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No Differences Between White and Non-White Patients in Terms of Care Quality Metrics, Complications, and Death After Hip Fracture Surgery When Standardized Care Pathways are Used

Parola, Rown; Neal, William H; Konda, Sanjit R; Ganta, Abhishek; Egol, Kenneth A
BACKGROUND:Many initiatives by medical and public health communities at the national, state, and institutional level have been centered around understanding and analyzing critical determinants of population health with the goal of equitable and nondisparate care. In orthopaedic traumatology, several studies have demonstrated that race and socioeconomic status are associated with differences in care delivery and outcomes of patients with hip fractures. However, studies assessing the effectiveness of methods to address disparities in care delivery, quality metrics, and complications after hip fracture surgery are lacking. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES/OBJECTIVE:(1) Are hospital quality measures (such as delay to surgery, major inpatient complications, intensive care unit admission, and discharge disposition) and outcomes (such as mortality during inpatient stay, within 30 days or within 1 year) similar between White and non-White patients at a single institution in the setting of a standardized hip fracture pathway? (2) What factors correlate with aforementioned hospital quality measures and outcomes under the standardized care pathway? METHODS:In this retrospective, comparative study, we evaluated the records of 1824 patients 55 years of age or older with hip fractures from a low-energy mechanism who were treated at one of four hospitals in our urban academic healthcare system, which includes an orthopaedic tertiary care hospital, from the initiation of a standardized care pathway in October 2014 to March 2020. The standardized 4-day hip fracture pathway is comprised of medicine comanagement of all patients and delineated tasks for doctors, nursing, social work, care managers, and physical and occupational therapy from admission to expected discharge on postoperative day 4. Of the 1824 patients, 98% (1787 of 1824) of patients who had their race recorded in the electronic medical record chart (either by communicating it to a medical provider or by selecting their race from options including White, Black, Hispanic, and Asian in a patient portal of the electronic medical record) were potentially eligible. A total of 14% (249 of 1787) of patients were excluded because they did not have an in-state address. Of the included patients, 5% (70 of 1538) were lost to follow-up at 30 days and 22% (336 of 1538) were lost to follow-up at 1 year. Two groups were established by including all patients selecting White as primary race into the White cohort and all other patients in the non-White cohort. There were 1111 White patients who were 72% (801) female with mean age 82 ± 10 years and 427 non-White patients who were 64% (271) female with mean age 80 ± 11 years. Univariate chi-square and Mann-Whitney U tests of demographics were used to compare White and non-White patients and find factors to control for potentially relevant confounding variables. Multivariable regression analyses were used to control for important baseline between-group differences to (1) determine the correlation of White and non-White race on mortality, inpatient complications, intensive care unit (ICU) admissions, and discharge disposition and (2) assess the correlation of gender, socioeconomic status, insurance payor, and the Score for Trauma Triage in the Geriatric and Middle Aged (STTGMA) trauma risk score with these quality measures and outcomes. RESULTS:After controlling for gender, insurer, socioeconomic status and STTGMA trauma risk score, we found that non-White patients had similar or improved care in terms of mortality and rates of delayed surgery, ICU admission, major complications, and discharge location in the setting of the standardized care pathway. Non-White race was not associated with inpatient (odds ratio 1.1 [95% CI 0.40 to 2.73]; p > 0.99), 30-day (OR 1.0 [95% CI 0.48 to 1.83]; p > 0.99) or 1-year mortality (OR 0.9 [95% CI 0.57 to 1.33]; p > 0.99). Non-White race was not associated with delay to surgery beyond 2 days (OR = 1.1 [95% CI 0.79 to 1.38]; p > 0.99). Non-White race was associated with less frequent ICU admissions (OR 0.6 [95% CI 0.42 to 0.85]; p = 0.03) and fewer major complications (OR 0.5 [95% CI 0.35 to 0.83]; p = 0.047). Non-White race was not associated with discharge to skilled nursing facility (OR 1.0 [95% CI 0.78 to 1.30]; p > 0.99), acute rehabilitation facility (OR 1.0 [95% CI 0.66 to 1.41]; p > 0.99), or home (OR 0.9 [95% CI 0.68 to 1.29]; p > 0.99). Controlled factors other than White versus non-White race were associated with mortality, discharge location, ICU admission, and major complication rate. Notably, the STTGMA trauma risk score was correlated with all endpoints. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:In the context of a hip fracture care pathway that reduces variability from time of presentation through discharge, no differences in mortality, time to surgery, complications, and discharge disposition rates were observed beween White and non-White patients after controlling for baseline differences including trauma risk score. The pathway detailed in this study is one iteration that the authors encourage surgeons to customize and trial at their institutions, with the goal of providing equitable care to patients with hip fractures and reducing healthcare disparities. Future investigations should aim to elucidate the impact of standardized trauma care pathways through the use of the STTGMA trauma risk score as a controlled confounder or randomized trials in comparing standardized to individualized, surgeon-specific care. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE/METHODS:Level III, therapeutic study.
PMID: 35238810
ISSN: 1528-1132
CID: 5174562

