Autogenous iliac crest bone grafting for tibial nonunions revisited: does approach matter?
BACKGROUND:Tibial nonunion remains a considerable burden for patients and the surgeons who treat them. In recent years, alternatives to autogenous grafts for the treatment of tibial nonunions have been sought. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of autogenous iliac crest bone graft (ICBG) in the treatment of tibial shaft nonunions. MATERIAL AND METHODS/METHODS:Sixty-nine patients were identified who underwent ICBG for repair of atrophic or oligotrophic tibial nonunion and had complete data with at least one year of follow-up (mean 27.9Â months). Surgical treatments consisted of revision/supplemental fixationâ€‰Â±â€‰ICBG. Surgical approaches for graft placement were either posterolateral (PL), anterolateral (AL), or direct medial (DM). Healing status, time to union, postoperative pain, and functional outcomes were assessed. RESULTS:Bony union was achieved by 97.1% (67/69) of patients at a mean time of 7.8â€‰Â±â€‰3.2Â months postoperatively. There was no significant difference in mean time to union between the three surgical approach groups: (PL (44.9%)â€‰=â€‰7.3Â months, AL (20.3%)â€‰=â€‰9.2Â months, DM (34.8%)â€‰=â€‰7.6Â months; pâ€‰=â€‰0.22). Intraoperative cultures obtained at the time of nonunion surgery were positive in 27.5% of patients (19/69). Positive cultures were associated with need for secondary surgery as 8/19 patients (42.1%) with positive cultures required re-operation. Two out of four patients that developed iliac donor site hematomas/infections requiring washout had positive intraoperative cultures as well. There was no difference in final SMFA among the three surgical approach groups. CONCLUSIONS:Autogenous ICBG remains the gold standard in the management of persistent tibial nonunions regardless of surgical approach. There is a small risk for complication at the iliac crest donor site. Given the high union rate, autogenous iliac crest bone grafting for tibial nonunion remains the gold standard for this difficult condition. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE/METHODS:Level III.
Incidence of Chondral and Osteochondral Lesions in Ankle Fracture Patients Identified With Ankle Arthroscopy Following Rotational Ankle Fracture: A Systematic Review
A systematic literature search was performed using the PubMed, MEDLINE, and the Cochrane Library databases according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic review and Meta-Analyses guidelines on May 20, 2019. The keywords used were: ankle, distal tibia, distal fibula, fracture, arthroscopic, cartilage, and chondral. The objective of this study is to systematically review the characterization of intra-articular chondral injuries of the talus, tibial plafond, medial malleolus, and lateral malleolus in patients who undergo ankle arthroscopy following ankle fracture. Studies evaluating the incidence of chondral lesions at the time of arthroscopy for ankle fractures within any timeframe were included. The incidence of intra-articular chondral lesions was recorded, the location within the ankle, ankle fracture type, time of arthroscopy, characterization of chondral injury, complications, and outcome if available. Fifteen studies with 1355 ankle fractures were included. About 738 demonstrated evidence of chondral or osteochondral lesion (54.5%). Statistical analyses were carried out with statistical software package SPSS 24.0 (SPSS, Chicago, IL). We compared incidence rates of chondral injury based on Weber classification, malleolar fracture type, and Lauge-Hansen classification, using Pearson chi-square test. For all analyses, p < .05 was considered statistically significant. We found a high incidence of intra-articular chondral lesion in the setting of ankle fractures as demonstrated by arthroscopy.
Transfusion timing relative to surgery does not impact outcomes in hip fracture patients
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:The purpose of this study is to determine the effects of blood transfusion timing in hip fracture patients. METHODS:A consecutive series of hip fracture patients 55Â years and older who required a blood transfusion during hospitalization were reviewed for demographic, injury, clinical outcome, and cost information. A validated risk predictive score (STTGMA) was calculated for each patient. Patients were stratified to preoperative, intraoperative, or postoperative first transfusion cohorts. The intraoperative and postoperative cohorts were matched by STTGMA, sex, and procedure to the preoperative cohort. Baseline patient characteristics and outcomes were compared before and after matching. RESULTS:Prior to matching, the preoperative cohort was more often male (pâ€‰<â€‰0.001) with increased Charlson comorbidity index (pâ€‰=â€‰0.012), ASA class (pâ€‰<â€‰0.002), STTGMA (pâ€‰<â€‰0.001), total transfused volume (pâ€‰=â€‰0.002), incidence of inpatient mortality (pâ€‰=â€‰0.045), myocardial infarction (pâ€‰=â€‰0.005) and cardiac arrest (pâ€‰=â€‰0.014). After matching, the preoperative cohort had increased total transfused volume (pâ€‰=â€‰0.015) and decreased pneumonia incidence (pâ€‰=â€‰0.040). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Matching STTGMA score, sex, and procedure results in non-inferior outcomes among hip fracture patients receiving preoperative first blood transfusions compared to intraoperative and postoperative transfusions.
