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Increasing Social Determinants of Health Screening Rates Among Six Endocrinology Centers Across the United States: Results From the T1D Exchange Quality Improvement Collaborative

Odugbesan, Ori; Wright, Trevon; Jones, Nana Hawa Yayah; Dei-Tutu, Selorm; Gallagher, Mary Pat; DeWit, Emily; Izquierdo, Roberto E.; Desimone, Marisa; Rioles, Nicole; Ebekozien, Osagie
Social determinants of health (SDOH) are strongly associated with outcomes for people with type 1 diabetes. Six centers in the T1D Exchange Quality Improvement Collaborative applied quality improvement principles to design iterative Plan-Do-Study-Act cycles to develop and expand interventions to improve SDOH screening rates. The interventions tested include staff training, a social risk index, an electronic health record patient-facing portal, partnerships with community organizations, and referrals to community resources. All centers were successful in improving SDOH screening rates, with individual site improvements ranging from 41 to 70% and overall screening across the six centers increasing from a baseline of 1% to 70% in 27months.
ISSN: 0891-8929
CID: 5658922

Type 1 and Covid-19: Diagnosis, Clinical Care, and Health Outcomes during the Pandemic

Breidbart, Emily; Gallagher, Mary Pat
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic disrupted health care, creating challenges for people with diabetes and health care systems. Diabetes was recognized as a risk factor for severe disease early in the pandemic. Subsequently, risk factors specific for people with type 1 diabetes were identified, including age, hemoglobin A1c level, and lack of continuous glucose monitoring . Telemedicine, especially when accompanied by diabetes data, allowed effective remote care delivery. However, pre-existing racial disparities in access to diabetes technology persisted and were associated with worse outcomes. Events of the COVID-19 pandemic underscore the importance of continuing to develop flexible and more equitable health care delivery systems.
PMID: 38272592
ISSN: 1558-4410
CID: 5625282

The Design of the Electronic Health Record in Type 1 Diabetes Centers: Implications for Metrics and Data Availability for a Quality Collaborative

Eng, Donna; Ospelt, Emma; Miyazaki, Brian; McDonough, Ryan; Indyk, Justin A; Wolf, Risa; Lyons, Sarah; Neyman, Anna; Fogel, Naomi R; Basina, Marina; Gallagher, Mary Pat; Ebekozien, Osagie; Alonso, G Todd; Jones, Nana-Hawa Yayah; Lee, Joyce M
BACKGROUND/UNASSIGNED:Systematic and comprehensive data acquisition from the electronic health record (EHR) is critical to the quality of data used to improve patient care. We described EHR tools, workflows, and data elements that contribute to core quality metrics in the Type 1 Diabetes Exchange Quality Improvement Collaborative (T1DX-QI). METHOD/UNASSIGNED:We conducted interviews with quality improvement (QI) representatives at 13 T1DX-QI centers about their EHR tools, clinic workflows, and data elements. RESULTS/UNASSIGNED:All centers had access to structured data tools, nine had access to patient questionnaires and two had integration with a device platform. There was significant variability in EHR tools, workflows, and data elements, thus the number of available metrics per center ranged from four to 17 at each site. Thirteen centers had information about glycemic outcomes and diabetes technology use. Seven centers had measurements of additional self-management behaviors. Centers captured patient-reported outcomes including social determinants of health (n = 9), depression (n = 11), transition to adult care (n = 7), and diabetes distress (n = 3). Various stakeholders captured data including health care professionals, educators, medical assistants, and QI coordinators. Centers that had a paired staffing model in clinic encounters distributed the burden of data capture across the health care team and was associated with a higher number of available data elements. CONCLUSIONS/UNASSIGNED:The lack of standardization in EHR tools, workflows, and data elements captured resulted in variability in available metrics across centers. Further work is needed to support measurement and subsequent improvement in quality of care for individuals with type 1 diabetes.
PMID: 37994567
ISSN: 1932-2968
CID: 5608672

Diabetes status and other factors as correlates of risk for thrombotic and thromboembolic events during SARS-CoV-2 infection: A nationwide retrospective case-control study using Cerner Real-World Data™

