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Effect of a high-citrate beverage on urine chemistry in patients with calcium kidney stones

Goldfarb, David S; Modersitzki, Frank; Asplin, John R; Nazzal, Lama
A well-accepted strategy to prevent kidney stones is to increase urine volume by increasing oral intake of fluids, especially water, to lower supersaturation of the relevant, relatively insoluble salts, and thereby lower the risk of precipitation. Randomized controlled trials have shown that this strategy works. It is inexpensive, safe, and intuitively attractive to patients. However, although any beverage can increase urine volume, and citrus juices can increase urine citrate content and pH, no beverage other than water has been clearly shown by randomized controlled trial to prevent kidney stones. We designed an innovative, palatable, low-calorie, high alkali citrate beverage to prevent kidney stones, called Moonstone. One packet of Moonstone powder, mixed in 500 ml of water, contains 24.5 meq of alkali citrate. We administered one packet twice a day to ten calcium stone formers. Moonstone resulted in an increase in mean 24-h urine citrate and urine pH, and a decrease in supersaturation of calcium oxalate in calcium stone formers compared to an equal volume of water. These changes, comparable to those seen in a prior study of a similar amount of (potassium-magnesium) citrate, will likely be associated with a clinically meaningful reduction in kidney stone burden in patients with calcium stones. The effect to increase urine pH would also be expected to benefit patients with uric acid and cystine stones, groups that we hope to study in a subsequent study. The study preparation was well tolerated and was selected as a preferred preventative strategy by about half the participants. Moonstone is an alternative, over-the-counter therapy for kidney stone prevention.
PMID: 37479949
ISSN: 2194-7236
CID: 5536262

Nedosiran in primary hyperoxaluria subtype 3: results from a phase I, single-dose study (PHYOX4)

Goldfarb, David S; Lieske, John C; Groothoff, Jaap; Schalk, Gesa; Russell, Kerry; Yu, Shuli; Vrhnjak, Blaz
Nedosiran is an N-acetyl-D-galactosamine (GalNAc)-conjugated RNA interference agent targeting hepatic lactate dehydrogenase (encoded by the LDHA gene), the putative enzyme mediating the final step of oxalate production in all three genetic subtypes of primary hyperoxaluria (PH). This phase I study assessed the safety, pharmacokinetics (PK), and pharmacodynamics (PD) of subcutaneous nedosiran in patients with PH subtype 3 (PH3) and an estimated glomerular filtration rate  ≥ 30 mL/min/1.73 m2. Single-dose nedosiran 3 mg/kg or placebo was administered in a randomized (2:1), double-blinded manner. Safety/tolerability, 24-h urinary oxalate (Uox) concentrations, and plasma nedosiran concentrations were assessed. The main PD endpoint was the proportion of participants achieving a > 30% decrease from baseline in 24-h Uox at two consecutive visits. Six participants enrolled in and completed the study (nedosiran, n = 4; placebo, n = 2). Nedosiran was well-tolerated and lacked safety concerns. Although the PD response was not met, 24-h Uox excretion declined 24.5% in the nedosiran group and increased 10.5% in the placebo group at Day 85. Three of four nedosiran recipients had a > 30% reduction in 24-h Uox excretion during at least one visit, and one attained near-normal (i.e., ≥ 0.46 to < 0.60 mmol/24 h; ≥ 1.0 to < 1.3 × upper limit of the normal reference range) 24-h Uox excretion from Day 29 to Day 85. Nedosiran displayed predictable plasma PK. The acceptable safety and trend toward Uox-lowering after single-dose nedosiran treatment enables further clinical development of nedosiran in patients with PH3 who currently have no viable therapeutic options. A plain language summary is available in the supplementary information.
PMID: 37118061
ISSN: 2194-7236
CID: 5465672

Healthcare utilization, quality of life, and work productivity associated with primary hyperoxaluria: a cross-sectional web-based US survey

