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Incidental 68Ga-DOTATATE uptake in thyroid nodules: Is guideline-directed management still appropriate?

Wright, Kyla; Fisher, Jason C.; Rothberger, Gary D.; Prescott, Jason D.; Allendorf, John D.; Patel, Kepal; Suh, Insoo
Background: Fluorodeoxyglucose uptake on positron emission tomography imaging has been shown to be an independent risk factor for malignancy in thyroid nodules. More recently, a new positron emission tomography radiotracer"”Gallium-68 DOTATATE"”has gained popularity as a sensitive method to detect neuroendocrine tumors. With greater availability of this imaging, incidental Gallium-68 DOTATATE uptake in the thyroid gland has increased. It is unclear whether current guideline-directed management of thyroid nodules remains appropriate in those that are Gallium-68 DOTATATE avid. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed Gallium-68 DOTATATE positron emission tomography scans performed at our institution from 2012 to 2022. Patients with incidental focal Gallium-68 DOTATATE uptake in the thyroid gland were included. Fine needle aspiration biopsies were characterized via the Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology. Bethesda III/IV nodules underwent molecular testing (ThyroSeq v3), and malignancy risk ≥50% was considered positive. Results: In total, 1,176 Gallium-68 DOTATATE PET scans were reviewed across 837 unique patients. Fifty-three (6.3%) patients demonstrated focal Gallium-68 DOTATATE thyroid uptake. Nine patients were imaged for known medullary thyroid cancer. Forty-four patients had incidental radiotracer uptake in the thyroid and were included in our study. Patients included in the study were predominantly female sex (75%), with an average age of 62.9 ± 13.9 years and a maximum standardized uptake value in the thyroid of 7.3 ± 5.3. Frequent indications for imaging included neuroendocrine tumors of the small bowel (n = 17), lung (n = 8), and pancreas (n = 7). Thirty-three patients underwent subsequent thyroid ultrasound. Sonographic findings warranted biopsy in 24 patients, of which 3 were lost to follow-up. Cytopathology and molecular testing results are as follows: 12 Bethesda II (57.1%), 6 Bethesda III/ThyroSeq-negative (28.6%), 1 Bethesda III/ThyroSeq-positive (4.8%), 2 Bethesda V/VI (9.5%). Four nodules were resected, revealing 2 papillary thyroid cancers, 1 neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features, and 1 follicular adenoma. There was no difference in maximum standardized uptake value between benign and malignant nodules (7.0 ± 4.6 vs 13.1 ± 5.7, P = .106). Overall, the malignancy rate among patients with sonography and appropriate follow-up was 6.7% (2/30). Among patients with cyto- or histopathology, the malignancy rate was 9.5% (2/21). There were no incidental cases of medullary thyroid cancer. Conclusion: The malignancy rate among thyroid nodules with incidental Gallium-68 DOTATATE uptake is comparable to rates reported among thyroid nodules in the general population. Guideline-directed management of thyroid nodules remains appropriate in those with incidental Gallium-68 DOTATATE uptake.
ISSN: 0039-6060
CID: 5616582

Postoperative respiratory complications in SARS-CoV-2 positive pediatric patients across 20 United States hospitals: A Cohort Study