Tallon, Erin M; Gallagher, Mary Pat; Staggs, Vincent S; Ferro, Diana; Murthy, Deepa Badrinath; Ebekozien, Osagie; Kosiborod, Mikhail N; Lind, Marcus; Manrique-Acevedo, Camila; Shyu, Chi-Ren; Clements, Mark A
OBJECTIVES:We sought to examine in individuals with SARS-CoV-2 infection whether risk for thrombotic and thromboembolic events (TTE) is modified by presence of a diabetes diagnosis. Furthermore, we analysed whether differential risk for TTEs exists in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) versus type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). DESIGN:Retrospective case-control study. SETTING:COVID-19 database is a deidentified, nationwide database containing electronic medical record (EMR) data from 87 US-based health systems. PARTICIPANTS:We analysed EMR data for 322 482 patients >17 years old with suspected or confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection who received care between December 2019 and mid-September 2020. Of these, 2750 had T1DM; 57 811 had T2DM; and 261 921 did not have diabetes. OUTCOME:TTE, defined as presence of a diagnosis code for myocardial infarction, thrombotic stroke, pulmonary embolism, deep vein thrombosis or other TTE. RESULTS:Odds of TTE were substantially higher in patients with T1DM (adjusted OR (AOR) 2.23 (1.93-2.59)) and T2DM (AOR 1.52 (1.46-1.58)) versus no diabetes. Among patients with diabetes, odds of TTE were lower in T2DM versus T1DM (AOR 0.84 (0.72-0.98)). CONCLUSIONS:Risk of TTE during COVID-19 illness is substantially higher in patients with diabetes. Further, risk for TTEs is higher in those with T1DM versus T2DM. Confirmation of increased diabetes-associated clotting risk in future studies may warrant incorporation of diabetes status into SARS-CoV-2 infection treatment algorithms.
PMID: 37423628
ISSN: 2044-6055
CID: 5536972


Noor, N; Ebekozien, O; Vendrame, F; Jacobsen, L; Weinstock, R; Gallagher, M P; Corathers, S; Accacha, S; Prahalad, P; Rapaport, R
Background and Aims: Evidence from clinical trials suggest that use of CGM devices decreases hypoglycemia, but no realworld studies have demonstrated efficacy of real-time CGM vs. flash CGM device use in improving CGM derived glycemic outcomes. A flash or intermittently scanning CGM (isCGM) provides glucose levels immediately upon scanning sensor; whereas real-time CGM (rtCGM) device automatically transmits a continuous stream of glucose data to the user. We examined efficacy of isCGM vs. rtCGM device use using real-world EMR data from 19 endocrinology clinics participating in the T1DX-QI Collaborative.
Method(s): Main outcomes were a) mean time in range (TIR: 70-180 mg/dL), b) time above range (TAR: >=250mg/dL) and c) time below range (TBR: <70 mg/dL). Patients >=6 years with T1D from 2018 to 2022 were included. Discriptive differences between isCGM and rtCGM groups were assessed using chisquare and Mann-Whitney U tests. Bootstrapped point estimates and 95% CIs were reported. Linear mixed models examined association between type of CGM and TIR adjusting for covariates.
Result(s): This analysis included 6234 people in the rtCGM group and 412 people in the isCGM group. In the overall study population, mean TIR was higher for rtCGM users relative to isCGM users (Mean(95% CI): 50 (49-51) vs. 40 (38-43)) [p = 0.0001], mean TBR was lower for rtCGM users relative to isCGM users (Mean (95% CI): 1.9 (1.8-2.0) vs. 2.6 (2.2-3.0)) [p = 0.001] and mean TAR was also lower for rtCGM users (Mean(95% CI): 19 (18-20) vs. 26 (23-30)) [p < 0.001].
Conclusion(s): We found improved CGM derived glycemic outcomes for rtCGM relative to the isCGM grroup
ISSN: 1557-8593
CID: 5512042


