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Deep Learning Using Electrocardiograms in Patients on Maintenance Dialysis

Zheng, Zhong; Soomro, Qandeel H; Charytan, David M
Cardiovascular morbidity and mortality occur with an extraordinarily high incidence in the hemodialysis-dependent end-stage kidney disease population. There is a clear need to improve identification of those individuals at the highest risk of cardiovascular complications in order to better target them for preventative therapies. Twelve-lead electrocardiograms are ubiquitous and use inexpensive technology that can be administered with minimal inconvenience to patients and at a minimal burden to care providers. The embedded waveforms encode significant information on the cardiovascular structure and function that might be unlocked and used to identify at-risk individuals with the use of artificial intelligence techniques like deep learning. In this review, we discuss the experience with deep learning-based analysis of electrocardiograms to identify cardiovascular abnormalities or risk and the potential to extend this to the setting of dialysis-dependent end-stage kidney disease.
PMID: 36723284
ISSN: 2949-8139
CID: 5466602

Baroreceptor Sensitivity in Individuals with CKD and Heart Failure

Charytan, David M; Soomro, Qandeel H; Caporotondi, Angelo; Guazzotti, Giampaolo; Maestri, Roberto; Pinna, Gian Domenico; La Rovere, Maria Teresa
BACKGROUND:Heart failure is the most common cardiovascular complication of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and foreshadows a high morbidity and mortality rate. Baroreflex impairment likely contributes to cardiovascular mortality. We aimed to study the associations between CKD, heart failure, and baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) and their association with cardiovascular outcomes. METHODS:) with BRS using iterative models. Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess associations of binary BRS and subgroups according to categorizations of CKD and BRS with cardiovascular mortality. RESULTS:=0.05). In regression models, CKD and BRS were independently associated. Cardiovascular mortality was significantly increased in individuals with or without CKD and depressed BRS compared with those with preserved BRS and CKD. CONCLUSIONS:Cardiac BRS is depressed in patients with mild to moderate CKD and HF and associated with cardiovascular mortality. Additional study to confirm its contribution to cardiovascular mortality, particularly in advanced CKD, is warranted.
PMCID:9802545
PMID: 36591344
ISSN: 2641-7650
CID: 5468182

Association of Bradycardia and Asystole Episodes with Dialytic Parameters: An Analysis of the Monitoring in Dialysis (MiD) Study

Soomro, Qandeel H; Bansal, Nisha; Winkelmayer, Wolfgang C; Koplan, Bruce A; Costea, Alexandru I; Roy-Chaudhury, Prabir; Tumlin, James A; Kher, Vijay; Williamson, Don E; Pokhariyal, Saurabh; McClure, Candace K; Charytan, David M
BACKGROUND/UNASSIGNED:Bradycardia and asystole events are common among patients treated with maintenance hemodialysis. However, triggers of these events in patients on maintenance hemodialysis (HD), particularly during the long interdialytic period when these events cluster, are uncertain. METHODS/UNASSIGNED:The Monitoring in Dialysis Study (MiD) enrolled 66 patients on maintenance HD who were implanted with loop recorders and followed for 6 months. We analyzed associations of predialysis laboratory values with clinically significant bradyarrhythmia or asystole (CSBA) during the 12 hours before an HD session. Associations with CSBA were analyzed with mixed-effect models. Adjusted negative binomial mixed-effect regression was used to estimate incidence rate ratios (IRR) for CSBA. We additionally evaluated associations of CSBA at any time during follow-up with time-averaged dialytic and laboratory parameters and associations of peridialytic parameters with occurrence of CSBA from the start of one HD session to the beginning of the next. RESULTS/UNASSIGNED:=0.04). Use of dialysate sodium concentrations ≤135 (versus 140) mEq/L was associated with a reduced risk of CSBA from the start of one session to the beginning of next. CONCLUSIONS/UNASSIGNED:Although a few factors had modest associations with CSBA in some analyses, we did not identify any robust associations of modifiable parameters with CSBA in the MiD Study. Further investigation is needed to understand the high rates of arrhythmia in the hemodialysis population.
PMCID:9717630
PMID: 36514397
ISSN: 2641-7650
CID: 5382132

