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Automated Pulmonary Embolism Risk Classification and Guideline Adherence for Computed Tomography Pulmonary Angiography Ordering

Koziatek, Christian A; Simon, Emma; Horwitz, Leora I; Makarov, Danil V; Smith, Silas W; Jones, Simon; Gyftopoulos, Soterios; Swartz, Jordan L
BACKGROUND:The assessment of clinical guideline adherence for the evaluation of pulmonary embolism (PE) via computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA) currently requires either labor-intensive, retrospective chart review or prospective collection of PE risk scores at the time of CTPA order. The recording of clinical data in a structured manner in the electronic health record (EHR) may make it possible to automate the calculation of a patient's PE risk classification and determine whether the CTPA order was guideline concordant. OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:The objective of this study was to measure the performance of automated, structured-data-only versions of the Wells and revised Geneva risk scores in emergency department encounters during which a CTPA was ordered. The hypothesis was that such an automated method would classify a patient's PE risk with high accuracy compared to manual chart review. METHODS:We developed automated, structured-data-only versions of the Wells and revised Geneva risk scores to classify 212 emergency department (ED) encounters during which a CTPA was performed as "PE Likely" or "PE Unlikely." We then combined these classifications with D-dimer ordering data to assess each encounter as guideline concordant or discordant. The accuracy of these automated classifications and assessments of guideline concordance were determined by comparing them to classifications and concordance based on the complete Wells and revised Geneva scores derived via abstractor manual chart review. RESULTS:The automatically derived Wells and revised Geneva risk classifications were 91.5% and 92% accurate compared to the manually determined classifications, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference between guideline adherence calculated by the automated scores as compared to manual chart review (Wells: 70.8 vs. 75%, p = 0.33 | Revised Geneva: 65.6 vs. 66%, p = 0.92). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:The Wells and revised Geneva score risk classifications can be approximated with high accuracy using automated extraction of structured EHR data elements in patients who received a CTPA. Combining these automated scores with D-dimer ordering data allows for the automated assessment of clinical guideline adherence for CTPA ordering in the emergency department, without the burden of manual chart review.
PMID: 29710413
ISSN: 1553-2712
CID: 3056432

Creation of a simple natural language processing tool to support an imaging utilization quality dashboard

Swartz, Jordan; Koziatek, Christian; Theobald, Jason; Smith, Silas; Iturrate, Eduardo
BACKGROUND: Testing for venous thromboembolism (VTE) is associated with cost and risk to patients (e.g. radiation). To assess the appropriateness of imaging utilization at the provider level, it is important to know that provider's diagnostic yield (percentage of tests positive for the diagnostic entity of interest). However, determining diagnostic yield typically requires either time-consuming, manual review of radiology reports or the use of complex and/or proprietary natural language processing software. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were twofold: 1) to develop and implement a simple, user-configurable, and open-source natural language processing tool to classify radiology reports with high accuracy and 2) to use the results of the tool to design a provider-specific VTE imaging dashboard, consisting of both utilization rate and diagnostic yield. METHODS: Two physicians reviewed a training set of 400 lower extremity ultrasound (UTZ) and computed tomography pulmonary angiogram (CTPA) reports to understand the language used in VTE-positive and VTE-negative reports. The insights from this review informed the arguments to the five modifiable parameters of the NLP tool. A validation set of 2,000 studies was then independently classified by the reviewers and by the tool; the classifications were compared and the performance of the tool was calculated. RESULTS: The tool was highly accurate in classifying the presence and absence of VTE for both the UTZ (sensitivity 95.7%; 95% CI 91.5-99.8, specificity 100%; 95% CI 100-100) and CTPA reports (sensitivity 97.1%; 95% CI 94.3-99.9, specificity 98.6%; 95% CI 97.8-99.4). The diagnostic yield was then calculated at the individual provider level and the imaging dashboard was created. CONCLUSIONS: We have created a novel NLP tool designed for users without a background in computer programming, which has been used to classify venous thromboembolism reports with a high degree of accuracy. The tool is open-source and available for download at Results obtained using this tool can be applied to enhance quality by presenting information about utilization and yield to providers via an imaging dashboard.
PMID: 28347453
ISSN: 1872-8243
CID: 2508242

Decreasing the Lag Between Result Availability and Decision-Making in the Emergency Department Using Push Notifications