Reiter, Audra J; Ingram, Martha-Conley E; Raval, Mehul V; Garcia, Elisa; Hill, Madelyn; Aranda, Arturo; Chandler, Nicole M; Gonzalez, Raquel; Born, Kristen; Mack, Shale; Lamoshi, Abdulraouf; Lipskar, Aaron M; Han, Xiao-Yue; Fialkowski, Elizabeth; Spencer, Brianna; Kulaylat, Afif N; Barde, Amrene; Shah, Ami N; Adoumie, Maeva; Gross, Erica; Mehl, Steven C; Lopez, Monica E; Polcz, Valerie; Mustafa, Moiz M; Gander, Jeffrey W; Sullivan, Travis M; Sulkowski, Jason P; Ghani, Owais; Huang, Eunice Y; Rothstein, David; Muenks, E Peter; St Peter, Shawn D; Fisher, Jason C; Levy-Lambert, Dina; Reichl, Allison; Ignacio, Romeo C; Slater, Bethany J; Tsao, KuoJen; Berman, Loren
INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND:Data examining rates of postoperative complications among SARS-CoV-2 positive children are limited. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of symptomatic and asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 positive status on postoperative respiratory outcomes for children. METHODS:This retrospective cohort study included SARS-CoV-2 positive pediatric patients across 20 hospitals who underwent general anesthesia from March to October 2020. The primary outcome was frequency of postoperative respiratory complications, including: high-flow nasal cannula/non invasive ventilation, reintubation, pneumonia, Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation (ECMO), and 30-day respiratory-related readmissions or emergency department (ED) visits. Univariate analyses were used to evaluate associations between patient and procedure characteristics and stratified analyses by symptoms were performed examining incidence of complications. RESULTS:Of 266 SARS-CoV-2 positive patients, 163 (61.7%) were male, and the median age was 10 years (interquartile range 4-14). The majority of procedures were emergent or urgent (n = 214, 80.5%). The most common procedures were appendectomies (n = 78, 29.3%) and fracture repairs (n = 40,15.0%). 13 patients (4.9%) had preoperative symptoms including cough or dyspnea. 26 patients (9.8%) had postoperative respiratory complications, including 15 requiring high-flow oxygen, 8 with pneumonia, 4 requiring non invasive ventilation, 3 respiratory ED visits, and 2 respiratory readmissions. Respiratory complications were more common among symptomatic patients than asymptomatic patients (30.8% vs. 8.7%, p = 0.01). Higher ASA class and comorbidities were also associated with postoperative respiratory complications. CONCLUSIONS:Postoperative respiratory complications are less common in asymptomatic versus symptomatic SARS-COV-2 positive children. Relaxation of COVID-19-related restrictions for time-sensitive, non urgent procedures in selected asymptomatic patients may be reasonably considered. Additionally, further research is needed to evaluate the costs and benefits of routine testing for asymptomatic patients. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE/METHODS:Iii, Respiratory complications.
PMID: 36428183
ISSN: 1531-5037
CID: 5384492

Developing a new pediatric extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) program

Cicalese, Erin; Meisler, Sarah; Kitchin, Michael; Zhang, Margaret; Verma, Sourabh; Dapul, Heda; McKinstry, Jaclyn; Toy, Bridget; Chopra, Arun; Fisher, Jason C
OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:We aimed to critically evaluate the effectiveness of a designated ECMO team in our ECMO selection process and patient outcomes in the first 3 years of our low-volume pediatric ECMO program. METHODS:We conducted a retrospective chart review of patients who received an ECMO consultation between the start of our program in March 2015 and May 2018. We gathered clinical and demographic information on patients who did and did not receive ECMO, and described our selection process. We reflected on the processes used to initiate our program and our outcomes in the first 3 years. RESULTS:, lactate, and pH between the patients who went on ECMO and who did not. We improved our outcomes from 0% survival to discharge in 2015, to 60% in 2018, with an average of 63% survival to discharge over the first 3 years of our program. CONCLUSIONS:In a low-volume pediatric ECMO center, having a designated team to assist in the patient selection process and management can help provide safe and efficient care to these patients, and improve patient outcomes. Having a strict management protocol and simulation sessions involving all members of the medical team yields comfort for the providers and optimal care for patients. This study describes our novel structure, processes, and outcomes, which we hope will be helpful to others seeking to develop a new pediatric ECMO program.
PMID: 36508606
ISSN: 1619-3997
CID: 5381932

Pediatric Surgery from the Roads Less Traveled: Challenges, Communication, and Collaboration from a Community Nonteaching Hospital

Reynolds, Ellen; Muffly, Matthew; Apple, Katie; Umbdenstock, Renee; Soelberg, Julie; Durkin, Emily; Raval, Mehul V; Rich, Barrie S; Moriarty, Kevin P; Kim, Steven S; Danko, Melissa; Lee, Jamie D; Metzger, Julia; Fisher, Jason C; Gow, Kenneth W
Unique challenges face pediatric surgeons at community-based nonteaching hospitals. Communication and collaboration among and between healthcare providers, hospital administrators, and quaternary referral programs is crucial for the success of these smaller hospitals as they care for children.
PMID: 36925400
ISSN: 1531-5037
CID: 5462602

Choledochal cyst with a twist: Type 1 choledochal cyst and dilated cystic duct with aberrant accessory right hepatic drainage

Sodhi, Pia V.; Glennon, Erin; McIntyre, Sarah; Lala, Shailee; Martin, Laura; Tomita, Sandra
Choledochal cysts are rare cystic dilations of the biliary tree that typically involve the extrahepatic bile duct and more infrequently, the intrahepatic bile ducts. Todani's classification of choledochal cysts is the most referenced system in which five types of choledochal cysts are described. Several new variants have been reported including dilations of the cystic duct and a double common bile duct. We describe a never reported variant involving dilation of the common bile duct, dilation of the cystic duct and an accessory right hepatic duct.
ISSN: 2213-5766
CID: 5392642

The clinical significance of the American College of Radiology (ACR) Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System (TI-RADS) category 5 thyroid nodules: Not as risky as we think?

