Hypernatremia in the intensive care unit
PURPOSE OF REVIEW/OBJECTIVE:Hypernatremia is a relatively frequent electrolyte disorder seen in critically ill patients. As many as 27% of patients in intensive care units (ICUs) develop hypernatremia of variable severity during an ICU stay. Debate among specialists often ensues as to whether to correct hypernatremia or not. Some practitioners, particularly intensivists, believe that correction of hypernatremia with fluids may cause expansion of the extracellular fluid volume (ECFV) thereby worsening ventilation and impeding extubation. Other practitioners, including many nephrologists, do not expect correction of hypernatremia to lead to clinically apparent ECFV expansion, and fear other deleterious effects of hypernatremia. In this review we address the controversy regarding appropriate practice. FINDINGS/RESULTS:There are no randomized, clinical trials (RCTs) to guide the administration of electrolyte-free fluid administration in hypernatremic patients. However, there are associations, demonstrated in the literature, suggesting that hypernatremia of any severity will increase the mortality and length of stay in these patients. These associations generally support the practice of correction of hypernatremia. In addition, our knowledge of the distribution of total body water influences us towards correcting hypernatremia as an appropriate therapy. We do not expect that adequate RCTs addressing this question will be performed. SUMMARY/CONCLUSIONS:Allowing persistence of any degree of hypernatremia is associated with increased mortality, length of stay (LOS) and postdischarge mortality. We expect that proper use of electrolyte-free water intake will avoid adverse outcomes.
Cystinuria: an update on pathophysiology, genetics, and clinical management
Cystinuria is the most common genetic cause of nephrolithiasis in children. It is considered a heritable aminoaciduria as the genetic defect affects the reabsorption of cystine and three other amino acids (ornithine, lysine, and arginine) in the renal proximal tubule. Patients affected by this condition have elevated excretion of cystine in the urine, and because of this amino acid's low solubility at normal urine pH, patients tend to form cystine calculi. To date, two genes have been identified as disease-causative: SLC3A1 and SLC7A9, encoding for the two subunits of the heterodimeric transporter. The clinical features of this condition are solely related to nephrolithiasis. The diagnosis is usually made during infancy or adolescence, but cases of late diagnosis are common. The goal of therapy is to reduce excretion and increase the solubility of cystine, through both modifications of dietary habits and pharmacological treatment. However, therapeutic interventions are not always sufficient, and patients often have to undergo several surgical procedures during their lives to treat recurrent nephrolithiasis. The goal of this literature review is to synthesize the available evidence on diagnosis and management of patients affected by cystinuria in order to provide physicians with a practical tool that can be used in daily clinical practice. This review also aims to shed some light on new therapy directions with the aim of ameliorating kidney outcomes while improving adherence to treatment and quality of life of cystinuric patients.
Comprehensive Genetic Analysis Reveals Complexity of Monogenic Urinary Stone Disease
Introduction/UNASSIGNED:Because of phenotypic overlap between monogenic urinary stone diseases (USD), gene-specific analyses can result in missed diagnoses. We used targeted next generation sequencing (tNGS), including known and candidate monogenic USD genes, to analyze suspected primary hyperoxaluria (PH) or Dent disease (DD) patients genetically unresolved (negative; N) after Sanger analysis of the known genes. Cohorts consisted of 285 PH (PHN) and 59 DD (DDN) families. Methods/UNASSIGNED:Variants were assessed using disease-specific and population databases plus variant assessment tools and categorized using the American College of Medical Genetics (ACMG) guidelines. Prior Sanger analysis identified 47 novel PH or DD gene pathogenic variants. Results/UNASSIGNED:accounted for 1 pedigree each. Of the 48 defined pathogenic variants, 27.1% were truncating and 39.6% were novel. Most patients were diagnosed before 18 years of age (76.1%), and 70.3% of biallelic patients were homozygous, mainly from consanguineous families. Conclusion/UNASSIGNED:Overall, in patients suspected of DD or PH, 23.9% and 7.3% of cases, respectively, were caused by pathogenic variants in other genes. This study shows the value of a tNGS screening approach to increase the diagnosis of monogenic USD, which can optimize therapies and facilitate enrollment in clinical trials.