Koziatek, Christian; Swartz, Jordan; Iturrate, Eduardo; Levy-Lambert, Dina; Testa, Paul
Introduction/UNASSIGNED:Emergency department (ED) patient care often hinges on the result of a diagnostic test. Frequently there is a lag time between a test result becoming available for review and physician decision-making or disposition based on that result. We implemented a system that electronically alerts ED providers when test results are available for review via a smartphone- and smartwatch-push notification. We hypothesized this would reduce the time from result to clinical decision-making. Methods/UNASSIGNED:We retrospectively assessed the impact of the implementation of a push notification system at three EDs on time-to-disposition or time-to-follow-up order in six clinical scenarios of interest: chest radiograph (CXR) to disposition, basic metabolic panel (BMP) to disposition, urinalysis (UA) to disposition, respiratory pathogen panel (RPP) to disposition, hemoglobin (Hb) to blood transfusion order, and abnormal D-dimer to computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA) order. All ED patients during a one-year period of push-notification availability were included in the study. The primary outcome was median time in each scenario from result availability to either disposition order or defined follow-up order. The secondary outcome was the overall usage rate of the opt-in push notification system by providers. Results/UNASSIGNED:During the study period there were 6115 push notifications from 4183 ED encounters (2.7% of all encounters). Of the six clinical scenarios examined in this study, five were associated with a decrease in median time from test result availability to patient disposition or follow-up order when push notifications were employed: CXR to disposition, 80 minutes (interquartile range [IQR] 32-162 minutes) vs 56 minutes (IQR 18-141 minutes), difference 24 minutes (p<0.01); BMP to disposition, 128 minutes (IQR 62-225 minutes) vs 116 minutes (IQR 33-226 minutes), difference 12 minutes (p<0.01); UA to disposition, 105 minutes (IQR 43-200 minutes) vs 55 minutes (IQR 16-144 minutes), difference 50 minutes (p<0.01); RPP to disposition, 80 minutes (IQR 28-181 minutes) vs 37 minutes (IQR 10-116 minutes), difference 43 minutes (p<0.01); and D-dimer to CTPA, 14 minutes (IQR 6-30 minutes) vs 6 minutes (IQR 2.5-17.5 minutes), difference 8 minutes (p<0.01). The sixth scenario, Hb to blood transfusion (difference 19 minutes, p=0.73), did not meet statistical significance. Conclusion/UNASSIGNED:Implementation of a push notification system for test result availability in the ED was associated with a decrease in lag time between test result and physician decision-making in the examined clinical scenarios. Push notifications were used in only a minority of ED patient encounters.
PMID: 31316708
ISSN: 1936-9018
CID: 3977972

. 2024.DOI:

Acute Rheumatic Fever

Chowdhury, Sadakat; Koziatek, Christian A.; Rajnik, Michael
Acute rheumatic fever (ARF) is an immune-mediated nonsuppurative complication of group A streptococcal (GAS) pharyngitis. Approximately 470,000 new cases of ARF occur annually, with a more significant disease burden in developing countries with higher rates of untreated or inadequately treated GAS infections. Globally, over 275,000 deaths yearly are attributed to rheumatic heart disease (RHD). The most significant contributors to the spread of GAS pharyngitis are household overcrowding, poor sanitation, and inadequate access to healthcare. The pathophysiology of ARF is characterized by an aberrant immune response to GAS infection triggered by molecular mimicry between GAS antigens and self-antigens. This immune response typically manifests 2 to 4 weeks after the initial GAS infection and may lead to the development of carditis, valvulitis, Sydenham chorea, subcutaneous nodules, erythema marginatum, and polyarthritis that is usually migratory. The severity and distribution of these manifestations vary significantly between individuals making the diagnosis of ARF challenging. Early recognition of ARF using the modified Jones criteria is essential in treating acute infection and preventing complications. A major long-term consequence is RHD, which carries significant morbidity and mortality.
PMID: 37603629
CID: 5563012

Response to Comment on "Induction of Labor at Term for Severe Antenatal Lead Poisoning" [Letter]

Mohan, Sanjay; Koziatek, Christian; Su, Mark K
PMID: 37816940
ISSN: 1937-6995
CID: 5605072

Induction of Labor at Term for Severe Antenatal Lead Poisoning

Mohan, Sanjay; Mahonski, Sarah; Koziatek, Christian; Cohen, Emily T; Smith, Silas; Su, Mark K
INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND:Antenatal lead exposure is associated with multiple adverse maternal and fetal consequences. Maternal blood lead concentrations as low as 10 µg/dL have been associated with gestational hypertension, spontaneous abortion, growth retardation, and impaired neurobehavioral development. Current treatment recommendations for pregnant women with a blood lead level (BLL) ≥ 45 µg/dL include chelation. We report a successful case of a mother with severe gestational lead poisoning treated with induction of labor in a term infant. CASE REPORT/METHODS:A 22-year-old G2P1001 female, at 38 weeks and 5 days gestation, was referred to the emergency department for an outpatient venous BLL of 53 µg/dL. The decision was made to limit ongoing prenatal lead exposure by emergent induction as opposed to chelation. Maternal BLL just prior to induction increased to 70 µg/dL. A 3510 g infant was delivered with APGAR scores of 9 and 9 at 1 and 5 min. Cord BLL at delivery returned at 41 µg/dL. The mother was instructed to avoid breastfeeding until her BLLs decreased to below 40 µg/dL, consistent with federal and local guidelines. The neonate was empirically chelated with dimercaptosuccinic acid. On postpartum day 2, maternal BLL decreased to 36 µg/dL, and the neonatal BLL was found to be 33 µg/mL. Both the mother and neonate were discharged to an alternative lead-free household on postpartum day 4.
PMID: 37365427
ISSN: 1937-6995
CID: 5522332