Goldfarb, David S; Modersitzki, Frank; Karafilidis, John; Li-McLeod, Josephine
Primary hyperoxaluria (PH) is a family of ultra-rare, autosomal recessive, metabolic disorders associated with frequent kidney stones, chronic kidney disease and kidney failure, and serious complications due to systemic oxalosis, resulting in significant morbidity. We investigated the burden of PH among affected patients and caregivers. This cross-sectional, web-based survey was used to quantify the burden of PH, in terms of healthcare resource utilization, health-related quality of life, and work productivity and activity impairment among adults (≥ 18 years) with PH and caregivers of children (≤ 17 years) with PH in the US. Among the 20 respondents, there were 7 adults with PH and 13 caregivers of children with PH. Adherence to hyperhydration was noted as the most, or one of the most, difficult aspects of PH by 56% of respondents. Most patients (95%) had experienced painful kidney stone events, one-third had visited the emergency room, and 29% were hospitalized for complications due to PH. Of the 24% of patients on dialysis, all found the procedure burdensome. Adult patients' quality of life was negatively affected across several domains. Most respondents (81%) reported that PH had a negative effect on their finances. Employed adult patients and caregivers, and children with PH, had moderate impairment in work productivity, school attendance, and activity. Anxiety about future PH-related sequelae was moderate to high. These findings highlight the need for improvements in PH medical management. A plain language summary is available in the supplementary information.
PMID: 37067624
ISSN: 2194-7236
CID: 5464372

Editorial: The evolution of my personal conflict of interest: I am part of an 'ineligible company'

Goldfarb, David S
PMID: 36683538
ISSN: 1473-6543
CID: 5419432

A Summary of Current Guidelines and Future Directions for Medical Management and Monitoring of Patients with Cystinuria

Azer, Sarah M.; Goldfarb, David S.
Cystinuria is the most common genetic cause of recurrent kidney stones. As the result of a genetic defect in proximal tubular reabsorption of filtered cystine, increased urine levels of the poorly soluble amino acid result in recurrent cystine nephrolithiasis. Recurrent cystine stones not only adversely affect the quality of patients suffering from cystinuria but also may result in chronic kidney disease (CKD) from recurrent renal injury. Thus, the mainstay of medical management revolves around prevention of stones. Recently published consensus statements on guidelines for managing cystinuria were released from both the United States and Europe. The purpose of this review is to summarize guidelines for medical management of patients with cystinuria, to provide new insight into the utility and clinical significance of cystine capacity"”an assay for monitoring cystinuria, and to discuss future directions for research on treatment of cystinuria. We discuss future directions, including the potential use of cystine mimetics, gene therapy, V2-receptor blockers, and SGLT2 inhibitors, topics which have not appeared in more recent reviews. It is notable that in the absence of randomized, controlled trials, the recommendations cited here and in the guidelines are based on our best understanding of the disorder"™s pathophysiology, observational studies, and clinical experience.
ISSN: 2227-9032
CID: 5447272

Epidemiology of Kidney Stones

Stamatelou, Kyriaki; Goldfarb, David S.
In the past two decades, major breakthroughs that improve our understanding of the pathophysiology and therapy of kidney stones (KS) have been lacking. The disease continues to be challenging for patients, physicians, and healthcare systems alike. In this context, epidemiological studies are striving to elucidate the worldwide changes in the patterns and the burden of the disease and identify modifiable risk factors that contribute to the development of kidney stones. Our expanding knowledge of the epidemiology of kidney stones is of paramount importance and largely upgrades the modern management of the disease. In this paper, we review the variables affecting prevalence and incidence, including age, gender, race, ethnicity, occupation, climate, geography, systemic diseases, diabetes, vascular disease, chronic kidney disease, and dietary risk factors relevant to kidney stones.
ISSN: 2227-9032
CID: 5424972

Urinary supersaturation in a Randomized trial among Individuals with Nephrolithiasis comparing Empiric versus selective therapy (URINE): design and rationale of a clinical trial