Locked Lateral Plating vs. Retrograde Nailing for Distal Femur Fractures: A Prospective Multicenter Randomized Trial

Dunbar, Robert P; Egol, Kenneth A; Jones, Clifford B; Ertl, Jan P; Mullis, Brian; Perez, Edward; Collinge, Cory A; Ostrum, Robert; Humphrey, Catherine; Gardner, Michael J; Ricci, William M; Phieffer, Laura S; Teague, David; Ertl, William; Born, Christopher T; Zonno, Alan; Siegel, Jodi; Sagi, H Claude; Pollak, Andrew; Schmidt, Andrew H; Templeman, David; Sems, Andrew; Friess, Darin M; Pape, Hans-Christoph; Krieg, James C; Tornetta, Paul
OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:The main two forms of treatment for distal femur fractures are locked lateral plating and retrograde nailing. The goal of this trial was to determine whether there are significant differences in outcomes between these forms of treatment. DESIGN/METHODS:Prospective, multicenter randomized controlled trial. SETTING/METHODS:20 academic trauma centersPatients/Participants: 160 patients with distal femur fractures were enrolled. 126 patients were followed 12 months. Patients were randomized to plating in 62 cases and to intramedullary nailing in 64 cases. INTERVENTION/METHODS:Lateral locked plating or retrograde intramedullary nailing. MAIN OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS/METHODS:Functional scoring including SMFA, Bother Index, EQ Health and EQ Index. Secondary measures included alignment, operative time, range of motion, union rate, walking ability, ability to manage stairs and number and type of adverse events. RESULTS:Functional testing showed no difference between the groups. Both groups were still significantly affected by their fracture 12 months post injury. There was more coronal plane valgus in the plating group, which approached statistical significance. Range of motion, walking ability & ability to manage stairs were similar between the groups. Rate and type of adverse events were not statistically different between the groups. CONCLUSIONS:Both lateral locked plating and retrograde intramedullary nailing are reasonable surgical options for these fractures. Patients continue to improve over the course of the year following injury, but remain impaired one year post operatively. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE/METHODS:Therapeutic Level I. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
PMID: 36026544
ISSN: 1531-2291
CID: 5338482

The standardized exploration of the radial nerve during humeral shaft fixation reduces the incidence of iatrogenic palsy

Belayneh, Rebekah; Littlefield, Connor P; Konda, Sanjit R; Broder, Kari; Kugelman, David N; Leucht, Philipp; Egol, Kenneth A
BACKGROUND:The purpose of this study is to determine if a standardized protocol for radial nerve handling during humeral shaft repair reduces the incidence of iatrogenic nerve palsy post operatively. METHODS:Seventy-three patients were identified who underwent acute or reconstructive humeral shaft repair with radial nerve exploration as part of the primary procedure for either humeral shaft fracture or nonunion. All patients exhibited intact radial nerve function pre-operatively. A retrospective chart review and analysis identified patients who developed a secondary radial nerve palsy post-operatively. In each case, the radial nerve was identified and mobilized for protection, regardless of whether the implant necessitated the extensile exposure. RESULTS:Fractures were classified according to AO/OTA guidelines and included 23 Type 12A, 11 Type 12B, and 3 Type 12C. Eight patients had periprosthetic fractures and 28 fractures could not be classified. All patients in the cohort were fixed with locking plates. Surgery was indicated for 36 patients with humeral nonunions and 37 patients with acute humeral shaft fractures. Of the 73 patients, 2 (2.7%) developed radial nerve palsy following surgery, one from the posterior approach and one from the anterolateral approach. Both patients exhibited complete recovery of radial nerve function by 6-month follow-up. No significant differences (p > 0.05) were found in any demographic or surgical details between those with and without radial nerve injury. CONCLUSIONS:Nerve exploration identification and protection leads to a low incidence of transient radial nerve palsy compared to the rate reported in the current literature (2.7% compared to 6-24%). Thus, radial nerve exploration and mobilization should be considered when approaching the humeral shaft for acute fracture and nonunion repairs. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE/METHODS:Level III.
PMID: 34191088
ISSN: 1434-3916
CID: 4947592