Wright, Kyla; Brandler, Tamar C; Fisher, Jason C; Rothberger, Gary D; Givi, Babak; Prescott, Jason; Suh, Insoo; Patel, Kepal N
BACKGROUND:Although the prevalence of thyroid nodules is high, few prove to be malignant. Based on sonographic features, the American College of Radiology Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System categorizes malignancy risk of thyroid nodules with associated management recommendations for each category level. Malignancy rates among nodules with a highly suspicious Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System category 5 warrant examination in the context of additional risk stratification tools, including cytopathology and molecular testing. METHODS:All patients who underwent fine-needle aspiration biopsy for Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System category 5 nodules from January 2018 to September 2021 in a large integrated academic health system were reviewed. Using the Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology, categories V and VI were set as malignant. Molecular testing (ThyroSeq version 3; Rye Brook, NY) yielding ≥50% risk of malignancy was deemed positive and correlated with surgical pathology. RESULTS:A total of 496 Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System category 5 nodules were identified. On fine-needle aspiration cytopathology, 61 (12.3%) were malignant. The breakdown included Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology I, 15 (3%); II, 362 (73%); III, 52 (10.5%); IV, 5 (1%); V, 6 (1.3%); and VI, 55 (11.1%). Of Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology III/IV nodules with molecular testing (n = 53), 24.5% yielded positive results. In total, 42 (8.5%) nodules underwent surgical resection, most of which were Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology VI (n = 26, 61.9%). Of excised nodules, 33 (78.6%) nodules were malignant, 6 (14.3%) benign, and 3 (7.1%) noninvasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features. All Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System category 5 nodules with malignant cytology (Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology V/VI) that underwent surgery were malignant on histopathology. On average, the total Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System points were higher in malignant nodules compared with benign (9.3 vs 7.3; P = .015). Moreover, benign nodules more frequently received Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System points when the radiologist was unable to determine composition or echogenicity (33% vs 3% among malignant nodules; P = .01). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System category 5 designation in thyroid nodules is associated with a lower risk of malignancy than previously reported. Benign and malignant nodules with Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System category 5 designation have discrepancies in certain Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System characteristics and individual points assigned, which may offer an opportunity for quality improvement and standardization measures in ultrasound reporting practices.
PMID: 36511283
ISSN: 1532-7361
CID: 5379322

The impact of parental bariatric surgery and patient age on laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy outcomes in adolescents

Tashiro, Jun; McKenna, Elise; Alberto, Emily C; Mackey, Eleanor R; Nadler, Evan P
BACKGROUND:Adolescent obesity is multifactorial, but parental history is the most significant risk factor. Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) is part of the multidisciplinary approach to adolescent weight loss. OBJECTIVE:We aimed to evaluate the effects of parental history of bariatric surgery, as well as age at time of operation, on adolescents who underwent LSG at our institution. METHODS:We performed a retrospective review of patients, aged 10 to 19 years, who underwent LSG from January 2010 to December 2019. The adolescent bariatric surgical dataset maintained by our group was used to obtain patient demographics, weight, body mass index (BMI), and parental history of bariatric surgery. RESULTS:Among 328 patients, 76 (23.2%) had parents who had previously undergone bariatric surgery. These patients were significantly heavier by weight (p = 0.012) at the time of operation but had no difference in postoperative weight loss. When all patients were compared by age at operation (< 16 years, n = 102, ≥ 16 years, n = 226), there were few differences in outcomes. CONCLUSIONS:LSG is an effective approach to surgical weight loss in adolescents. Patient age should not be a barrier to weight loss surgery, especially among patients with a parental history of obesity. By intervening at a younger age, the metabolic sequelae of obesity may be reduced.
PMID: 35403902
ISSN: 1432-2218
CID: 5201792

Lung Biopsy and Resection

Chapter by: Ko, Victoria H.; Kuenzler, Keith A.
in: Fundamentals of Pediatric Surgery, Third Edition by
[S.l.] : Springer International Publishing, 2022
pp. 439-448
ISBN: 9783031075230
CID: 5500862