Screening for Cardiovascular Disease in CKD: CON

Ramos, Giana K; Charytan, David M
PMID: 36514402
ISSN: 2641-7650
CID: 5382142

A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial of Integrated Palliative Care and Nephrology Care

Scherer, Jennifer S; Rau, Megan E; Krieger, Anna; Xia, Yuhe; Zhong, Hua; Brody, Abraham; Charytan, David M; Chodosh, Joshua
BACKGROUND/UNASSIGNED:There has been a call by both patients and health professionals for the integration of palliative care with nephrology care, yet there is little evidence describing the effect of this approach. The objective of this paper is to report the feasibility and acceptability of a pilot randomized controlled trial testing the efficacy of integrated palliative and nephrology care. METHODS/UNASSIGNED:English speaking patients with CKD stage 5 were randomized to monthly palliative care visits for 3 months in addition to their usual care, as compared with usual nephrology care. Feasibility of recruitment, retention, completion of intervention processes, and feedback on participation was measured. Other outcomes included differences in symptom burden change, measured by the Integrated Palliative Outcome Scale-Renal, and change in quality of life, measured by the Kidney Disease Quality of Life questionnaire and completion of advance care planning documents. RESULTS/UNASSIGNED:Of the 67 patients approached, 45 (67%) provided informed consent. Of these, 27 patients completed the study (60%), and 14 (74%) of those in the intervention group completed all visits. We found small improvements in overall symptom burden (-2.92 versus 1.57) and physical symptom burden scores (-1.92 versus 1.79) in the intervention group. We did not see improvements in the quality-of-life scores, with the exception of the physical component score. The intervention group completed more advance care planning documents than controls (five health care proxy forms completed versus one, nine Medical Orders for Life Sustaining Treatment forms versus none). CONCLUSIONS/UNASSIGNED:We found that pilot testing through a randomized controlled trial of an ambulatory integrated palliative and nephrology care clinical program was feasible and acceptable to participants. This intervention has the potential to improve the disease experience for those with nondialysis CKD and should be tested in other CKD populations with longer follow-up. CLINICAL TRIALS REGISTRY NAME AND REGISTRATION NUMBER/UNASSIGNED:Pilot Randomized-controlled Trial of Integrated Palliative and Nephrology Care Versus Usual Nephrology Care, NCT04520984.
PMCID:9717658
PMID: 36514730
ISSN: 2641-7650
CID: 5382152

Apixaban versus No Anticoagulation by P2Y12 Inhibitor Prescription Status in Dialysis Patients with Atrial Fibrillation

Mavrakanas, Thomas A; Charytan, David M
In patients with atrial fibrillation on dialysis, the incidence of stroke was similar with apixaban or no anticoagulation, regardless of P2Y12 prescription.In patients with atrial fibrillation on dialysis who were on a P2Y12 inhibitor, apixaban increased the risk of bleeding, compared with no anticoagulation.The incidence of myocardial infarction or ischemic stroke was similar with apixaban or no anticoagulation, regardless of P2Y12 prescription status.
PMCID:9717661
PMID: 36514740
ISSN: 2641-7650
CID: 5382162

BNT162b2 vaccine effectiveness in chronic kidney disease patients-an observational study