Namkoong, L; Stein, C; Ilkowitz, J; Gonzalez, J; Joseph, V; Gallagher, M P
Background and Aims: Diabetes technology (DT) use is associated with lower HbA1c in type 1 diabetes (T1D). Non- Hispanic Black and Hispanic populations are more likely to have lower DT use and higher HbA1c compared to non-Hispanic White populations. We examined the extent to which differential DT use explains outcome disparities at an outpatient pediatric diabetes center in NYC.
Method(s): Patients identifying as non-White, Hispanic, or non-English language preference were grouped (minority race/ language; MRL) and compared to non-Hispanic White, Englishpreferred patients. HbA1c >9% was categorized as high. T-test and chi-square statistics compared patient characteristics by HbA1c category. Binomial regression with generalized estimating equations estimated associations (risk ratios, RR; 95% confidence intervals, CI) between MRL and high HbA1c. First, models were adjusted for insurance type and Child Opportunity Index (COI), then additionally for CGM and pump use.
Result(s): Patients (n = 331) aged 2-25 years with T1D >= 3 months attended 709 visits (mean 2.2, SD 1.2) from 2020-2021; 32% identified as MRL. At the most recent visit, 16% had HbA1c>9% (MRL 29%, non-MRL 10%), 87% used CGMs (MRL 77%, non-MRL 92%), and 78% used pumps (MRL 72%, non-MRL 81%). MRL youth were 2.5 (95% CI 1.6-4.0) times more likely to have HbA1c>9% as compared to non-MRL youth, adjusted for insurance and COI. After adjusting for DT use, MRL youth remained twice as likely to have HbA1c>9% (RR 2.0, 95% CI 1.2-3.3).
Conclusion(s): While the disparity in HbA1c between MRL and non-MRL youth can be partially attributed to DT use, disparity persists even after accounting for DT use
ISSN: 1557-8593
CID: 5512052

Type 1 and Covid-19: Diagnosis, Clinical Care, and Health Outcomes during the Pandemic

Breidbart, Emily; Gallagher, Mary Pat
ISSN: 0889-8529
CID: 5622712

Comorbidities increase COVID-19 hospitalization in young people with type 1 diabetes

Mann, Elizabeth A; Rompicherla, Saketh; Gallagher, Mary Pat; Alonso, Guy Todd; Fogel, Naomi R; Simmons, Jill; Wood, Jamie R; Wong, Jenise C; Noor, Nudrat; Gomez, Patricia; Daniels, Mark; Ebekozien, Osagie
OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:We evaluated COVID-19 outcomes in children and young adults with type 1 diabetes (T1D) to determine if those with comorbidities are more likely to experience severe COVID-19 compared to those without. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS/METHODS:This cross-sectional study included questionnaire data on patients <25 years of age with established T1D and laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 from 52 sites across the US between April 2020 and October 2021. We examined patient factors and COVID-19 outcomes between those with and without comorbidities. Multivariate logistic regression analysis examined the odds of hospitalization among groups, adjusting for age, HbA1c, race and ethnicity, insurance type and duration of diabetes. RESULTS:Six hundred fifty-one individuals with T1D and COVID-19 were analyzed with mean age 15.8 (SD 4.1) years. At least one comorbidity was present in 31%, and more than one in 10%. Obesity and asthma were the most frequently reported comorbidities, present in 19% and 17%, respectively. Hospitalization occurred in 17% of patients and 52% of hospitalized patients required ICU level care. Patients with at least one comorbidity were almost twice as likely to be hospitalized with COVID-19 than patients with no comorbidities (Odds ratio 2.0, 95% CI: 1.3-3.1). This relationship persisted after adjusting for age, HbA1c, race and ethnicity (minority vs nonminority), insurance type (public vs. private), and duration of diabetes. CONCLUSIONS:Our findings show that comorbidities increase the risk for hospitalization with COVID-19 in children and young adults highlighting the need for tailored COVID-19 prevention and treatment strategies in T1D.
PMID: 36054578
ISSN: 1399-5448
CID: 5332262

Trends in type 1 diabetic ketoacidosis during COVID-19 surges at seven US centers: highest burden on non-Hispanic Blacks