Patient obesity is associated with severity of proximal humerus fractures, not outcomes

Boadi, Blake I; Belayneh, Rebekah; Littlefield, Connor P; Egol, Kenneth A
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of obesity on the outcome of operatively treated proximal humerus fractures. METHODS:tests for categorical variables. Regression analysis was performed to determine if BMI was a predictor of fracture pattern severity as determined by the AO/OTA classification. RESULTS:Overall, 223 patients who sustained proximal humerus fractures were analyzed. Patient age at time of injury was 60.5 ± 13.7 years. There were 67 AO/OTA 11A, 79 AO/OTA 11B, and 77 AO/OTA 11C fracture types. Seventy-two patients (32.3%) were obese. No significant differences were seen between groups in regard to demographic variables, Neer classification, or functional and clinical outcomes as determined by DASH scores and shoulder ROM, respectively. Statistical analyses confirmed that obesity is associated with more severe fracture patterns of the proximal humerus as categorized by the AO/OTA classification. An independent t test confirmed that BMI was significantly higher in the complex fracture group based on the AO/OTA classification (p = 0.047). Regression analysis also demonstrated that age (p = 0.005) and CCI (p = 0.021) were predictors of more severe fractures, while BMI approached significance (p = 0.055) based on the AO/OTA classification. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:A significantly higher incidence of complex proximal humerus fracture patterns is observed in patients with higher body mass indexes based on the AO/OTA classification. Age and CCI are also associated with more severe fracture patterns of the proximal humerus as determined by the AO/OTA classification. No differences were seen in outcomes or complication rates between obese patients and non-obese patients. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE/METHODS:Level III.
PMID: 35050410
ISSN: 1434-3916
CID: 5131682

Assessment of Healthcare Delivery Systems in Orthopaedic Surgery: A Large Retrospective Cohort Evaluation

Egol, Kenneth A; Parola, Rown; Wingo, Taylor; Maseda, Meghan; Ong, Christian; Deshmukh, Ajit J; Leucht, Philipp
INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND:The purpose of this study was to assess how quality and volume of common orthopaedic care varies across private, municipal, and federal healthcare delivery systems (HDSs). METHODS:Hip and knee arthroplasty, knee and shoulder arthroscopy, and hip fracture repair were audited over a two-year period. Electronic medical records were reviewed for demographics, diagnosis, lengths of stay (LoSs), surgical wait times, inpatient complication, readmission, and revision surgery rates. Multivariate regression controlled for differences in age, sex, diagnosis, and Charlson Comorbidity Index to determine how HDS correlated with surgical wait time, length of stay, complication rates, readmission, and revision surgery. RESULTS:The 5,696 included patients comprise 87.4% private, 8.6% municipal, and 4.0% federal HDSs. Compared with private HDS for arthroplasty, federal surgical wait times were 18 days shorter (95% CI = 9 to 26 days, P < 0.001); federal LoS was 4 days longer (95% CI = 3.6 to 4.3 days, P < 0.001); municipal LoS was 1 day longer (95% CI = 0.8 to 1.4, P < 0.001); municipal 1-year revision surgery odds were increased (odds ratio [OR] = 2.8, 95% CI = 1.3 to 5.4, P = 0.045); and complication odds increased for municipal (OR = 12.2, 95% CI = 5.2 to 27.4, P < 0.001) and federal (OR = 12.0, 95% CI = 4.5 to 30.8, P < 0.001) HDSs. Compared with private HDS for arthroscopy, municipal wait times were 57 days longer (95% CI = 48 to 66 days, P < 0.001) and federal wait times were 34 days longer (95% CI = 21 to 47 days, P < 0.001). Compared with private HDS for fracture repair, municipal wait times were 0.6 days longer (95% CI = 0.2 to 1.0, P = 0.02); federal LoS was 7 days longer (95% CI = 3.6 to 9.4 days, P < 0.001); and municipal LoS was 4 days longer (95% CI = 2.4 to 4.8, P < 0.001). Only private HDS fracture repair patients received bone health consultations. DISCUSSION/CONCLUSIONS:The private HDS provided care for a markedly larger volume of patients seeking orthopaedic care. In addition, private HDS patients experienced reduced surgical wait times, LoSs, and complication odds for inpatient elective cases, with better referral patterns for nonsurgical orthopaedic care after hip fractures within the private HDS. These results may guide improvements for federal and municipal HDSs.
PMID: 36037275
ISSN: 1940-5480
CID: 5337582

Predicting the Subsequent Contralateral Hip Fracture: Is FRAX the Answer?

