Bariatric surgery normalizes diabetes risk index by one month post-operation
Sinatra, Vincent J; Lin, BingXue; Parikh, Manish; Berger, Jeffrey S; Fisher, Edward A; Heffron, Sean P
AIM/OBJECTIVE:The Diabetes risk index (DRI) is a composite of NMR-measured lipoproteins and branched chain amino acids predictive of diabetes mellitus development. Bariatric surgery is indicated in patients with severe obesity, many of whom are at high-risk for developing diabetes. Substantial weight loss occurs following bariatric surgery and sustained weight loss likely contributes to reductions in the development of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. However, some evidence suggests that bariatric surgical procedures themselves may contribute to reducing risk of these conditions independent of weight loss. We aimed to investigate DRI and its association with reductions in body weight and adiposity over one year following bariatric surgery. METHODS:; nâ€‰=â€‰15). RESULTS:, but DRI decreased so that it no longer differed from that of normal BMI controls (1.9 [1, 17] vs control 12 [1, 20]; pâ€‰=â€‰0.35). Subjects continued to lose weight, whereas DRI remained similar, throughout follow-up with DRI 1.0 [1, 7] at 12Â months. Changes in DRI did not correlate with changes in BMI, body weight or waist circumference at any time during follow-up. There was no difference in change in DRI between surgical procedures or pre-operative metabolic syndrome status. CONCLUSIONS:Our analysis of DRI scores supports the capacity of bariatric surgery to reduce risk of developing diabetes in severely obese individuals. Our findings suggest that bariatric surgical techniques may have inherent effects that improve cardiometabolic risk independent of reductions in body weight or adiposity.
Editorial: Metabolic hormones and inflammation
Gage, Matthew C.; Alzaid, Fawaz; McNeilly, Alison Delamere; Fisher, Edward A.
Galectin-9: A novel promoter of atherosclerosis progression
Krautter, Franziska; Hussain, Mohammed T; Zhi, Zhaogong; Lezama, Danielle R; Manning, Julia E; Brown, Emily; Marigliano, Noemi; Raucci, Federica; Recio, Carlota; Chimen, Myriam; Maione, Francesco; Tiwari, Alok; McGettrick, Helen M; Cooper, Dianne; Fisher, Edward A; Iqbal, Asif J
BACKGROUND AND AIMS/OBJECTIVE:Atherosclerosis is widely accepted to be an inflammatory disease driven by lipid accumulation and leukocyte recruitment. More recently, galectins, a family of β-galactoside binding proteins, have been shown to play a role in leukocyte recruitment among other immunomodulatory functions. Galectin (Gal) -9, a tandem repeat type galectin expressed by the endothelium in inflammatory environments, has been proposed to promote leukocyte recruitment. However, the role of Gal-9 in the context of monocyte recruitment remains elusive. METHODS AND RESULTS/RESULTS:monocytes in a β2-integrin and glycan dependent manner, while adhesion of monocytes to stimulated endothelium is reduced when Gal-9 is knocked down. Gal-9 also facilitates enhanced recruitment of leukocytes from peripheral arterial disease (PAD) patients compared to healthy young and aged controls. We further characterise the endothelium as source of circulating Gal-9, which is increased in plasma of PAD patients compared to healthy controls. CONCLUSIONS:These results highlight a pathological role for Gal-9 as promoter of monocyte recruitment and atherosclerotic plaque progression, making it a novel target in the prevention of plaque formation and progression.
Big Fish or No Fish; Eicosapentaenoic Acid and Cardiovascular Disease
Goldberg, Ira J; Gjini, Jana; Fisher, Edward A
Benefits of omega 3 fatty acids for cardiovascular and other diseases have been touted for more than 50Â years. The one clear clinical benefit of these lipids is the reduction of circulating levels of triglycerides, making them a useful approach for the prevention of pancreatitis in severely hypertriglyceridemic patients. After a series of spectacularly failed clinical trials that were criticized for the choice of subjects and doses of omega 3 fatty acids used, Reduction of Cardiovascular Events with Icosapent Ethyl-Intervention Trial (REDUCE-IT) using a high dose of icosapent ethyl (IPE) reported a reduction in cardiovascular disease (CVD) events. However, this trial has generated controversy due to the use of mineral oil in the control group and the associated side effects of the IPA. This review will focus on the following topics: What are the epidemiologic data suggesting a benefit of omega 3 fatty acids? What might be the mechanisms for these benefits? Why have the clinical trials failed to resolve whether these fatty acids provide benefit? What choices should a clinician consider?