Bielopolski, Dana; Libresco, Gilad; Barda, Noam; Dagan, Noa; Steinmetz, Tali; Yahav, Dafna; Charytan, David M; Balicer, Ran D; Rozen-Zvi, Benaya
Background/UNASSIGNED:Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a risk factor for severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We aimed to evaluate the real-life effectiveness of the BNT162b2 messenger RNA vaccine for a range of outcomes in patients with CKD compared with matched controls. Methods/UNASSIGNED:) according to demographic and clinical characteristics. Study outcomes included documented infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, symptomatic infection, COVID-19-related hospitalization, severe disease and death. Vaccine effectiveness was estimated as the risk ratio (RR) at days 7-28 following the second vaccine dose, using the Kaplan-Meier estimator. Effectiveness measures were also evaluated separately for various stages of CKD. Results/UNASSIGNED:, the risk of severe disease and death was increased compared with controls [RR 6.42 (95% CI 1.85-17.51) and RR 8.81 (95% CI 1.63-13.81), respectively]. The risks for all study outcomes were increased in HD patients compared with controls. Conclusion/UNASSIGNED:for booster shots, pre- and post-exposure prophylaxis and early COVID-19 therapy.
PMCID:9384353
PMID: 36147707
ISSN: 2048-8505
CID: 5335712

Guideline-Directed Medical Therapy Attainment and Outcomes in Dialysis-Requiring Versus Nondialysis Chronic Kidney Disease in the ISCHEMIA-CKD Trial

Mathew, Roy O; Maron, David J; Anthopolos, Rebecca; Fleg, Jerome L; O'Brien, Sean M; Rockhold, Frank W; Briguori, Carlo; Roik, Marek F; Mazurek, Tomasz; Demkow, Marcin; Malecki, Robert; Ye, Zhiming; Kaul, Upendra; Miglinas, Marius; Stone, Gregg W; Wald, Ron; Charytan, David M; Sidhu, Mandeep S; Hochman, Judith S; Bangalore, Sripal
BACKGROUND:]). Our objective was to evaluate the relationship between achievement of cardiovascular guideline-directed medical therapy (GDMT) goals and clinical outcomes for CKD G5D versus CKD G4-5. METHODS:This was a subgroup analysis of ISCHEMIA-CKD (International Study of Comparative Health Effectiveness With Medical and Invasive Approaches-Chronic Kidney Disease) participants with CKD G4-5 or CKD G5D and moderate-to-severe myocardial ischemia on stress testing. Exposures included dialysis requirement at randomization and GDMT goal achievement during follow-up. The composite outcome was all-cause mortality or nonfatal myocardial infarction. Individual GDMT goal (smoking cessation, systolic blood pressure <140 mm Hg, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol <70 mg/dL, statin use, aspirin use) trajectory was modeled. Percentage point difference was estimated for each GDMT goal at 24 months between CKD G5D and CKD G4-5, and for association with key predictors. Probability of survival free from all-cause mortality or nonfatal myocardial infarction by GDMT goal achieved was assessed for CKD G5D versus CKD G4-5. RESULTS:A total of 415 CKD G5D and 362 CKD G4-5 participants were randomized. Participants with CKD G5D were less likely to receive statin (-6.9% [95% CI, -10.3% to -3.7%]) and aspirin therapy (-3.0% [95% CI, -5.6% to -0.6%]), with no difference in other GDMT goal attainment. Cumulative exposure to GDMT achieved during follow-up was associated with reduction in all-cause mortality or nonfatal myocardial infarction (hazard ratio, 0.88 [95% CI, 0.87-0.90]; per each GDMT goal attained over 60 days), irrespective of dialysis status. CONCLUSIONS:CKD G5D participants received statin or aspirin therapy less often. Cumulative exposure to GDMT goals achieved was associated with lower incidence of all-cause mortality or nonfatal myocardial infarction in participants with advanced CKD and chronic coronary disease, regardless of dialysis status. REGISTRATION/BACKGROUND:URL: https://www. CLINICALTRIALS/RESULTS:gov; Unique identifier: NCT01985360.
PMCID:9588677
PMID: 36193750
ISSN: 1941-7705
CID: 5351522