Lott, Ariana; Pflug, Emily M; Parola, Rown; Egol, Kenneth A; Konda, Sanjit R
OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:To (1) determine the ability of the Fracture Risk Assessment Tool (FRAX) to identify the probability of contralateral hip fractures within 2 years of index fracture and (2) identify independent risk factors for a subsequent hip fracture. DESIGN/METHODS:Retrospective. SETTING/METHODS:Urban, academic medical center. PATIENTS/METHODS:This study included a consecutive series of patients treated for unilateral hip fractures between September 2015 and July 2019. RESULTS:Eight hundred thirty-two consecutive patients were included in the analysis with a mean age of 81.2 ± 9.9 years. Thirty-one (3.7%) patients sustained a contralateral hip fracture within 2 years with these patients sustaining the second fracture at a mean 294.1 days ± 197.7 days. The average FRAX score for the entire cohort was 11.9 ± 7.4, and the area under receiving operating characteristic curve (AUROC) for FRAX score was 0.682 (95% CI, 0.596-0.767). Patients in the high-risk FRAX group had a >7% risk of contralateral hip fracture within 2 years. Independent risk factors for contralateral hip fracture risk included patient age 80 years or older and decreasing BMI. CONCLUSIONS:This study demonstrates the strong ability of the FRAX score to triage patients at risk of subsequent contralateral hip fracture within 2 years. In this high-risk FRAX group, patients age older than 80 years and who have decreasing BMI after their index fracture have a 12.5% increased risk of fracture within 2 years which is 4× higher than the current World Health Organization 10-year 3% hip fracture risk standard used to initiate pharmacologic treatment. Therefore, high-risk patients identified using this methodology should be targeted more aggressively with preventative measures including social, medical, and potentially surgical interventions. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE/METHODS:Prognostic Level III. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
PMID: 36399671
ISSN: 1531-2291
CID: 5371752

The fragility and reverse fragility indices of proximal humerus fracture randomized controlled trials: a systematic review

Kyriakides, Peter William; Schultz, Blake Joseph; Egol, Kenneth; Leucht, Philipp
BACKGROUND:The quality of evidence of the orthopedic literature has been often called into question. The fragility index (FI) has emerged as a means to evaluate the robustness of a significant result. Similarly, reverse fragility index (RFI) can be used for nonsignificant results to evaluate whether one can confidently conclude that there is no difference between groups. The analysis of FI and RFI in proximal humerus fracture (PHF) management is of particular interest, given ongoing controversy regarding optimal management and patient selection. The aim of this study was to report the FI, RFI and quality of the evidence in the proximal humerus fracture literature. METHODS:A systematic review was conducted based on the PRISMA (preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses) guidelines, which utilized EMBASE, MEDLINE and Cochrane Library databases. Inclusion criteria included randomized controlled clinical trials related to the management of proximal humerus fractures, published from 2000 to 2020 with dichotomous outcome measures and 1:1 allocation. The FI and RFI were calculated by successively changing one nonevent to an event for each outcome measure until the result was made nonsignificant or significant, respectively. The fragility quotient, (FQ), calculated by dividing the FI by the total sample size, was calculated as well. RESULTS:There were 25 studies that met our criteria with 48 outcome measures recorded. A total of 21 studies had at least one fragile result, with ten studies including a fragile result in the conclusion of the abstract. A total of 31 outcome measures had nonsignificant results and the median RFI was found to be 4, with 71% greater than number of patients lost to follow up. Seventeen outcomes had significant results, with a median FI of 1, with 65% greater than or equal to the number patients lost to follow up. A total of 18 of 25 studies (72%) included a power analysis. In particular, ten studies reported a statistical analysis of complication rates, 90% of which were fragile. The median FQ was found to be 0.037. CONCLUSIONS:The literature on PHF management is frequently fragile. Outcome measures are often fragile, particularly with regards to comparing complication rates and reoperation rates in treatment arms. Comparing to the studies in other subspecialties PHF RCTs are relatively more fragile and underpowered. Standardized reporting of FI, FQ and RFI can help the reader to reliably draw conclusions based on the fragility of outcome measures.
PMID: 34056677
ISSN: 1863-9941
CID: 4890952

Conversion total hip arthroplasty for early failure following unstable intertrochanteric hip fracture: what can patients expect?

