Incorporation of a Social Virtual Reality Platform into the Residency Recruitment Season
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:The Covid-19 pandemic ushered a sudden need for residency programs to develop innovative socially distant and remote approaches to effectively promote their program. Here we describe our experience using the social virtual reality (VR) platform Mozilla Hubs for the pre-interview social during the 2020-2021 radiology residency virtual recruitment season, provide results of a survey sent to assess applicants' attitudes towards the VR pre-interview social, and outline additional use-cases for the emerging technology. MATERIALS AND METHODS/METHODS:A VR Meeting Hall dedicated to the pre-interview social was designed in Mozilla Hubs. To assess applicants' impressions of the Mozilla Hubs pre-interview social, applicants were sent an optional web-based survey. Survey respondents were asked to respond to a series of eleven statements using a five-point Likert scale of perceived agreement: Strongly Agree, Agree, Neutral, Disagree, Strongly Disagree. Statements were designed to gauge applicants' attitudes towards the Mozilla Hubs pre-interview social and its usefulness in helping them learn about the residency program, particularly in comparison with pre-interview socials held on conventional video conferencing software (CVCS). RESULTS:Of the 120 residency applicants invited to the Mozilla Hubs pre-interview social, 111 (93%) attended. Of these, 68 (61%) participated in the anonymous survey. Most applicants reported a better overall experience with Mozilla Hubs compared to CVCS (47/68, 69%), with 10% (7/68) reporting a worse overall experience, and 21% (14/68) neutral. Most applicants reported the Mozilla Hubs pre-interview social allowed them to better assess residency culture than did pre-interview socials using CVCS (41/68, 60%). Seventy-two percent of applicants reported that the Mozilla Hubs pre-interview social positively impacted their decision to strongly consider the residency program (49/68). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Radiology residency applicants overall preferred a pre-interview social hosted on a social VR platform, Mozilla Hubs, compared to those hosted on CVCS. Applicants reported the use of a social VR platform reflected positively on the residency and positively impacted their decision to strongly consider the program.
Differences between human and machine perception in medical diagnosis
Deep neural networks (DNNs) show promise in image-based medical diagnosis, but cannot be fully trusted since they can fail for reasons unrelated to underlying pathology. Humans are less likely to make such superficial mistakes, since they use features that are grounded on medical science. It is therefore important to know whether DNNs use different features than humans. Towards this end, we propose a framework for comparing human and machine perception in medical diagnosis. We frame the comparison in terms of perturbation robustness, and mitigate Simpson's paradox by performing a subgroup analysis. The framework is demonstrated with a case study in breast cancer screening, where we separately analyze microcalcifications and soft tissue lesions. While it is inconclusive whether humans and DNNs use different features to detect microcalcifications, we find that for soft tissue lesions, DNNs rely on high frequency components ignored by radiologists. Moreover, these features are located outside of the region of the images found most suspicious by radiologists. This difference between humans and machines was only visible through subgroup analysis, which highlights the importance of incorporating medical domain knowledge into the comparison.
Artificial intelligence system reduces false-positive findings in the interpretation of breast ultrasound exams
Though consistently shown to detect mammographically occult cancers, breast ultrasound has been noted to have high false-positive rates. In this work, we present an AI system that achieves radiologist-level accuracy in identifying breast cancer in ultrasound images. Developed on 288,767 exams, consisting of 5,442,907 B-mode and Color Doppler images, the AI achieves an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) of 0.976 on a test set consisting of 44,755 exams. In a retrospective reader study, the AI achieves a higher AUROC than the average of ten board-certified breast radiologists (AUROC: 0.962 AI, 0.924â€‰Â±â€‰0.02 radiologists). With the help of the AI, radiologists decrease their false positive rates by 37.3% and reduce requested biopsies by 27.8%, while maintaining the same level of sensitivity. This highlights the potential of AI in improving the accuracy, consistency, and efficiency of breast ultrasound diagnosis.