Platelet Activity and Cardiovascular Risk in CKD and Peripheral Artery Disease

Cofer, Lucas B; Soomro, Qandeel H; Xia, Yuhe; Luttrell-Williams, Elliot; Myndzar, Khrystyna; Charytan, David M; Berger, Jeffrey S
Introduction/UNASSIGNED:Platelet dysfunction and cardiovascular risk are well-recognized features of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Platelets drive the development and progression of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The relationships between kidney function, platelet activity, and cardiovascular risk are poorly defined. Methods/UNASSIGNED:) using data from the Platelet Activity and Cardiovascular Events study, a prospective cohort study that enrolled adults with peripheral artery disease (PAD) undergoing lower extremity revascularization. Platelet activity was measured using light transmission aggregometry (LTA) in response to submaximal dose agonist stimulation, and the subjects were followed for incident adverse cardiovascular events for a median of 18 months. Results/UNASSIGNED: < 0.05 for each). Following multivariable adjustment, subjects with CKD had elevated risk for myocardial infarction (MI) (adjusted hazard ratio 2.2, 95% confidence interval [1.02-4.9]) and major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) (1.9 [1.2-3.3]) compared to those without CKD. Platelet aggregation in response to submaximal dose agonist stimulation mediated 7% to 26% of the excess risk for cardiovascular events associated with CKD. Conclusion/UNASSIGNED:Among subjects with PAD undergoing lower extremity revascularization, CKD is associated with increased platelet activity that mediates, in part, elevated cardiovascular risk.
PMCID:9546761
PMID: 36217517
ISSN: 2468-0249
CID: 5360882

Effect of Canagliflozin on Total Cardiovascular Burden in Patients With Diabetes and Chronic Kidney Disease: A Post Hoc Analysis From the CREDENCE Trial

Li, Jing-Wei; Arnott, Clare; Heerspink, Hiddo J L; MBiostat, Qiang Li; Cannon, Christopher P; Wheeler, David C; Charytan, David M; Barraclough, Jennifer; Figtree, Gemma A; Agarwal, Rajiv; Bakris, George; de Zeeuw, Dick; Greene, Tom; Levin, Adeera; Pollock, Carol; Zhang, Hong; Zinman, Bernard; Mahaffey, Kenneth W; Perkovic, Vlado; Neal, Bruce; Jardine, Meg J
Background The sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor canagliflozin reduced the risk of first cardiovascular composite events in the CREDENCE (Canagliflozin and Renal Events in Diabetes With Established Nephropathy Clinical Evaluation) trial. In this post hoc analysis, we evaluated the effect of canagliflozin on total (first and recurrent) cardiovascular events. Methods and Results The CREDENCE trial compared canagliflozin or matching placebo in 4401 patients with type 2 diabetes, albuminuria, and estimated glomerular filtration rate of 30 to <90 mL/min per 1.73 m2, over a median of 2.6 years. The primary outcome was analyzed as a composite of any cardiovascular event including myocardial infarction, stroke, hospitalization for heart failure, hospitalization for unstable angina, and cardiovascular death. Negative binomial regression models were used to assess the effect of canagliflozin on the net burden of cardiovascular events. During the trial, 634 patients had 883 cardiovascular events, of whom 472 (74%) had just 1 cardiovascular event and 162 (26%) had multiple cardiovascular events. Canagliflozin reduced first cardiovascular events by 26% (hazard ratio, 0.74 [95% CI, 0.63-0.86]; P<0.001) and total cardiovascular events by 29% (incidence rate ratio, 0.71 [95% CI, 0.59-0.86]; P<0.001). The absolute risk difference per 1000 patients treated over 2.5 years was -44 (95% CI, -67 to -21) first cardiovascular events and -73 (95% CI, -114 to -33) total events. Conclusions Canagliflozin reduced cardiovascular events, with a larger absolute benefit for total cardiovascular than first cardiovascular events. These findings provide further support for the benefit of continuing canagliflozin therapy after an initial event to prevent recurrent cardiovascular events. Registration Information URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique Identifier: NCT02065791.
PMID: 35929472
ISSN: 2047-9980
CID: 5288332