Hsi, Ryan S; Koyama, Tatsuki; Silver, Heidi J; Goldfarb, David S
Clinical guidelines disagree on whether the identification of abnormal urine chemistries should occur before starting diet and medication interventions to prevent the recurrence of kidney stone events. We describe the rationale and design of the Urinary supersaturation in a Randomized trial among Individuals with Nephrolithiasis comparing Empiric versus selective therapy (URINE) study, a randomized trial comparing two multi-component interventions to improve urinary supersaturation. Participants are randomized (1:1 ratio) to the empiric or selective arm. The target sample size is 56 participants. Adults ≥ 18 years of age with idiopathic calcium stone disease and two symptomatic stone events within the previous 5 years. Exclusion criteria include systemic conditions predisposing to kidney stones and pharmacologic treatment for stone prevention at baseline. Participants in the empiric arm receive standard diet therapy recommendations, thiazide, and potassium citrate. Participants in the selective arm receive tailored diet and nutrient recommendations and medications based on baseline and 1-month follow-up of 24-h urine testing results. The primary endpoints are urinary supersaturations of calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate at 2 months of follow-up. Secondary endpoints include side effects, diet and medication adherence, and changes in 24-h urine volume, calcium, oxalate, citrate, and pH. Short-term changes in urinary supersaturation may not reflect changes in future risk of stone events. The URINE study will provide foundational data to compare the effectiveness of two prevention strategies for kidney stone disease.
PMID: 36598705
ISSN: 2194-7236
CID: 5400312

Redlining has led to increasing rates of nephrolithiasis in minoritized populations: a hypothesis

Scotland, Kymora B; Cushing, Lara; Scales, Charles D; Eisenman, David P; Goldfarb, David S
PURPOSE OF REVIEW/OBJECTIVE:The persistent rise in kidney stone prevalence in recent decades has prompted much speculation as to the causes. There has been some discussion about the effect of heat on nephrolithiasis. Here, we review recent data and postulate that heat may play a role in stone formation on a large scale and among African-Americans in particular. RECENT FINDINGS/RESULTS:African-Americans are the race/ancestry group with faster rates of increasing incidence and prevalence of kidney stones. We make the observation that urban heat islands in the United States have resulted in part from the effects of redlining, a practice of systematic segregation and racism in housing that led to the development of neighborhoods with substantial disparities in environmental conditions. SUMMARY/CONCLUSIONS:In this thought experiment, we propose that the disproportionate rise in the prevalence of nephrolithiasis in minoritized populations correlates with increased temperatures specifically in neighborhoods adversely affected by the practice of redlining. We discuss phenomena in support of this hypothesis and ongoing work to test this theory.
PMID: 36250470
ISSN: 1473-6543
CID: 5360202

Vitamin D and kidney stones

Chapter by: Mehta, Mansi; Goldfarb, David S.
in: Feldman and Pike's Vitamin D: Volume Two: Disease and Therapeutics by
[S.l.] : Elsevier, 2023
pp. 619-624
ISBN: 9780323913393
CID: 5622372

An Evaluation of Alternative Technology-Supported Counseling Approaches to Promote Multiple Lifestyle Behavior Changes in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes and Chronic Kidney Disease

St-Jules, David E; Hu, Lu; Woolf, Kathleen; Wang, Chan; Goldfarb, David S; Katz, Stuart D; Popp, Collin; Williams, Stephen K; Li, Huilin; Jagannathan, Ram; Ogedegbe, Olugbenga; Kharmats, Anna Y; Sevick, Mary Ann
OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:Although technology-supported interventions are effective for reducing chronic disease risk, little is known about the relative and combined efficacy of mobile health strategies aimed at multiple lifestyle factors. The purpose of this clinical trial is to evaluate the efficacy of technology-supported behavioral intervention strategies for managing multiple lifestyle-related health outcomes in overweight adults with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and chronic kidney disease (CKD). DESIGN AND METHODS/METHODS:, age ≥40 years), T2D, and CKD stages 2-4 were randomized to an advice control group, or remotely delivered programs consisting of synchronous group-based education (all groups), plus (1) Social Cognitive Theory-based behavioral counseling and/or (2) mobile self-monitoring of diet and physical activity. All programs targeted weight loss, greater physical activity, and lower intakes of sodium and phosphorus-containing food additives. RESULTS:Of 256 randomized participants, 186 (73%) completed 6-month assessments. Compared to the ADVICE group, mHealth interventions did not result in significant changes in weight loss, or urinary sodium and phosphorus excretion. In aggregate analyses, groups receiving mobile self-monitoring had greater weight loss at 3 months (P = .02), but between 3 and 6 months, weight losses plateaued, and by 6 months, the differences were no longer statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS:When engaging patients with T2D and CKD in multiple behavior changes, self-monitoring diet and physical activity demonstrated significantly larger short-term weight losses. Theory-based behavioral counseling alone was no better than baseline advice and demonstrated no interaction effect with self-monitoring.
PMID: 35752400
ISSN: 1532-8503
CID: 5282392