Outpatient lower extremity fracture surgery: should we be concerned?
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:With rising healthcare costs and insurance push against non-emergent hospital admission, lower extremity fracture treatment is shifting toward outpatient procedures over inpatient hospitalizations. This study compares outcomes for fractures treated as inpatient versus outpatient. METHODS:We conducted a retrospective review of lower extremity fracture patients. We collected demographics, injury information, hospital course, and complication data. Length of stay was categorized as "inpatient" and "outpatient" based a 24-h hospital stay cutoff. Data analysis included differences between cohorts with regards to readmissions and complications. RESULTS:We identified 229 patients who met inclusion criteria. Inpatient versus outpatient status was predictive of in-hospital complications; however, inpatient versus outpatient status did not predict 1-year readmission. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Outpatient surgery is safe and effective. As the population increases and ages, low-risk surgeries should be considered for outpatient rather than inpatient stays to lower costs, save resources, and reduce complications.
Outcomes following fracture fixation with the EquinoxeÂ® proximal humerus plate: an improvement over PHILOSÂ®?
INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND:The purpose of this study is to compare patient outcomes between the EquinoxeÂ® (Exactech, Gainesville, Fla) proximal humerus locking plate and the PHILOSÂ® (Synthes, Paoli, PA) proximal humerus locking plate. METHODS:Two hundred and seventy-one patients with a displaced proximal humerus fracture presented to our academic medical center between February 2003 and October 2020. Functional outcomes assessed included the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand questionnaire and shoulder range of motion. Radiographs were utilized to determine fracture healing and development of posttraumatic osteoarthritis or osteonecrosis. RESULTS:Overall, 108 EquinoxeÂ® and 87 PHILOSÂ® patients treated by a single surgeon with complete clinical, functional, and radiographic follow-up were included in the study. Demographics were similar between groups. One hundred and eight EquinoxeÂ® patients healed at a mean time to union by 3.7â€‰Â±â€‰2.2Â months, and 86 PHILOSÂ® patients healed (pâ€‰=â€‰0.24) by 4.1â€‰Â±â€‰2.3Â months after surgery (pâ€‰=â€‰0.31). Shoulder external rotation was greater in EquinoxeÂ® patients by 7 degrees (pâ€‰=â€‰0.044), and forward elevation was greater by 16 degrees (pâ€‰=â€‰0.005) at one-year follow-up. DASH scores were similar between patients at the 3-, 6-, and 12-month follow-up (pâ€‰=â€‰0.86, pâ€‰=â€‰0.77, pâ€‰=â€‰0.64). Fewer EquinoxeÂ® patients experienced complications (pâ€‰=â€‰0.043). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Fixation of a proximal humerus fracture can safely be performed with both EquinoxeÂ® and PHILOSÂ® proximal humerus locking plates. Patients fixed with EquinoxeÂ® plates achieved a slightly greater degree of external rotation, forward elevation, and experienced fewer complications. This difference may be due to surgeon experience rather than the implant itself.
Nail plate combination in the upper extremity: surgical technique and clinical application
Nail plate constructs (NPC) have shown promising results in complex lower extremity peri-articular fractures as well as in peri-prosthetic fractures. The combination of both implants allows for improved mechanical stability and immediate weight bearing. The use of NPC has not been described in the upper extremity in the literature. We herein describe potential indications and surgical technique for NPC usage for complex upper extremity trauma and reconstruction.
Peri-implant fractures of the upper and lower extremities: a case series of 61 fractures
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:To assess outcomes for patients who sustained peri-implant fractures (PIFs). METHODS:Medical records of patients who sustained a PIF were reviewed for demographic, injury, outcome, and radiographic data. PIFs were classified using a reproducible system and stratified into cohorts based on fracture location. Clinical outcomes were evaluated for each cohort. RESULTS:Fifty-six patients with 61 PIFs with at least 6Â months of follow-up were included. The mean age of the cohort was 60.4â€‰Â±â€‰19.5Â years. Twenty-two (36.1%) PIFs occurred in males, while 39 (63.9%) occurred in females. Fifty-two (85.2%) PIFs were sustained from a low-energy injury mechanism. PIFs were most often treated with plate/screw constructs (50.8%). Complications included: 6 (9.8%) nonunions, 5 of which were successfully treated to healing, 5 (8.2%) fracture related infections (FRI), and 1 (1.6%) hardware failure. Sixty (98.4%) PIFs ultimately demonstrated radiographic healing. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:PIFs are usually treated surgically and have a relatively high incidence of complications, with nonunion in femoral PIFs being the greatest. Despite this, the rate of ultimate healing is quite high.