Urinary stone disease prevalence and associations in cystic fibrosis
Cystic fibrosis (CF) may predispose patients to urinary stone disease (USD), but reported prevalence of USD in patients with CF in previous small studies is variable. To date, analysis of risk factors for USD within the CF population has been limited. We studied 29,396 patients in the Cystic Fibrosis Foundation Patient Registry to calculate age and sex-stratified prevalence of USD. For adult patients, we examined age and multivariable-adjusted cross-sectional associations between demographic and clinical factors, CFTR mutation class, and prevalent USD. Prevalence of USD was 0.4% (95% CI 0.3-0.5%) under age 18Â years, 3.1% (2.7-3.6%) at 18-24Â years, 6.4% (5.8-7.1%) at 25-34Â years, 7.5% (6.5-8.5%) at 35-44Â years, and 6.7% (5.8-7.8%) at 45Â years and older. Prevalence for women was higher than men at younger (<â€‰45Â years) but not older ages (P value for interactionâ€‰<â€‰0.0005). Multivariable odds of prevalent USD were significantly increased for severe CFTR mutations, OR 1.53 (1.14-2.06), diabetes, OR 1.24 (1.03-1.50), hypertension, OR 1.58 (1.29-1.93), and chronic macrolide therapy, OR 1.27 (1.07-1.52). BMI was not associated with USD. USD prevalence in CF is similar to that in the general population. With the exception of BMI, known risk factors for USD in the general population also appear to be important for patients with CF. We identified several novel associations in CF patients, including greater prevalence of USD in individuals with severe CFTR mutations and among young women.
Effect of antibiotic treatment on Oxalobacter formigenes colonization of the gut microbiome and urinary oxalate excretion
The incidence of kidney stones is increasing in the US population. Oxalate, a major factor for stone formation, is degraded by gut bacteria reducing its intestinal absorption. Intestinal O. formigenes colonization has been associated with a lower risk for recurrent kidney stones in humans. In the current study, we used a clinical trial of the eradication of Helicobacter pylori to assess the effects of an antibiotic course on O. formigenes colonization, urine electrolytes, and the composition of the intestinal microbiome. Of 69 healthy adult subjects recruited, 19 received antibiotics for H. pylori eradication, while 46 were followed as controls. Serial fecal samples were examined for O. formigenes presence and microbiota characteristics. Urine, collected serially fasting and following a standard meal, was tested for oxalate and electrolyte concentrations. O. formigenes prevalence was 50%. Colonization was significantly and persistently suppressed in antibiotic-exposed subjects but remained stable in controls. Urinary pH increased after antibiotics, but urinary oxalate did not differ between the control and treatment groups. In subjects not on antibiotics, the O. formigenes-positive samples had higher alpha-diversity and significantly differed in Beta-diversity from the O. formigenes-negative samples. Specific taxa varied in abundance in relation to urinary oxalate levels. These studies identified significant antibiotic effects on O. formigenes colonization and urinary electrolytes and showed that overall microbiome structure differed in subjects according to O. formigenes presence. Identifying a consortium of bacterial taxa associated with urinary oxalate may provide clues for the primary prevention of kidney stones in healthy adults.
Challenging patient phenotypes in the management of anaemia of chronic kidney disease
BACKGROUND:Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is often complicated by anaemia, which is associated with disease progression and increased hospital visits, decreased quality of life, and increased mortality. METHODS:A comprehensive literature search of English language peer-reviewed articles in PubMed/MedLine published between 1998 and 2020 related to the treatment of anaemia of CKD was conducted. The United States Renal Database System and Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study (DOPPS) data reports, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the US Food and Drug Administration websites, and published congress abstracts in 2020 were surveyed for relevant information. RESULTS:Subgroups of patients with anaemia of CKD present a clinical challenge throughout the disease spectrum, including those with end-stage kidney disease, advanced age or resistance to or ineligibility for current standards of care (ie, oral or intravenous iron supplementation, erythropoietin-stimulating agents and red blood cell transfusions). In addition, those with an increased risk of adverse events because of comorbid conditions, such as cardiovascular diseases or diabetes, comprise special populations of patients with an unmet need for interventions to improve clinical outcomes. These comorbidities must be managed in parallel and may have a synergistic effect on overall disease severity. CONCLUSIONS:Several therapies provide promising opportunities to address gaps with a standard of care, including hypoxia-inducible factor prolyl hydroxylase inhibitors, which stimulate haematopoiesis through promoting modest increases in serum erythropoietin and improved iron homeostasis. The critical issues in the management of anaemia of CKD in these challenging phenotypes and the clinical utility of new therapeutic agents in development for the treatment of anaemia of CKD should be assessed and the information should be made available to healthcare providers.