Lavik, Andrew R; Ebekozien, Osagie; Noor, Nudrat; Alonso, G Todd; Polsky, Sarit; Blackman, Scott M; Chen, Justin; Corathers, Sarah D; Demeterco-Berggren, Carla; Gallagher, Mary Pat; Greenfield, Margaret; Garrity, Ashley; Rompicherla, Saketh; Rapaport, Robert; Yayah Jones, Nana-Hawa
OBJECTIVE:We examined United States (US) trends in diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) among individuals with type 1 diabetes (T1D) during the COVID-19 pandemic at seven large US medical centers and factors associated with these trends. METHODS:We compared DKA events among children and adults with T1D during COVID-19 surge 1 (March-May 2020) and COVID-19 surge 2 (August-October 2020) to the same periods in 2019. Analysis was performed using descriptive statistics and Chi-square tests. RESULTS:We found no difference in the absolute number of T1D patients experiencing DKA in 2019 vs 2020. However, a higher proportion of non-Hispanic Blacks (NHB) experienced DKA in 2019 than non-Hispanic Whites (NHW) (44.6% vs 16.0%; p<0.001), and this disparity persisted during the COVID-19 pandemic (48.6% vs 18.6%; p<0.001). DKA was less common among patients on continuous glucose monitor (CGM) or insulin pump in 2020 compared to 2019 (CGM: 13.2% vs 15.0%, p<0.001; insulin pump: 8.0% vs 10.6%, p<0.001). In contrast to annual DKA totals, a higher proportion of patients had DKA during COVID-19 surges 1 and 2 compared to the same months in 2019 (surge 1: 7.1% vs 5.4%, p<0.001; surge 2: 6.6% vs 5.7%, p=0.001). CONCLUSIONS:DKA frequency increased among T1D patients during COVID-19 surges with highest frequency among NHB. DKA was less common among patients using CGM or insulin pumps. These findings highlight the urgent need for improved strategies to prevent DKA among patients with T1D-not only under pandemic conditions, but under all conditions-especially among populations most affected by health inequities.
PMID: 35380700
ISSN: 1945-7197
CID: 5204822

Cardiovascular health in emerging adults with type 1 diabetes

McCarthy, Margaret; Yan, Joeyee; Jared, Mary Christine; You, Erica; Ilkowitz, Jeniece; Gallagher, Mary Pat; Vaughan Dickson, Victoria
AIMS/OBJECTIVE:Individuals with type 1 diabetes (T1D) face increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Controlling individual cardiovascular risk factors can prevent or slow the onset of CVD. Ideal cardiovascular health is associated with a lower incidence of CVD. Identifying areas of suboptimal cardiovascular health can help guide CVD prevention interventions. To assess cardiovascular health and explore the barriers and facilitators to achieving ideal cardiovascular health in a sample of young adults with T1D. METHODS AND RESULTS/RESULTS:We used a sequential mixed-method design to assess the seven factors of cardiovascular health according to American Heart Association. Qualitative interviews, guided by Pender's Health Promotion Model, were used to discuss participant's cardiovascular health results and the barriers and facilitators to achieving ideal cardiovascular health. We assessed the frequency of ideal levels of each factor. The qualitative data were analysed using content analysis. Qualitative and quantitative data were integrated in the final analysis phase. The sample (n = 50) was majority female (70%), White (86%), with a mean age of 22 ± 2.4 and diabetes duration of 10.7 ± 5.5 years. Achievement of the seven factors of cardiovascular health were: non-smoking (96%); cholesterol <200 mg/dL (76%); body mass index <25 kg/m2 (54%); blood pressure <120/<80 mmHg (46%); meeting physical activity guidelines (38%); haemoglobin A1c <7% (40%); and healthy diet (14%). Emerging qualitative themes related to the perceived benefits of action, interpersonal influences on their diabetes self-management, and perceived self-efficacy. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:We found areas of needed improvement for cardiovascular health. However, these young adults expressed a strong interest in healthy habits which can be supported by their healthcare providers.
PMID: 34498041
ISSN: 1873-1953
CID: 5088092