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Climate change and its implications for kidney health

Goldfarb, David S; Patel, Anuj A
PURPOSE OF REVIEW/OBJECTIVE:Extremes of weather as a result of climate change are affecting social, economic and health systems. Kidney health is being threatened by global warming while treatment of kidney disease is contributing to increasing resource utilization and leaving a substantial carbon footprint. Improved physician awareness and patient education are needed to mitigate the risk. RECENT FINDINGS/RESULTS:Rising temperatures are changing kidney disease patterns, with increasing prevalence of acute kidney injury, chronic kidney disease and kidney stones. These issues disproportionately affect people suffering from social inequality and limited access to resources. SUMMARY/CONCLUSIONS:In this article, we review the effects of climate change on kidney stones, and acute and chronic kidney injury. Finally, we discuss the impact of renal replacement therapies on the environment and proposed ways to mitigate it.
PMID: 38881301
ISSN: 1473-6586
CID: 5671762

Multiomics Assessment of the Gut Microbiome in Rare Hyperoxaluric Conditions

Zaidan, Nadim; Wang, Chan; Chen, Ze; Lieske, John C; Milliner, Dawn; Seide, Barbara; Ho, Melody; Li, Huilin; Ruggles, Kelly V; Modersitzki, Frank; Goldfarb, David S; Blaser, Martin; Nazzal, Lama
INTRODUCTION/UNASSIGNED:Hyperoxaluria is a risk factor for kidney stone formation and chronic kidney disease progression. The microbiome is an important protective factor against oxalate accumulation through the activity of its oxalate-degrading enzymes (ODEs). In this cross-sectional study, we leverage multiomics to characterize the microbial community of participants with primary and enteric hyperoxaluria, as well as idiopathic calcium oxalate kidney stone (CKS) formers, focusing on the relationship between oxalate degrading functions of the microbiome. METHODS/UNASSIGNED:Patients diagnosed with type 1 primary hyperoxaluria (PH), enteric hyperoxaluria (EH), and CKS were screened for inclusion in the study. Participants completed a food frequency questionnaire recording their dietary oxalate content while fecal oxalate levels were ascertained. DNA and RNA were extracted from stool samples and sequenced. Metagenomic (MTG) and metatranscriptomic (MTT) data were processed through our bioinformatics pipelines, and microbiome diversity, differential abundance, and networks were subject to statistical analysis in relationship with oxalate levels. RESULTS/UNASSIGNED:A total of 38 subjects were recruited, including 13 healthy participants, 12 patients with recurrent CKS, 8 with PH, and 5 with EH. Urinary and fecal oxalate were significantly higher in the PH and the EH population compared to healthy controls. At the community level, alpha-diversity and beta-diversity indices were similar across all populations. The respective contributions of single bacterial species to the total oxalate degradative potential were similar in healthy and PH subjects. MTT-based network analysis identified the most interactive bacterial network in patients with PH. Patients with EH had a decreased abundance of multiple major oxalate degraders. CONCLUSION/UNASSIGNED:The composition and inferred activity of oxalate-degrading microbiota were differentially associated with host clinical conditions. Identifying these changes improves our understanding of the relationships between dietary constituents, microbiota, and oxalate homeostasis, and suggests new therapeutic approaches protecting against hyperoxaluria.
PMID: 38899198
ISSN: 2468-0249
CID: 5672212

New use of thiazide diuretics vs. nonthiazide antihypertensive drugs was linked to hyponatremia over 2 y

Mehta, Mansi; Goldfarb, David S
Andersson NW, Wohlfahrt J, Feenstra B, et al. Cumulative incidence of thiazide-induced hyponatremia: a population-based cohort study. Ann Intern Med. 2024;177:1-11. 38109740.
PMID: 38710078
ISSN: 1539-3704
CID: 5654042

Nephrologists should talk to their patients about climate change

Goldfarb, David S
PMID: 38240262
ISSN: 1473-6543
CID: 5624432

Let's stop talking about 'citrate toxicity'

Israni, Avantika; Goldfarb, David S
PURPOSE OF REVIEW/OBJECTIVE:Continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) is a vital medical intervention used in critically ill patients with acute kidney injury (AKI). One of the key components of adequate clearance with CRRT is the use of anticoagulants to prevent clotting of the extracorporeal circuit. Regional citrate anticoagulation is the most often recommended modality. The term 'citrate toxicity' is used to describe potential adverse effects of accumulation of citrate and subsequent hypocalcemia. However, citrate is itself not inherently toxic. The term and diagnosis of citrate toxicity are questioned in this review. RECENT FINDINGS/RESULTS:Citrate is being increasingly used for regional anticoagulation of the CRRT circuit. Citrate accumulation is infrequent and can cause hypocalcemia and metabolic alkalosis, which are potential adverse effects. Citrate itself, however, is not a toxic molecule. The term 'citrate toxicity' has been used to denote hypocalcemia and metabolic acidosis. However, citrate administration is well known to cause systemic and urinary alkalinization and under certain circumstances, metabolic alkalosis, but is not associated itself with any 'toxic' effects.We review the existing literature and debunk the perceived toxicity of citrate. We delve into the metabolism and clearance of citrate and question current data suggesting metabolic acidosis occurs as the result of citrate accumulation. SUMMARY/CONCLUSIONS:In conclusion, this article calls into question prevailing concerns about 'citrate toxicity'. We emphasize the need for a more nuanced understanding of its safety profile. We recommend discarding the term 'citrate toxicity' in favor of another frequently used, but more meaningful term: 'citrate accumulation'.
PMID: 37962170
ISSN: 1473-6543
CID: 5610622