Stones left unturned: Missed opportunities to diagnose primary hyperparathyroidism in patients with nephrolithiasis

Lui, Michael S; Fisher, Jason C; Underwood, Hunter J; Patel, Kepal N; Ogilvie, Jennifer B
BACKGROUND:Nephrolithiasis is a sequela of primary hyperparathyroidism and an indication for parathyroidectomy. The prevalence of primary hyperparathyroidism in patients with nephrolithiasis is 3% to 5%; however, recent studies suggest that many hypercalcemic patients with nephrolithiasis never undergo workup for primary hyperparathyroidism. Our goal is to evaluate primary hyperparathyroidism screening rates at a tertiary academic health institution and identify opportunities to increase referral rates in patients presenting with nephrolithiasis. METHODS:We retrospectively reviewed 15,725 patients across an academic health system who presented with nephrolithiasis between 2012 and 2020. Calcium levels measured within 6 months of presentation were identified, and those with hypercalcemia (≥10.3 mg/dL) were reviewed if parathyroid hormone levels were measured. Patients with primary hyperparathyroidism were evaluated to see if they were referred to a specialist for treatment. RESULTS:Of 15,725 patients presenting with nephrolithiasis, 12,420 (79%) had calcium levels measured; 630 patients (4.0%) were hypercalcemic, and 207 (33%) had parathyroid hormone levels measured. Patients were more likely to have parathyroid hormone levels sent if they were older, had higher calcium levels, or presented to an outpatient clinic (P = .028, P = .002, P < .001). We identified 89 patients (0.6%) with primary hyperparathyroidism, of which only 35 (39%) were referred for treatment. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:The proportion of patients presenting with nephrolithiasis ultimately diagnosed with primary hyperparathyroidism was significantly lower than others have reported. Additionally, a substantial number of patients with nephrolithiasis did not have calcium and/or parathyroid hormone levels measured. These missed opportunities for diagnosis are critical as early definitive management of primary hyperparathyroidism can prevent recurrent nephrolithiasis and other primary hyperparathyroidism-related end organ effects.
PMID: 34330541
ISSN: 1532-7361
CID: 5005882

It's time to deconstruct treatment-failure: A randomized controlled trial of nonoperative management of uncomplicated pediatric appendicitis with antibiotics alone

Perez Otero, Sofia; Metzger, Julia W; Choi, Beatrix H; Ramaraj, Akila; Tashiro, Jun; Kuenzler, Keith A; Ginsburg, Howard B; Tomita, Sandra S; Fisher, Jason C
BACKGROUND:Published data demonstrate that management of uncomplicated pediatric appendicitis with antibiotics-alone is safe and frequently successful. Randomized controlled trials (RCT) comparing antibiotics-alone to appendectomy are lacking, alongside insight into drivers of failure. We sought to validate the antibiotics-alone approach and identify barriers to success using an RCT design. METHODS:Patients aged 6-17 years with uncomplicated appendicitis were randomized to appendectomy or intravenous piperacillin/tazobactam for 24-48 h followed by 10 days of oral ciprofloxacin/metronidazole. Enrollment required symptoms <48 h, WBC<18, appendiceal diameter <11 mm, and radiographic absence of perforation. Lack of clinical improvement or persistently elevated WBC resulted in appendectomy. Primary outcomes were 1-year success rate of antibiotics-alone and quality-of-life measures. RESULTS:Among 39 children enrolled over 31 months, 20 were randomized to antibiotics-alone and 19 to surgery. At 1 year, 6 nonoperative patients underwent appendectomy (70% success). Four cases were not true antibiotic failures but instead reflected "pragmatic" challenges to executing nonoperative algorithms. Only 2 cases represented recurrent/refractory appendicitis, suggesting a 90% adjusted 1-year success rate. Parental PedsQL™ scores were similar between treatment cohorts (91.3 vs 90.2, P = 0.32). Children treated with antibiotics-alone had faster return to activity (2.0 vs 12 days, P = 0.001) and fewer parental missed work days (0.0 vs 2.5, P = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS:These data corroborate findings from non-randomized studies suggesting 70-90% of uncomplicated pediatric appendicitis can be treated with antibiotics-alone, with fewer disability days. Failures appear multifactorial, often reflecting practical hurdles and not antibiotic limitations. As surgeons consider nonoperative protocols for uncomplicated appendicitis, these data further inform the variability of treatment success. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE/METHODS:1; randomized controlled trial.
PMID: 34674843
ISSN: 1531-5037
CID: 5064342