Arterial Injury Portends Worse Soft Tissue Outcomes and Delayed Coverage in Open Tibial Fractures
OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:To investigate if any injury to the three primary branches of the popliteal artery in open tibia fractures lead to increased soft-tissue complications, particularly in the area of the affected angiosome. DESIGN/METHODS:Retrospective cohort comparative study. SETTING/METHODS:Two academic level one trauma centersPatients/Participants: Sixty-eight adult patients with open tibia fractures with a minimum one-year follow up. INTERVENTION/METHODS:N/A. MAIN OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS/METHODS:Soft-tissue outcomes as measured by wound healing (delayed healing, dehiscence, or skin breakdown) and fracture related infection (FRI) at time of final follow-up. RESULTS:Eleven (15.1%) tibia fractures had confirmed arterial injuries via CTA (7), direct intraoperative visualization (3), intraoperative angiogram (3). Ten (91.0%) were treated with ligation and 1 (9.1%) was directly repaired by vascular surgery. Ultimately, 6 (54.5%) achieved radiographic union and 4 (36.4%) required amputation performed at a mean of 2.62 Â± 2.04 months, with one patient going on to nonunion diagnosed at 10 months. Patients with arterial injury had significantly higher rates of wound healing complications, FRI, nonunion, amputation rates, return to the OR, and increased time to coverage or closure. After multivariate regression, arterial injury was associated with higher odds of wound complications, FRI, and nonunion. Ten (90.9%) patients with arterial injury had open wounds in the region of the compromised angiosome, with 7 (70%) experiencing wound complications, 6 (60%) FRIs, and 3 (30%) undergoing amputation. CONCLUSIONS:Arterial injuries in open tibia fractures with or without repair, have significantly higher rates of wound healing complications, FRI, delayed time to final closure, and need for amputation. Arterial injuries appear to effect wound healing in the affected angiosome. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE/METHODS:Prognostic Level IV. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
Preoperative echocardiogram does not increase time to surgery in hip fracture patients with prior percutaneous coronary intervention
BACKGROUND:The purpose of this study was to (1) assess the effect of preoperative echocardiogram on time to surgery and (2) assess the outcomes of patients with a previous percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). METHODS:Demographic, clinical, quality and cost data were obtained and a validated risk predictive tool (STTGMA) was calculated for each of a consecutive series of hip fracture patients. Comparative analyses of patients who had an echocardiogram prior to surgery or a PCI prior to hospitalization were performed. RESULTS:Between 2014 and 2020, 2625 patients presented to our institution with a hip fracture. From this cohort 471 patients underwent a preoperative transthoracic echocardiogram (TTE), 30 who had a history of a PCI, and an additional 26 who had a history of PCI but did not undergo a preoperative TTE. Those undergoing a preoperative TTE had similar time (days) to surgery (1.73 vs 1.77, pâ€‰=â€‰0.86) and 30-day mortality (4% vs 7%, pâ€‰=â€‰0.545) regardless of PCI history. PCI patients who underwent a preoperative TTE experienced increased rates of 1-year mortality (27% vs 10%, pâ€‰=â€‰0.007) and major complications (23% vs 12%, pâ€‰=â€‰0.08) compared to those without a PCI history. PCI patients undergoing a preoperative TTE had a similar time (days) to surgery (1.77 vs 1.48, .pâ€‰=â€‰0.397) compared to PCI patients without a preoperative TTE. Patients who underwent a preoperative TTE had higher rates of 90-day readmission (31.0% vs 8.0%, pâ€‰=â€‰0.047) and 1-year mortality (26.7% vs 3.8%, pâ€‰=â€‰0.029). CONCLUSIONS:Having a preoperative TTE does not affect surgical wait times in hip fracture patients regardless of PCI history, but it may not improve mortality outcomes or reduce postoperative complications in patients with a history of a PCI.
