Infant and Early Child Appetite Traits and Child Weight and Obesity Risk in Low-Income Hispanic Families
BACKGROUND:Child appetite traits (ATs) are associated with later child weight and obesity risk. Less research has focused on ATs in low-income Hispanic children or included longitudinal associations with infant weight. OBJECTIVE:To determine stability of ATs during infancy and childhood and their relationship with subsequent weight and obesity risk at age 3 years among low-income Hispanic children. DESIGN/METHODS:A secondary longitudinal analysis of data from the Starting Early Program randomized controlled obesity prevention trial. PARTICIPANTS/SETTING/METHODS:Three hundred twenty-two low-income, Hispanic mother-child pairs enrolled between 2012 and 2014 in a public hospital in New York City. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES/METHODS:ATs, including Slowness in Eating, Satiety Responsiveness, Food Responsiveness, and Enjoyment of Food were assessed using the Baby and Child Eating Behavior Questionnaires at ages 3 months, 2 years, and 3 years. Main outcome measures were child standardized weight-for-age z score (WFAz) and obesity risk (WFAâ‰¥95th percentile) at age 3 years. STATISTICAL ANALYSES PERFORMED/METHODS:AT stability was assessed using correlations and multilevel modeling. Linear and logistic regression analyses examined associations between ATs and child WFAz and obesity risk at age 3 years. RESULTS:There was limited stability for all ATs measured over time. During infancy, Slowness in Eating was associated with lower 3-year WFAz (BÂ = -0.18, 95% CI -0.33 to -0.04; PÂ = 0.01). At age 2 years, Slowness in Eating and Satiety Responsiveness were associated with lower WFAz (BÂ = -0.29, 95% CI -0.47 to -0.12; P < 0.01; BÂ = -0.36, 95% CI -0.55 to -0.17; P < 0.01) and obesity risk (adjusted odds ratio 0.49, 95% CI 0.28 to 0.85; adjusted odds ratio 0.61, 95% CI 0.38 to 0.99) at 3 years. Increased Slowness in Eating and Satiety Responsiveness over time were associated with lower 3-year WFAz (BÂ = -0.74, 95% CI -1.18 to -0.2 [Slowness in Eating]; BÂ = -1.19, 95% CI -1.87 to -0.52 [Satiety Responsiveness], both P valuesÂ = 0.001). Higher Enjoyment of Food over time was associated with higher 3-year WFAz (BÂ = 0.62, 95% CI 0.24 to 1.01; PÂ = 0.002). CONCLUSIONS:Infants with lower Slowness in Eating and Satiety Responsiveness may have higher levels of obesity risk and need more tailored approaches to nutrition counseling and obesity prevention.
Material Hardship and Stress from COVID-19 in Immigrant Chinese American Families with Infants
Material hardship and stress, associated with poor infant outcomes, increased during the Coronavirus Disease 2019 pandemic. Chinese American families were vulnerable to racism-driven disparities. Little is known about maternal perceptions of pandemic impacts on their infants, family, and community. Purposive sampling of low-income Chinese American mothers (nâ€‰=â€‰25) with infants (1-15Â months). Semi-structured qualitative interviews conducted in Mandarin, Cantonese, or English were audio-recorded, transcribed, and translated. Transcripts coded using applied thematic analysis in an iterative process of textual analysis until thematic saturation. Three themes emerged: (1) Heightened family hardship included financial strain, disruption of transnational childcare, experiences of racism; (2) Altered infant routines/developmental consequences included using protective equipment on infants, concerns about infant socio-emotional development; (3) Coping strategies included stockpiling essentials, adapting family diets. Strategies to mitigate disparities include expanding social needs screening, correcting misinformation, strengthening support networks, and including low-income Chinese Americans in these efforts.
Grandparent coresidence and risk of early child overweight and obesity in low-income, Hispanic families in New York City.: Grandparent coresidence and child obesity risk
OBJECTIVE:Children in low-income Hispanic families are at high risk of obesity and are more likely to live with grandparents than their non-Hispanic white counterparts. We aimed to determine if grandparent coresidence (prenatal through age two years) was associated with: 1) obesogenic feeding practices; and 2) child weight outcomes from birth to three years. METHODS:We analyzed data from 267 low-income, Hispanic mother-infant pairs in the control group of an obesity prevention trial in New York City. Linear and logistic regression tested differences in obesogenic feeding practices and weight outcomes at two and three years, dependent upon grandparent coresidence. Multilevel modeling tested associations between grandparent coresidence and WFAz over time. RESULTS:Persistent grandparent coresidence (versus none) was associated with putting cereal in the bottle (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 3.46; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.43, 8.40). Persistent grandparent coresidence (versus none) was associated with higher mean WFAz (2 years: B 0.83; 95% CI 0.41, 1.25; 3 years: B 0.79; 95% CI 0.32, 1.25) and higher odds of child overweight/obesity risk (two years: aOR 4.38; 95% CI 1.64, 11.69; three years: aOR 3.15; 95% CI 1.19, 8.36). In multilevel models, more occasions of grandparent coresidence were associated with higher WFAz. CONCLUSIONS:Grandparent coresidence may be associated with higher risk of child overweight/obesity in low-income, Hispanic families. Further research is needed to elucidate mechanisms of these associations and to inform obesity prevention strategies in the context of multigenerational families.