Predictors of Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) among COVID-19 Patients at the US Department of Veterans Affairs: The Important Role of COVID-19 Vaccinations

Lukowsky, Lilia R; Der-Martirosian, Claudia; Northcraft, Heather; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar; Goldfarb, David S; Dobalian, Aram
BACKGROUND:There are knowledge gaps about factors associated with acute kidney injury (AKI) among COVID-19 patients. To examine AKI predictors among COVID-19 patients, a retrospective longitudinal cohort study was conducted between January 2020 and December 2022. Logistic regression models were used to examine predictors of AKI, and survival analysis was performed to examine mortality in COVID-19 patients. RESULTS:A total of 742,799 veterans diagnosed with COVID-19 were included and 95,573 were hospitalized within 60 days following COVID-19 diagnosis. A total of 45,754 developed AKI and 28,573 AKI patients were hospitalized. Use of vasopressors (OR = 14.73; 95% CL 13.96-15.53), history of AKI (OR = 2.22; CL 2.15-2.29), male gender (OR = 1.90; CL 1.75-2.05), Black race (OR = 1.62; CL 1.57-1.65), and age 65+ (OR = 1.57; CL 1.50-1.63) were associated with AKI. Patients who were vaccinated twice and boosted were least likely to develop AKI (OR = 0.51; CL 0.49-0.53) compared to unvaccinated COVID-19 patients. Patients receiving two doses (OR = 0.77; CL = 0.72-0.81), or a single dose (OR = 0.88; CL = 0.81-0.95) were also less likely to develop AKI compared to the unvaccinated. AKI patients exhibited four times higher mortality compared to those without AKI (HR = 4.35; CL 4.23-4.50). Vaccinated and boosted patients had the lowest mortality risk compared to the unvaccinated (HR = 0.30; CL 0.28-0.31). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Use of vasopressors, being unvaccinated, older age, male gender, and Black race were associated with post COVID-19 AKI. Whether COVID-19 vaccination, including boosters, decreases the risk of developing AKI warrants additional studies.
PMID: 38400130
ISSN: 2076-393x
CID: 5634622

Climate change and kidney stones

Maline, Grace E; Goldfarb, David S
PURPOSE OF REVIEW/OBJECTIVE:Kidney stones affect an increasing proportion of the population. We suggest that these trends are in part influenced by exposure to higher temperatures as a result of climate change and urbanization. The changing epidemiology of kidney stones is a topic worthy of discussion due to the economic and healthcare burden the condition poses as well as the quality-of-life disruption faced by individuals with kidney stones. RECENT FINDINGS/RESULTS:The relationship between heat and kidney stones is well supported. Exposure to high temperatures has been shown to increase risk for stone development within a short time frame. Effects are modified by factors such as sex, comorbid conditions, and population vulnerability and adaptability. Urban heat islands (UHIs) likely exaggerate the effect of increasing global surface temperature. The concentration of UHIs often coincides with historic redlining practices in the United States, potentially contributing to observed disparities in kidney health among minoritized populations. As global surface temperature increases and urbanization trends continue, a greater proportion of the world's population is exposed to significant temperature extremes each year, leading to the expectation that kidney stone prevalence will continue to increase. SUMMARY/CONCLUSIONS:This work describes the effect of increasing global surface temperature as a result of climate change on kidney stone disease and kidney health. These effects may result in further perpetuation of significant kidney stone related social disparities. We suggest strategies to mitigate the effects of heat exposure on stone formation.
PMID: 37725125
ISSN: 1473-6543
CID: 5611462

What's new in the New International Alliance of Urolithiasis (IAU) guidelines [Letter]

Yau, Amy; Goldfarb, David S
PMID: 38117337
ISSN: 2194-7236
CID: 5612412

Thiazide Use for the Prevention of Recurrent Calcium Kidney Stones

Curhan, Gary C; Goldfarb, David S
PMID: 38099948
ISSN: 1555-905x
CID: 5588982

Role of Climate Change in Urologic Health: Kidney Stone Disease

Spiardi, Ryan; Goldfarb, David S; Tasian, Gregory E
Kidney stones are rising in incidence and prevalence worldwide. Given the temperature dependence of kidney stone presentations, climate change is projected to further increase the burden of disease for individuals and society. PATIENT SUMMARY: This mini-review reports current knowledge on climate change in relation to kidney stone disease. Kidney stones are more common in patients living in parts of the world that are hotter and more humid. Kidney stone problems are also more common after periods of high heat, which have a greater impact on men than on women. As temperatures rise with climate change, it is likely that the occurrence of kidney stones and the costs associated with their diagnosis and treatment will increase as well.
PMID: 37839975
ISSN: 2405-4569
CID: 5612882