Screening Breast MRI Primer: Indications, Current Protocols, and Emerging Techniques
Breast dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) is the most sensitive imaging modality for the detection of breast cancer. Screening MRI is currently performed predominantly in patients at high risk for breast cancer, but it could be of benefit in patients at intermediate risk for breast cancer and patients with dense breasts. Decreasing scan time and image interpretation time could increase cost-effectiveness, making screening MRI accessible to a larger group of patients. Abbreviated breast MRI (Ab-MRI) reduces scan time by decreasing the number of sequences obtained, but as multiple delayed contrast enhanced sequences are not obtained, no kinetic information is available. Ultrafast techniques rapidly acquire multiple sequences during the first minute of gadolinium contrast injection and provide information about both lesion morphology and vascular kinetics. Diffusion-weighted imaging is a noncontrast MRI technique with the potential to detect mammographically occult cancers. This review article aims to discuss the current indications of breast MRI as a screening tool, examine the standard breast DCE-MRI technique, and explore alternate screening MRI protocols, including Ab-MRI, ultrafast MRI, and noncontrast diffusion-weighted MRI, which can decrease scan time and interpretation time.
Impact on Participants of Family Connect, a Novel Program Linking COVID-19 Inpatients' Families With the Frontline Providers
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:With clinical volumes decreased, radiologists volunteered to participate virtually in daily clinical rounds and provide communication between frontline physicians and patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and their families affected by restrictive hospital visitation policies. The purpose of this survey-based assessment was to demonstrate the beneficial effects of radiologist engagement during this pandemic and potentially in future crises if needed. METHODS:After the program's completion, a survey consisting of 13 multiple-choice and open-ended questions was distributed to the 69 radiologists who volunteered for a minimum of 7 days. The survey focused on how the experience would change future practice, the nature of interaction with medical students, and the motivation for volunteering. The electronic medical record system identified the patients who tested positive for or were suspected of having COVID-19 and the number of notes documenting family communication. RESULTS:In all, 69 radiologists signed or cosigned 7,027 notes. Of the 69 radiologists, 60 (87.0%) responded to the survey. All found the experience increased their understanding of COVID-19 and its effect on the health care system. Overall, 59.6% agreed that participation would result in future change in communication with patients and their families. Nearly all (98.1%) who worked with medical students agreed that their experience with medical students was rewarding. A majority (82.7%) chose to participate as a way to provide service to the patient population. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:This program provided support to frontline inpatient teams while also positively affecting the radiologist participants. If a similar situation arises in the future, this communication tool could be redeployed, especially with the collaboration of medical students.
OK Boomer: Are We Oversupporting Junior Faculty and Neglecting Career Planning for Mid and Senior Rank?
Assessing the impact of an orientation week on acclimation to radiology residency
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:Acclimating residents to radiology residency requires attention to new responsibilities, educational material, and social cohesion. To this end, we instituted a structured orientation week for incoming residents and assessed its impact. PROCEDURES/METHODS:During the first weeks of July 2016 and 2017, first year residents attended a five day orientation free of clinical duties, consisting of didactics, hands-on training sessions, and social events. After two orientation cohorts, residents who completed orientation week, and two cohorts who had not, were given a voluntary, anonymous survey using Likert scale questions (1 [worst] to 5 [best]) regarding preparedness for responsibilities, learning, and social cohesion. Residents were asked which components were or would have been helpful. Independent samples t-tests were performed to evaluate differences between the two groups (two-tailed pÂ <Â 0.05). FINDINGS/RESULTS:21/37 (57%) residents participated. Higher percentages of residents who participated in the orientation week gave scores â‰¥4 when asked about preparedness for rotations (70% vs. 36%), learning new material (80% vs. 36%), and class cohesiveness (90% vs. 70%). Mean scores on these questions were also higher for these residents with regards to: preparedness for new responsibilities (3.7 vs. 2.9), learning new material (3.8 vs. 2.9), and class cohesiveness (4.5 vs. 3.8), with differences approaching significance (pÂ =Â 0.09-0.15). Individual components receiving most votes of â‰¥4 were social outings, resident lunches, didactic lectures, and PACS training. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:A weeklong orientation program free of clinical duties was valued by residents and contributed to acclimation to new responsibilities, education, and social cohesion.