Social Capital as a Positive Social Determinant of Health: A Narrative Review
Social determinants of health influence child health behavior, development, and outcomes. This paper frames social capital, or the benefits that a child receives from social relationships, as a positive social determinant of health that helps children exposed to adversity achieve healthy outcomes across the life course. Children are uniquely dependent on their relationships with surrounding adults for material and non-material resources. We identify and define three relevant aspects of social capital: 1) social support, which is embedded in a 2) social network, which is a structure through which 3) social cohesion can be observed. Social support is direct assistance available through social relationships and can be received indirectly through a caregiver or directly by a child. A child's social network describes the people in a child's life and the relationships between them. Social cohesion represents the strength of a group to which a child belongs (e.g. family, community). Pediatric primary care practices play an important role in fostering social relationships between families, the health care system, and the community. Further research is needed to develop definitional and measurement rigor for social capital, to evaluate interventions (e.g. peer health educators) that may improve health outcomes through social capital, and to broaden our understanding of how social relationships influence health outcomes.
Maternal Stress and Infant Feeding in Hispanic Families Experiencing Poverty
OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:Maternal stress has been associated with early child obesity through pathways related to decreased exclusive breastfeeding and increased non-responsive maternal-infant feeding styles. We sought to gain an in-depth understanding of how maternal stress, sadness, and isolation are perceived to affect feeding, in order to inform modifiable targets of intervention. METHODS:We conducted semi-structured qualitative interviews with Hispanic mothers living in poverty with young infants between 3 and 7 months old (n=32) from the intervention group of a randomized controlled trial of an early child obesity prevention intervention (Starting Early Program). Bilingual English-Spanish interviewers conducted the interviews, which were audio recorded, transcribed, and translated. Building on an existing theoretical framework developed by the National Scientific Council on the Developing Child, we used an iterative process of textual analysis to code the transcripts, until thematic saturation was reached. RESULTS:Three key themes were described: 1) maternal stress responses were varied and included: positive (brief and mild), tolerable (sustained but limited long-term impacts), or toxic stress (sustained and severe); 2) buffers included support from family, infants, health care providers, social service programs, and community organizations; 3) perceived effects on infant feeding: decreased breastfeeding due to concerns about stress passing directly through breast milk and indirectly through physical closeness, and increased non-responsive feeding styles. CONCLUSIONS:Maternal stress, particularly toxic stress, was perceived to negatively affect infant feeding. Mothers reported disrupting healthy feeding to avoid infant exposure to stress. Interventions to enhance buffering may help to mitigate toxic stress and promote healthy feeding interactions.
Persistent organic pollutants exposure in newborn dried blood spots and infant weight status: A case-control study of low-income Hispanic mother-infant pairs
Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are believed to alter metabolic homeostasis during fetal development, leading to childhood obesity. However, limited studies have explored how fetal chemical exposures relate to birth and infant weight outcomes in low-income Hispanic families at the highest risk of obesity. Therefore, we sought to determine associations between neonatal POPs exposure measured in newborn dried blood spots (DBS) and prenatal diet quality, birth weight, and overweight status at 18 months old. We conducted a case-control study nested within the Starting Early Program randomized controlled trial comparing POPs concentrations in infants with healthy weight (nÂ =Â 46) and overweight status (nÂ =Â 52) at age 18 months. Three categories of POPs, organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) were measured in archived newborn DBS. We assessed correlations between prenatal diet quality and neonatal POPs concentrations. Multivariable regression analyses examined associations between POPs (dichotomized at the mean) and birth weight z-score and weight status at 18 months, controlling for confounders. Seven of eight chemicals had detectable levels in greater than 94% of the sample. Higher protein, sodium and refined grain intake during pregnancy were correlated with lower POPs in newborn DBS. We found that high concentrations of perfluorooctanesulfonate (unstandardized coefficient [B]:Â -0.62, 95% confidence interval [CI]:Â -0.96 toÂ -0.29) and perfluorohexanesulfate (B:Â -0.65, 95% CI:Â -0.99 toÂ -0.31) were related to lower birth weight z-scores compared to those with low concentrations. We did not find associations between PBDEs, OCPs, and the other PFASs with birth weight z-scores, or between any POPs and weight status at 18 months. In conclusion, two PFASs were associated with lower birth weight, an important indicator of child health and growth, although direct associations with infant overweight status were not found. Whether neonatal POPs exposures contribute to economic and ethnic disparities in early obesity remains unclear.
