Advanced Imaging Techniques for Mitral Regurgitation
Mitral regurgitation (MR) is one of the most commonly encountered valvular lesions in clinical practice. MR can be either primary (degenerative) or secondary (functional) depending on the etiology of MR and the pathology of the mitral valve (MV). Echocardiography is the primary diagnostic tool for MR and is key in determining this etiology as well as MR severity. While clinicians usually turn to 2 Dimensional echocardiography as first-line imaging, 3 Dimensional echocardiography (3DE) has continually shown to be superior in terms of describing MV anatomy and pathology. This review article elaborates on 3DE techniques, modalities, and advances in software. Furthermore, the article demonstrates how 3DE has reformed MR evaluation and has played a vital role in determining patient management.
Multimodality imaging of scimitar syndrome in adults: A report of four cases [Case Report]
Partial anomalous pulmonary venous return (PAPVR) comprises a group of congenital cardiovascular anomalies associated with pulmonary venous flow directly or indirectly into the right atrium. Scimitar syndrome is a variant of PAPVR in which the right lung is drained by right pulmonary veins connected anomalously to the inferior vena cava. Surgery is the definitive treatment for scimitar syndrome. However, it is not always necessary as many patients are asymptomatic, have small left-to-right shunts, and enjoy a normal life expectancy without surgery. We report multimodality imaging in four adults with scimitar syndrome and the implications for management of this rare syndrome.
Geriatric Presentation of Idiopathic Left Ventricular Aneurysm
Lipomatous Atrial Septal Hypertrophy: A Review of Its Anatomy, Pathophysiology, Multimodality Imaging, and Relevance to Percutaneous Interventions
Lipomatous atrial septal hypertrophy (LASH) is a histologically benign cardiac lesion characterized by excessive fat deposition in the region of the interatrial septum that spares the fossa ovalis. The etiology of LASH remains unclear, though it may be associated with advanced age and obesity. Because of the sparing of the fossa ovalis, LASH has a pathognomonic dumbbell shape. LASH may be mistaken for various tumors of the interatrial septum. Histologically, LASH is composed of both mature and brown (fetal) adipose tissue, but the role of brown adipose tissue remains unclear. In interventional procedures requiring access to the left atrium, LASH may interfere with transseptal puncture, as traversing the thickened area can reduce the maneuverability of catheters and devices. This may cause the needle to enter the epicardial space, causing dangerous pericardial effusions. LASH was once considered a contraindication to percutaneous device closure of atrial septal defects because of an associated increased risk for incorrect device deployment. However, careful attention to preprocedural imaging and procedural intracardiac echocardiography enable interventional cardiologists to perform procedures in patients with LASH without serious complications. In this review article, the authors describe anatomic and functional aspects of LASH, with emphasis on their roles in percutaneous interventions.
Extrinsic Esophageal Compression by Cervical Osteophytes in Diffuse Idiopathic Skeletal Hyperostosis: A Contraindication to Transesophageal Echocardiography?
Contraindications to transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) include various esophageal pathologies, but compression of the esophagus by vertebral osteophytes is not listed in the current American Society of Echocardiography guidelines. We report a case of diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH) in an 81-year-old man who had incidentally been found to have extrinsic esophageal compression by cervical osteophytes prior to a proposed TEE. The incidence of esophageal perforation in patients with DISH and vertebral osteophytes is not well documented. We believe these patients are at increased risk of esophageal perforation during TEE, and thus, TEE may be relatively contraindicated in patients with DISH.