Schultz, Blake J; Sicat, Chelsea; Penev, Aleks; Schwarzkopf, Ran; Egol, Kenneth A
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:To report surgical outcomes in patients treated with conversion total hip arthroplasty (CTHA) for early failure of cephalomedullary nails (CMNs). METHODS:A retrospective review was conducted of CTHA for treatment of failed CMN within 1 year of initial surgery for intertrochanteric (IT) hip fractures. The cohort was matched 1:5 to patients who underwent elective primary THA (PTHA). Patient demographics, mechanism of CMN failure, surgical outcomes, and complication rates were assessed. RESULTS:22 patients met criteria with a mean time to failure of 145 days. Modes of failure included: lag screw cut-out with superior migration (9, 40.9%), or medialization (8, 36.4%), and aseptic nonunion with implant failure (2, 9.0%) and without implant failure (3, 13.6%). Fourteen of the patients (63.6%) had acetabular-sided damage secondary to lag screw penetration, all in the screw cut-out groups. Patient demographics were similar between cohorts. Compared to PTHA, CTHA patients had increased operative time, blood loss, LOS, and readmission rates. After IMN failure, the operative leg was shorter than the contralateral leg in all cases. CTHA restored leg lengths to <  = 10 mm in 15 (68.1%) of patients, with an average leg length discrepancy after CTHA of 6.7 mm. CTHA patients had increased rates of overall surgical complications and medical complications, specifically anemia (all p < 0.01). Tranexamic acid was used less often in the CTHA group (p < 0.01). Rate of periprosthetic joint infection (PJI), dislocation, and revision were all higher in the CTHA, though did not reach statistical significance. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:The majority (77.3%) of CMN implant failure for nonunion within 1 year was due to screw cut-out. CTHA is a salvage option for early failed IT hip fracture repair, but expected surgical outcomes are more similar to revision THA than primary THA, with increased risk of readmission, longer surgery and LOS, increased blood loss, and higher complication rates. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE/METHODS:III, Retrospective comparative study.
PMID: 34657163
ISSN: 1434-3916
CID: 5043032

Observational prospective unblinded case-control study to evaluate the effect of the Gamma3® distal targeting system for long nails on radiation exposure and time for distal screw placement

Konda, Sanjit R; Maseda, Meghan; Leucht, Philipp; Tejwani, Nirmal; Ganta, Abhishek; Egol, Kenneth A
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:To determine if the DTS decreases radiation exposure (primary outcome measure), fluoroscopy time (secondary outcome measure), and time to distal screw placement (secondary outcome measure) compared to the freehand "perfect circles" method when used for locking of cephalomedullary nails in the treatment of femur fractures METHODS: Fifty-eight patients with hip or femoral shaft fractures that were treated with a long cephalomedullary nail were enrolled in this study. Cohorts were determined based on the method of distal interlocking screw placement into either the "Perfect Circles" or "Distal Targeting" cohort. Time from cephalad screw placement to placement of final distal interlocking screw (seconds), radiation exposure (mGy), and fluoroscopy time (seconds) were compared between groups. Hospital quality measures were compared between cohorts. RESULTS:Use of the DTS resulted in 77% (4.3x) lower radiation exposure (p < 0.001), 64% (2.7x) lower fluoroscopy time (p < 0.001), and 60% (1.7x) lower intraoperative time from end of cephalad screw placement to end of distal interlocking screw placement (p < 0.001) compared to the freehand "perfect circles" method. There was no difference in 30-day or 90-day complication rates between cohorts. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:The Stryker Gamma3® Distal Targeting System is a safe, effective and efficient alternative to the freehand "perfect circles" method.
PMID: 36517283
ISSN: 1879-0267
CID: 5382252

Adaptive Risk Modeling: Improving Risk Assessment of Geriatric Hip Fracture Patients Throughout their Hospitalization

Esper, Garrett W; Meltzer-Bruhn, Ariana T; Ganta, Abhishek; Egol, Kenneth A; Konda, Sanjit R
INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND:The purpose of this study was twofold: 1. To assess how adaptive modeling, accounting for development of inpatient complications, affects the predictive capacity of the risk tool to predict inpatient mortality for a cohort of geriatric hip fracture patients. 2. To compare how risk triaging of secondary outcomes is affected by adaptive modeling. We hypothesize that adaptive modeling will improve the predictive capacity of the model and improve the ability to risk triage secondary outcomes. METHODS:and comparative analyses were conducted. RESULTS:experienced the highest rate of mortality, readmission, ICU admission, with longer lengths of stay and higher hospital costs. DISCUSSION/CONCLUSIONS:can better identify patients at risk for developing complications whose mortality and readmission risk profile increase significantly, allowing their new risk classification to inform higher levels of care. While this may increase length of stay and total costs, it may improve outcomes in both the short and long-term. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE/METHODS:III.
PMID: 36464503
ISSN: 1879-0267
CID: 5378562