Breast Imaging in Transgender Patients: What the Radiologist Should Know
Transgender is the umbrella term for individuals whose gender identity and/or gender expression differs from their assigned sex at birth. With the rise in patients undergoing gender-affirming hormone therapy and gender-affirming surgery, it is increasingly important for radiologists to be aware of breast imaging considerations for this population. While diagnostic imaging protocols for transgender individuals are generally similar to those for cisgender women, screening guidelines are more variable. Currently, several professional and institutional guidelines have been created to address breast cancer screening in the transgender population, specifically screening mammography in transfeminine individuals who undergo hormone therapy. This article defines appropriate terminology with respect to the transgender population, reviews evidence for breast cancer risk and screening in transgender individuals, considers diagnostic breast imaging approaches, and discusses special considerations and challenges with regard to health care access and public education for these individuals. Â©RSNA, 2019.
Comparison between qualitative and quantitative assessment of background parenchymal enhancement on breast MRI
BACKGROUND: Potential clinical implications of the level of background parenchymal enhancement (BPE) on breast MRI are increasing. Currently, BPE is typically evaluated subjectively. Tests of concordance between subjective BPE assessment and computer-assisted quantified BPE have not been reported. PURPOSE OR HYPOTHESIS: To compare subjective radiologist assessment of BPE with objective quantified parenchymal enhancement (QPE). STUDY TYPE: Cross-sectional observational study. POPULATION: Between 7/24/2015 and 11/27/2015, 104 sequential patients (ages 23 - 81 years, mean 49 years) without breast cancer underwent breast MRI and were included in this study. FIELD STRENGTH/SEQUENCE: 3T; fat suppressed axial T2, axial T1, and axial fat suppressed T1 before and after intravenous contrast. ASSESSMENT: Four breast imagers graded BPE at 90 and 180 s after contrast injection on a 4-point scale (a-d). Fibroglandular tissue masks were generated using a phantom-validated segmentation algorithm, and were co-registered to pre- and postcontrast fat suppressed images to define the region of interest. QPE was calculated. STATISTICAL TESTS: Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses and kappa coefficients (k) were used to compare subjective BPE with QPE. RESULTS: ROC analyses indicated that subjective BPE at 90 s was best predicted by quantified QPE =20.2 = a, 20.3-25.2 = b, 25.3-50.0 = c, >50.0 = d, and at 180 s by quantified QPE = 32.2 = a, 32.3-38.3 = b, 38.4-74.5 = c, >74.5 = d. Agreement between subjective BPE and QPE was slight to fair at 90 s (k = 0.20-0.36) and 180 s (k = 0.19-0.28). At higher levels of QPE, agreement between subjective BPE and QPE significantly decreased for all four radiologists at 90 s (P = 0.004) and for three of four radiologists at 180 s (P = 0.004). DATA CONCLUSION: Radiologists were less consistent with QPE as QPE increased. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 3 Technical Efficacy: Stage 3 J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2017.
Frequency and outcomes of biopsy-proven fibroadenomas recommended for surgical excision
Our aim was to investigate the outcomes of fibroadenomas recommended for surgical excision due to large size (>2cm) or interval growth. A retrospective review of our institutional radiology database from 2007 to 2015 was performed. We identified 167 biopsy-proven fibroadenomas recommended for surgical consultation. Of these, 75 (45%) cases actually underwent excision, 7 (9%, 95% CI: 4-18%) of which were upgraded to phyllodes tumors upon histopathological examination. Our results support the current recommendation to surgically excise breast lesions diagnosed as fibroadenomas with size >2cm or with interval growth due to the considerable risk of finding phyllodes tumors.