for confounding conditions (diabetes, hypertension, and/or tobacco use), shown to have association with kidney cancer and urothelial carcinoma. Sub-analysis was conducted for estimates associated with CKD stages separately. RESULTS:Six cohort studies with 8 617 563 persons were included. Overall, methodological quality of the studies was good. CKD was associated with both higher unadjusted incidence and adjusted hazard of kidney cancer (IRR, 3.36; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.32-4.88; aHR, 2.04; 95% CI, 1.77-2.36) and urothelial cancer (IRR, 3.96; 95% CI, 2.44-6.40; aHR, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.22-1.68) compared with persons without CKD. Examining incident urinary tract cancers by CKD severity, risks were elevated in stage 3 CKD (kidney aHR, 1.89; 95% CI, 1.56-2.30; urothelial carcinoma aHR, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.18-1.65) as well as in stages 4/5 CKD (kidney cancer aHR, 2.30; 95% CI, 2.00-2.66, UC aHR, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.04-1.49). CONCLUSIONS:Even moderate CKD is associated with elevated risk of kidney cancer and UC. Providers should consider these elevated risks when managing individuals with CKD, particularly when considering evaluation for the presence and etiology of hematuria.
PMID: 38037426
ISSN: 1460-2385
CID: 5617042

Gender Disparities in Nephrology Trials: A Meta-Analysis of Enrollment Trends between 2000 and 2021

Soomro, Qandeel H; McCarthy, Angela; Charytan, Amalya M; Keane, Colin; Varela, Dalila; Ways, Javaughn; Ramos, Giana; Nicholson, Joey; Charytan, David M
KEY POINTS:Women are under-represented in high-impact nephrology trials. Trends remain consistent over the past 20 years and on the basis of target condition. Addressing the imbalanced enrollment of women in trials could improve disparities in care and outcomes of kidney disease. BACKGROUND:Gender disparities in the incidence and complications of kidney diseases are well described. However, analysis to elucidate gender disparities in enrollment in nephrology randomized clinical trials (RCTs) has not been performed. METHODS:) kidney transplantation. We summarized trial characteristics according to reporting and enrollment of participants, enrollment site, publication year, trial category, and intervention type. Outcomes of interest include the proportion of enrolled male and female participants overall and according to trial category. In addition, we compared enrollment trends in the United States and globally to estimates of kidney disease prevalence. RESULTS:=133,082). Male participants formed most of trial cohorts in AKI (65%), CKD (62%), dialysis (55%), and transplant trials (65%), whereas women were majority enrollees in GN trials (61%). CKD trials under-represented women in both US trials and worldwide. CONCLUSIONS:Women are under-represented in high-impact nephrology trials with the exception of GN trials. This imbalance may contribute to disparities in outcomes and gaps in the care of women with kidney disease.
PMID: 37889579
ISSN: 2641-7650
CID: 5590252

The Association of Ejection Fraction With Hospital-Associated Cardiac Arrest and Heart Failure Hospitalization Differs According to Baseline Estimated GFR

Ravi, Katherine Scovner; Mavrakanas, Thomas A; Charytan, David M; Mc Causland, Finnian R
INTRODUCTION/UNASSIGNED:Chronic kidney disease (CKD) and left ventricular (LV) dysfunction are risk factors for cardiovascular events. We explore whether the association of LV ejection fraction (LVEF) with cardiac arrest, heart failure hospitalization, and all-cause mortality differs across stages of kidney impairment. METHODS/UNASSIGNED:and without end-stage kidney disease (ESKD). Cox regression models, incorporating an interaction term for eGFR and LVEF, were fit and adjusted for relevant covariates. RESULTS/UNASSIGNED:-interaction 0.26). CONCLUSION/UNASSIGNED:, the association of LVEF with cardiac arrest and heart failure hospitalization is attenuated at lower levels of kidney function. Further research is required to elucidate what factors beyond LVEF drive these observations.
PMID: 38025227
ISSN: 2468-0249
CID: 5617222