Staphylococcus aureus induces a muted host response in human blood that blunts the recruitment of neutrophils
Zwack, Erin E; Chen, Ze; Devlin, Joseph C; Li, Zhi; Zheng, Xuhui; Weinstock, Ada; Lacey, Keenan A; Fisher, Edward A; Fenyö, David; Ruggles, Kelly V; Loke, P'ng; Torres, Victor J
Loss of PRMT2 in myeloid cells in normoglycemic mice phenocopies impaired regression of atherosclerosis in diabetic mice
Vurusaner, Beyza; Thevkar-Nages, Prashanth; Kaur, Ravneet; Giannarelli, Chiara; Garabedian, Michael J; Fisher, Edward A
The regression, or resolution, of inflammation in atherosclerotic plaques is impaired in diabetes. However, the factors mediating this effect remain incomplete. We identified protein arginine methyltransferase 2 (PRMT2) as a protein whose expression in macrophages is reduced in hyperglycemia and diabetes. PRMT2 catalyzes arginine methylation to target proteins to modulate gene expression. Because PRMT2 expression is reduced in cells in hyperglycemia, we wanted to determine whether PRMT2 plays a causal role in the impairment of atherosclerosis regression in diabetes. We, therefore, examined the consequence of deleting PRMT2 in myeloid cells during the regression of atherosclerosis in normal and diabetic mice. Remarkably, we found significant impairment of atherosclerosis regression under normoglycemic conditions in mice lacking PRMT2 (Prmt2-/-) in myeloid cells that mimic the decrease in regression of atherosclerosis in WT mice under diabetic conditions. This was associated with increased plaque macrophage retention, as well as increased apoptosis and necrosis. PRMT2-deficient plaque CD68+ cells under normoglycemic conditions showed increased expression of genes involved in cytokine signaling and inflammation compared to WT cells. Consistently, Prmt2-/- bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) showed an increased response of proinflammatory genes to LPS and a decreased response of inflammation resolving genes to IL-4. This increased response to LPS in Prmt2-/- BMDMs occurs via enhanced NF-kappa B activity. Thus, the loss of PRMT2 is causally linked to impaired atherosclerosis regression via a heightened inflammatory response in macrophages. That PRMT2 expression was lower in myeloid cells in plaques from human subjects with diabetes supports the relevance of our findings to human atherosclerosis.
A Randomized Open Label Clinical Trial of Lipid-Lowering Therapy in Psoriasis to Reduce Vascular Endothelial Inflammation
Garshick, Michael S; Drenkova, Kamelia; Barrett, Tessa J; Schlamp, Florencia; Fisher, Edward A; Katz, Stuart; Jelic, Sanja; Neimann, Andrea L; Scher, Jose U; Krueger, James; Berger, Jeffrey S
Emerging Concepts of Vascular Cell Clonal Expansion in Atherosclerosis
Misra, Ashish; Rehan, Rajan; Lin, Alexander; Patel, Sanjay; Fisher, Edward A
Clonal expansion is a process that can drive pathogenesis in human diseases, with atherosclerosis being a prominent example. Despite advances in understanding the etiology of atherosclerosis, clonality studies of vascular cells remain in an early stage. Recently, several paradigm-shifting preclinical studies have identified clonal expansion of progenitor cells in the vasculature in response to atherosclerosis. This review provides an overview of cell clonality in atherosclerotic progression, focusing particularly on smooth muscle cells and macrophages. We discuss key findings from the latest research that give insight into the mechanisms by which clonal expansion of vascular cells contributes to disease pathology. The further probing of these mechanisms will provide innovative directions for future progress in the understanding and therapy of atherosclerosis and its associated cardiovascular diseases.