The Role of Multimodality Imaging in Percutaneous Left Atrial Appendage Suture Ligation with the LARIAT Device
Atrial fibrillation (AF), the most common cardiac arrhythmia, is a significant cause of embolic stroke. Although systemic anticoagulation is the primary strategy for preventing the thromboembolic complications of AF, anticoagulants carry major bleeding risks, and many patients have contraindications to their use. Because thromboembolism typically arises from a clot in the left atrial appendage (LAA), local therapeutic alternatives to systemic anticoagulation involving surgical or percutaneous exclusion of the LAA have been developed. Surgical exclusion of the LAA is typically performed only as an adjunct to other cardiac surgeries, thus limiting the number of eligible patients. Furthermore, surgical exclusion of the LAA is frequently incomplete, and thromboembolism may still occur. Percutaneous LAA exclusion includes two approaches: transseptal delivery of an occlusion device to the LAA and epicardial suture ligation of the LAA, the LARIAT procedure. In the LARIAT procedure, a pretied snare is placed around the epicardial surface of the LAA orifice via pericardial access. Proper snare placement is achieved with epicardial and endocardial magnet-tipped guidewires. The endocardial wire is advanced transvenously to the LAA apex after transseptal puncture. The epicardial wire, introduced into the pericardial space, achieves end-to-end union with the endocardial wire at the LAA apex. The snare is then placed over the LAA, tightened, and sutured. On the basis of early clinical experience, the LARIAT procedure has a high success rate of LAA exclusion with low risk for complications. The authors describe the indispensable role of real-time transesophageal echocardiography in the guidance of LAA epicardial suture ligation with the LARIAT device.
Benjamin Babington and the quadricuspid aortic valve [Letter]
Mitral valve libman-sacks endocarditis visualized by real time three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography
Libman-Sacks endocarditis (LSE) is a common manifestation of valve disease in antiphospholipid syndrome. Mitral valve LSE is characterized by verrucous vegetations on the atrial surfaces of valve leaflets. In this report, mitral valve LSE was visualized by real time 3D transesophageal echocardiography (TEE). 3D TEE provides a unique en face view of the mitral valve akin to a surgical or autopsy view that allows for an accurate determination of the size, shape, and location of the vegetations. (Echocardiography 2012;29:E100-E101).
Isolated left atrial appendage ostial stenosis [Case Report]
A patient with atrial tachycardia presented with dyspnoea on exertion. Transoesophageal echocardiography revealed idiopathic left atrial appendage stenosis. The mouth of the atrial appendage was narrowed, and there was a high velocity to and fro jet between the left atrial body and the left atrial appendage. The study, therefore, suggested isolated left atrial appendage orifice stenosis
Feasibility and cardiac safety of pegylated liposomal doxorubicin plus trastuzumab in heavily pretreated patients with recurrent HER2-overexpressing metastatic breast cancer
BACKGROUND: Few studies have evaluated concomitant pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD) plus trastuzumab as therapy for HER2-overexpressing metastatic breast cancer (MBC). This open-label, prospective, phase II trial assessed the safety and efficacy of this regimen, with cardiac tolerance as the principal focus. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Women with HER2-overexpressing recurrent MBC, baseline left ventricular ejection fraction >or= 55%, and no history of serious cardiac illness were eligible; preexisting cardiac risk factors, including previous anthracyclines and previous trastuzumab for MBC, were allowed. Patients received weekly trastuzumab and every-3-week PLD until progression, prohibitive toxicity, or patient refusal. Left ventricular ejection fraction was assessed during and after therapy. Grade 3/4 congestive heart failure (CHF) was monitored for premature closure. RESULTS: The trial closed after 2.5 years for slow accrual. Twelve patients were enrolled: 7 had received adjuvant anthracyclines; 9 had received previous MBC treatment, of whom 7 had received trastuzumab in combination with chemotherapy. Patients received a mean of 4.8 cycles of PLD; 8 patients experienced stable disease; 4 patients experienced progression. Mean left ventricular ejection fraction levels did not change substantially: 60.4%, 57%, 60.3%, and 56.8% at baseline, after cycle 2, after cycle 4, and after completion of treatment, respectively. No patients experienced grade 4 CHF. One patient discontinued treatment after grade 3 CHF. Three patients experienced grade 2 left ventricular dysfunction, of whom 2 discontinued treatment. Cardiac function improved in all 4 patients after going off study. Other adverse events were generally mild (grade 1/2) and infrequent. CONCLUSION: Pegylated liposomal doxorubicin plus trastuzumab might be an option for heavily pretreated patients with recurrent HER2-overexpressing MBC