Material Hardships and Infant and Toddler Sleep Duration in Low-Income Hispanic Families
OBJECTIVE:To assess relationships between material hardships, shortened sleep duration, and suboptimal sleep practices across infancy and toddlerhood in low-income Hispanic families. METHODS:We analyzed longitudinal data of 451 low-income Hispanic mother-child pairs from a child obesity prevention trial. During infancy and toddlerhood, we used adjusted linear regression to assess associations between material hardship (financial difficulty, food insecurity, housing disrepair, multiple hardships), sleep duration (24-hour, night), and the number of suboptimal sleep practices (e.g., later bedtime, co-sleeping). We used adjusted linear regression to assess the longitudinal association between the number of suboptimal sleep practices in infancy and toddlerhood, and tested whether specific or multiple hardships moderated this association. RESULTS:In infants, financial difficulty and multiple hardships were associated with decreased night sleep (B=-0.59 hours, 95% CI: -1.04, -0.14; and B=-0.54 hours, 95% CI: -1.00, -0.08). Housing disrepair was associated with decreased 24-hour sleep (B=-0.64 hours, 95% CI: -1.29, -0.01). In toddlers, each additional suboptimal sleep practice was associated with a decrease in night sleep (B=-0.19 hours, 95% CI: -0.29, -0.09). Each additional suboptimal sleep practice in infancy was associated with a 0.30 increase in the number of suboptimal sleep practices in toddlerhood (p<0.001), with greater increases for those with food insecurity or multiple hardships. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Specific and multiple hardships shortened sleep duration during infancy, and moderated the increase of suboptimal sleep behaviors between infancy and toddlerhood. Future studies should consider these early critically sensitive periods for interventions to mitigate material hardships and establish healthy sleep practices.
Prenatal and Pediatric Primary Care-Based Child Obesity Prevention Program: A Randomized Trial
OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:To determine impact of a primary care-based child obesity prevention intervention beginning during pregnancy on early childhood weight outcomes in low-income Hispanic families. METHODS:-scores (WFAzs) from clinical anthropometric measures, obesity prevalence (weight for age â‰¥95th percentile), and excess weight gain (WFAz trajectory) from birth to age 3 years. Secondary outcomes included dose effects. RESULTS:= .02) decreased as attendance increased with low, medium, and high attendance. CONCLUSIONS:Mean WFAz and growth trajectories were lower for the intervention group through age 2 years, but there were no group differences at age 3. Further study is needed to enhance sustainability of effects beyond age 2.
AFRI_Starting Early Program Impacts on Feeding at Infant 10 Months Age: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Breastfeeding Behaviors and Maternal Interaction Quality in a Low-Income, Ethnic Minority Population
OBJECTIVE:To examine the associations between breastfeeding intensity and underexplored features of maternal-child interaction quality over and above the influence of breastfeeding initiation. METHODS:The current study leveraged an on-going, multisite randomized controlled trial of a tiered parenting program for 462 Medicaid-eligible mothers and their infants in the United States. We examined whether breastfeeding intensity and exclusivity was associated with observed maternal sensitivity, intrusiveness, and detachment, as well as self-reported maternal verbal responsiveness, 6 months infant age. Analyses controlled for breastfeeding initiation, demographics, and early parenting experiences. RESULTS:Higher intensity breastfeeding at 6 months was significantly related to higher maternal sensitivity (Î² = 0.12, p = 0.004) and lower maternal intrusiveness (Î² = -0.10, p = 0.045). There was no significant association between breastfeeding intensity at 6 months and detachment (Î² = -0.02, no significant [ns]) or self-reported verbal responsiveness (Î² = 0.11, ns). Results were the same when intensity was measured as a dichotomous indicator for exclusive breastfeeding. Effect sizes were small-to-moderate, ranging from Cohen's d = 0.26 to 0.31. Associations did not vary by site, race/ethnicity, infant difficultness, or household poverty. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:The finding that breastfeeding intensity was significantly and independently associated with maternal sensitivity and intrusiveness is novel in the literature on low-income families from the United States. These findings have implications for breastfeeding promotion strategies and indicate that future research should explore synergistic or spillover effects of interventions aimed at maternal-child interaction quality into the infant feeding domain, particularly in the primary care setting.