Deficiency of inactive rhomboid protein 2 (iRhom2) attenuates diet-induced hyperlipidemia and early atherogenesis
Hannemann, Carmen; Schecker, Johannes H; Brettschneider, Alica; Grune, Jana; Rösener, Nicole; Weller, Andrea; Stangl, Verena; Fisher, Edward A; Stangl, Karl; Ludwig, Antje; Hewing, Bernd
AIMS/OBJECTIVE:Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the arterial vessel wall and anti-inflammatory treatment strategies are currently pursued to lower cardiovascular disease burden. Modulation of recently discovered inactive rhomboid protein 2 (iRhom2) attenuates shedding of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-Î±) selectively from immune cells. The present study aims at investigating the impact of iRhom2 deficiency on the development of atherosclerosis. METHODS AND RESULTS/RESULTS:Low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR)-deficient mice with additional deficiency of iRhom2 (LDLR-/-iRhom2-/-) and control (LDLR-/-) mice were fed a Western type diet (WD) for 8 or 20â€‰weeks to induce early or advanced atherosclerosis. Deficiency of iRhom2 resulted in a significant decrease in the size of early atherosclerotic plaques as determined in aortic root cross sections. LDLR-/-iRhom2-/- mice exhibited significantly lower serum levels of TNF-Î± and lower circulating and hepatic levels of cholesterol and triglycerides compared to LDLR-/- mice at 8â€‰weeks of WD. Analyses of hepatic bile acid concentration and gene expression at 8â€‰weeks of WD revealed that iRhom2 deficiency prevented WD-induced repression of hepatic bile acid synthesis in LDLR-/- mice. In contrast, at 20â€‰weeks of WD plaque size, plaque composition, and serum levels of TNF-Î± or cholesterol were not different between genotypes. CONCLUSIONS:Modulation of inflammation by iRhom2 deficiency attenuated diet induced hyperlipidemia and early atherogenesis in LDLR-/- mice. iRhom2 deficiency did not affect diet- induced plaque burden and composition in advanced atherosclerosis in LDLR-/- mice. TRANSLATIONAL PERSPECTIVE/UNASSIGNED:iRhom2 attenuates shedding of TNF-Î± selectively from immune cells and therefore has emerged as a potential new target for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. In the present study, we identified iRhom2 as a critical link between inflammation, lipid metabolism, and atherogenesis. Selective iRhom2 inhibition represents a potential treatment strategy to modify atherosclerosis, particularly in the presence of enhanced inflammation as observed with diabetes mellitus or rheumatoid arthritis.
Transcriptional regulation of Acsl1 by CHREBP and NF-kappa B in macrophages during hyperglycemia and inflammation
Thevkar-Nagesh, Prashanth; Habault, Justine; Voisin, Maud; Ruff, Sophie E; Ha, Susan; Ruoff, Rachel; Chen, Xi; Rawal, Shruti; Zahr, Tarik; Szabo, Gyongyi; Rogatsky, Inez; Fisher, Edward A; Garabedian, Michael J
Acyl-CoA synthetase 1 (ACSL1) is an enzyme that converts fatty acids to acyl-CoA-derivatives for lipid catabolism and lipid synthesis in general and can provide substrates for the production of mediators of inflammation in monocytes and macrophages. Acsl1 expression is increased by hyperglycemia and inflammatory stimuli in monocytes and macrophages, and promotes the pro-atherosclerotic effects of diabetes in mice. Yet, surprisingly little is known about the mechanisms underlying Acsl1 transcriptional regulation. Here we demonstrate that the glucose-sensing transcription factor, Carbohydrate Response Element Binding Protein (CHREBP), is a regulator of the expression of Acsl1 mRNA by high glucose in mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs). In addition, we show that inflammatory stimulation of BMDMs with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) increases Acsl1 mRNA via the transcription factor, NF-kappa B. LPS treatment also increases ACSL1 protein abundance and localization to membranes where it can exert its activity. Using an Acsl1 reporter gene containing the promoter and an upstream regulatory region, which has multiple conserved CHREBP and NF-kappa B (p65/RELA) binding sites, we found increased Acsl1 promoter activity upon CHREBP and p65/RELA expression. We also show that CHREBP and p65/RELA occupy the Acsl1 promoter in BMDMs. In primary human monocytes cultured in high glucose versus normal glucose, ACSL1 mRNA expression was elevated by high glucose and further enhanced by LPS treatment. Our findings demonstrate that CHREBP and NF-kappa B control Acsl1 expression under hyperglycemic and inflammatory conditions.