No Differences Between White and Non-White Patients in Terms of Care Quality Metrics, Complications, and Death After Hip Fracture Surgery When Standardized Care Pathways are Used
BACKGROUND:Many initiatives by medical and public health communities at the national, state, and institutional level have been centered around understanding and analyzing critical determinants of population health with the goal of equitable and nondisparate care. In orthopaedic traumatology, several studies have demonstrated that race and socioeconomic status are associated with differences in care delivery and outcomes of patients with hip fractures. However, studies assessing the effectiveness of methods to address disparities in care delivery, quality metrics, and complications after hip fracture surgery are lacking. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES/OBJECTIVE:(1) Are hospital quality measures (such as delay to surgery, major inpatient complications, intensive care unit admission, and discharge disposition) and outcomes (such as mortality during inpatient stay, within 30 days or within 1 year) similar between White and non-White patients at a single institution in the setting of a standardized hip fracture pathway? (2) What factors correlate with aforementioned hospital quality measures and outcomes under the standardized care pathway? METHODS:In this retrospective, comparative study, we evaluated the records of 1824 patients 55 years of age or older with hip fractures from a low-energy mechanism who were treated at one of four hospitals in our urban academic healthcare system, which includes an orthopaedic tertiary care hospital, from the initiation of a standardized care pathway in October 2014 to March 2020. The standardized 4-day hip fracture pathway is comprised of medicine comanagement of all patients and delineated tasks for doctors, nursing, social work, care managers, and physical and occupational therapy from admission to expected discharge on postoperative day 4. Of the 1824 patients, 98% (1787 of 1824) of patients who had their race recorded in the electronic medical record chart (either by communicating it to a medical provider or by selecting their race from options including White, Black, Hispanic, and Asian in a patient portal of the electronic medical record) were potentially eligible. A total of 14% (249 of 1787) of patients were excluded because they did not have an in-state address. Of the included patients, 5% (70 of 1538) were lost to follow-up at 30 days and 22% (336 of 1538) were lost to follow-up at 1 year. Two groups were established by including all patients selecting White as primary race into the White cohort and all other patients in the non-White cohort. There were 1111 White patients who were 72% (801) female with mean age 82 Â± 10 years and 427 non-White patients who were 64% (271) female with mean age 80 Â± 11 years. Univariate chi-square and Mann-Whitney U tests of demographics were used to compare White and non-White patients and find factors to control for potentially relevant confounding variables. Multivariable regression analyses were used to control for important baseline between-group differences to (1) determine the correlation of White and non-White race on mortality, inpatient complications, intensive care unit (ICU) admissions, and discharge disposition and (2) assess the correlation of gender, socioeconomic status, insurance payor, and the Score for Trauma Triage in the Geriatric and Middle Aged (STTGMA) trauma risk score with these quality measures and outcomes. RESULTS:After controlling for gender, insurer, socioeconomic status and STTGMA trauma risk score, we found that non-White patients had similar or improved care in terms of mortality and rates of delayed surgery, ICU admission, major complications, and discharge location in the setting of the standardized care pathway. Non-White race was not associated with inpatient (odds ratio 1.1 [95% CI 0.40 to 2.73]; p > 0.99), 30-day (OR 1.0 [95% CI 0.48 to 1.83]; p > 0.99) or 1-year mortality (OR 0.9 [95% CI 0.57 to 1.33]; p > 0.99). Non-White race was not associated with delay to surgery beyond 2 days (OR = 1.1 [95% CI 0.79 to 1.38]; p > 0.99). Non-White race was associated with less frequent ICU admissions (OR 0.6 [95% CI 0.42 to 0.85]; p = 0.03) and fewer major complications (OR 0.5 [95% CI 0.35 to 0.83]; p = 0.047). Non-White race was not associated with discharge to skilled nursing facility (OR 1.0 [95% CI 0.78 to 1.30]; p > 0.99), acute rehabilitation facility (OR 1.0 [95% CI 0.66 to 1.41]; p > 0.99), or home (OR 0.9 [95% CI 0.68 to 1.29]; p > 0.99). Controlled factors other than White versus non-White race were associated with mortality, discharge location, ICU admission, and major complication rate. Notably, the STTGMA trauma risk score was correlated with all endpoints. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:In the context of a hip fracture care pathway that reduces variability from time of presentation through discharge, no differences in mortality, time to surgery, complications, and discharge disposition rates were observed beween White and non-White patients after controlling for baseline differences including trauma risk score. The pathway detailed in this study is one iteration that the authors encourage surgeons to customize and trial at their institutions, with the goal of providing equitable care to patients with hip fractures and reducing healthcare disparities. Future investigations should aim to elucidate the impact of standardized trauma care pathways through the use of the STTGMA trauma risk score as a controlled confounder or randomized trials in comparing standardized to individualized, surgeon-specific care. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE/METHODS:Level III, therapeutic study.