Expanding Diabetes Screening to Identify Undiagnosed Cases Among Emergency Department Patients

Lee, David C; Reddy, Harita; Koziatek, Christian A; Klein, Noah; Chitnis, Anup; Creary, Kashif; Francois, Gerard; Akindutire, Olumide; Femia, Robert; Caldwell, Reed
PMID: 37788038
ISSN: 1936-9018
CID: 5603282

Neighborhood-Level Risk Factors for Severe Hyperglycemia among Emergency Department Patients without a Prior Diabetes Diagnosis

Koziatek, Christian A; Bohart, Isaac; Caldwell, Reed; Swartz, Jordan; Rosen, Perry; Desai, Sagar; Krol, Katarzyna; Neill, Daniel B; Lee, David C
A person's place of residence is a strong risk factor for important diagnosed chronic diseases such as diabetes. It is unclear whether neighborhood-level risk factors also predict the probability of undiagnosed disease. The objective of this study was to identify neighborhood-level variables associated with severe hyperglycemia among emergency department (ED) patients without a history of diabetes. We analyzed patients without previously diagnosed diabetes for whom a random serum glucose value was obtained in the ED. We defined random glucose values ≥ 200 mg/dL as severe hyperglycemia, indicating probable undiagnosed diabetes. Patient addresses were geocoded and matched with neighborhood-level socioeconomic measures from the American Community Survey and claims-based surveillance estimates of diabetes prevalence. Neighborhood-level exposure variables were standardized based on z-scores, and a series of logistic regression models were used to assess the association of selected exposures and hyperglycemia adjusting for biological and social individual-level risk factors for diabetes. Of 77,882 ED patients without a history of diabetes presenting in 2021, 1,715 (2.2%) had severe hyperglycemia. Many geospatial exposures were associated with uncontrolled hyperglycemia, even after controlling for individual-level risk factors. The most strongly associated neighborhood-level variables included lower markers of educational attainment, higher percentage of households where limited English is spoken, lower rates of white-collar employment, and higher rates of Medicaid insurance. Including these geospatial factors in risk assessment models may help identify important subgroups of patients with undiagnosed disease.
PMID: 37580543
ISSN: 1468-2869
CID: 5593202

Extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation dissemination and integration with organ preservation in the USA: ethical and logistical considerations

Schiff, Tamar; Koziatek, Christian; Pomerantz, Erin; Bosson, Nichole; Montgomery, Robert; Parent, Brendan; Wall, Stephen P
Use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) in cardiopulmonary resuscitation, termed eCPR, offers the prospect of improving survival with good neurological function after cardiac arrest. After death, ECMO can also be used for enhanced preservation of abdominal and thoracic organs, designated normothermic regional perfusion (NRP), before organ recovery for transplantation. To optimize resuscitation and transplantation outcomes, healthcare networks in Portugal and Italy have developed cardiac arrest protocols that integrate use of eCPR with NRP. Similar dissemination of eCPR and its integration with NRP in the USA raise novel ethical issues due to a non-nationalized health system and an opt-in framework for organ donation, as well as other legal and cultural factors. Nonetheless, eCPR investigations are ongoing, and both eCPR and NRP are selectively employed in clinical practice. This paper delineates the most pressing relevant ethical considerations and proposes recommendations for implementation of protocols that aim to promote public trust and reduce conflicts of interest. Transparent policies should rely on protocols that separate lifesaving from organ preservation considerations; robust, centralized eCPR data to inform equitable and evidence-based allocations; uniform practices concerning clinical decision-making and resource utilization; and partnership with community stakeholders, allowing patients to make decisions about emergency care that align with their values. Proactively addressing these ethical and logistical challenges could enable eCPR dissemination and integration with NRP protocols in the USA, with the potential to maximize lives saved through both improved resuscitation with good neurological outcomes and increased organ donation opportunities when resuscitation is unsuccessful or not in accordance with individuals' wishes.
PMID: 37072806
ISSN: 1466-609x
CID: 5459662

A Rare Malposition of a Left Internal Jugular Central Venous Catheter into the Left Internal Mammary Vein

Koziatek, Christian A; Idowu, Damilola; White, Richard
CASE PRESENTATION/METHODS:We describe a case of left internal jugular central venous access with rare malpositioning into the internal mammary vein. Despite various confirmatory measures at the time of placement including ultrasonography of the internal jugular vein, as well as blood gas analysis consistent with venous blood by oxygen saturation and good venous flow in all three ports of the catheter, subsequent imaging confirmed misplacement into the internal mammary vein. DISCUSSION/CONCLUSIONS:Central venous access is a frequently used procedure by emergency physicians for a variety of indications. Emergency physicians must be facile with both the technical process of central venous catheter placement, as well as possible pitfalls and complications of the procedure. Common complications, such as bleeding, pneumothorax, arterial injury, infection, and hematomas, are usually well known; less frequently encountered is malposition of the catheter despite seemingly appropriate placement.
PMID: 36859327
ISSN: 2474-252x
CID: 5459652