Feasibility and Acceptability of mHealth Interventions for Managing Hyperphosphatemia in Patients Undergoing Hemodialysis
OBJECTIVE:The objective of the study was to evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of mobile health (mHealth) phosphorus management programs in hemodialysis (HD) patients. METHODS:Patients receiving thrice-weekly HD who had 3-month average serum phosphorus of >5.5Â mg/dL were randomized to one of the three self-directed phosphorus management programs delivered using tablet PCs: (1) educational videos and handouts (Education), (2) education intervention plus mobile self-monitoring with email feedback (Monitoring), or (3) education and monitoring interventions plus social cognitive theory-based behavioral videos (Combined). Feasibility and acceptability were assessed based on enrollment and retention and training needs (feasibility) and adherence to self-monitoring and reported satisfaction (acceptability). RESULTS:Of 312 patients, 56 expressed interest, and 40 were enrolled. The majority of participants (80%) completed the 6-month study; none withdrew for intervention-related reasons. The Monitoring and Combined groups received 44Â Â±Â 15Â minutes of technology training, which was considered adequate by most (75%). Self-monitoring rates were initially high, with 78% and 71% of the participants recording at least one meal and phosphate binder in week 1, respectively, but decreased over time to 15% and 9% in the final week. Most participants reported that self-monitoring helped them stay motivated (64%), track nutrients (80%), and understand how to change diet (76%), and nearly two-thirds of participants (64%) stated that they would like to continue using the tablet PC to manage their health. However, few participants (16%) indicated that self-monitoring was worth the effort. The Monitoring and Combined groups did not differ from the Education group in study outcomes. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Although the mHealth programs were generally well received, self-monitoring rates decreased substantially over time and were unaffected by social cognitive theory-based videos. Self-directed mHealth programs may be a useful adjunct to standard care but should be compared to more resource intensive programs (e.g., involving more "live" contact with a dietitian) to determine overall cost-effectiveness and role in HD care.
Plant-Based Milk Alternatives and Risk Factors for Kidney Stones and Chronic Kidney Disease
OBJECTIVE:Patients with kidney stones are counseled to eat a diet low in animal protein, sodium, and oxalate and rich in fruits and vegetables, with a modest amount of calcium, usually from dairy products. Restriction of sodium, potassium, and oxalate may also be recommended in patients with chronic kidney disease. Recently, plant-based diets have gained popularity owing to health, environmental, and animal welfare considerations. Our objective was to compare concentrations of ingredients important for kidney stones and chronic kidney disease in popular brands of milk alternatives. DESIGN AND METHODS/METHODS:Sodium, calcium, and potassium contents were obtained from nutrition labels. The oxalate content was measured by ion chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. RESULTS:The calcium content is highest in macadamia followed by soy, almond, rice, and dairy milk; it is lowest in cashew, hazelnut, and coconut milk. Almond milk has the highest oxalate concentration, followed by cashew, hazelnut, and soy. Coconut and flax milk have undetectable oxalate levels; coconut milk also has comparatively low sodium, calcium, and potassium, while flax milk has the most sodium. Overall, oat milk has the most similar parameters to dairy milk (moderate calcium, potassium and sodium with low oxalate). Rice, macadamia, and soy milk also have similar parameters to dairy milk. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:As consumption of plant-based dairy substitutes increases, it is important for healthcare providers and patients with renal conditions to be aware of their nutritional composition. Oat, macadamia, rice, and soy milk compare favorably in terms of kidney stone risk factors with dairy milk, whereas almond and cashew milk have more potential stone risk factors. Coconut milk may be a favorable dairy substitute for patients with chronic kidney disease based on low potassium, sodium, and oxalate. Further study is warranted to determine the effect of plant-based milk alternatives on urine chemistry.
A Report of Two Cases: Unlearning Lactic Acidosis
INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND:The term "lactic acidosis" reinforces the misconception that lactate contributes to acidemia. Although it is common to discover an anion gap acidosis with a concomitant elevated lactate concentration, the two are not mutually dependent. CASE REPORT/METHODS:Here we describe two patients exhibiting high lactate concentrations in the setting of metabolic alkalemia. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Lactate is not necessarily the direct cause of acid-base disturbances, and there is no fixed relationship between lactate and the anion gap or between lactate and pH. The term "metabolic acidosis with hyperlactatemia" is more specific than "lactic acidosis" and thus more appropriate.
Sodium bicarbonate therapy for acute respiratory acidosis
PURPOSE OF REVIEW:Respiratory acidosis is commonly present in patients with respiratory failure. The usual treatment of hypercapnia is to increase ventilation. During the recent surge of COVID-19, respiratory acidosis unresponsive to increased mechanical ventilatory support was common. Increasing mechanical ventilation comes at the expense of barotrauma and hemodynamic compromise from increasing positive end-expiratory pressures or minute ventilation. Treating acute respiratory acidemia with sodium bicarbonate remains controversial. RECENT FINDINGS:There are no randomized controlled trials of administration of sodium bicarbonate for respiratory acidemia. A recent review concluded that alkali therapy for mixed respiratory and metabolic acidosis might be useful but was based on the conflicting and not conclusive literature regarding metabolic acidosis. This strategy should not be extrapolated to treatment of respiratory acidemia. Low tidal volume ventilation in acute lung injury (ALI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) has beneficial effects associated with permissive hypercapnia. Whether the putative benefits will be negated by administration of alkali is not known. Hypercapnic acidosis is well tolerated, with few adverse effects as long as tissue perfusion and oxygenation are maintained. SUMMARY:There is a lack of clinical evidence that administration of sodium bicarbonate for respiratory acidosis has a net benefit; in fact, there are potential risks associated with it.