Low incidence and transient elevation of autoantibodies post mRNA COVID-19 vaccination in inflammatory arthritis
OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:Autoantibody seroconversion has been extensively studied in the context of COVID-19 infection but data regarding post-vaccination autoantibody production is lacking. Here we aimed to determine the incidence of common autoantibody formation following mRNA COVID-19 vaccines in patients with inflammatory arthritis (IA) and in healthy controls. METHODS:Autoantibody seroconversion was measured by serum ELISA in a longitudinal cohort of IA participants and healthy controls before and after COVID-19 mRNA-based immunization. RESULTS:Overall, there was a significantly lower incidence of ANA seroconversion in participants who did not contract COVID-19 prior to vaccination compared with those who been previously infected (7.4% vs 24.1%, p= 0.014). Incidence of de novo anti-cyclic citrullinated protein (CCP) seroconversion in all participants was low at 4.9%. Autoantibody levels were typically of low titer, transient, and not associated with increase in IA flares. CONCLUSIONS:In both health and inflammatory arthritis, the risk of autoantibody seroconversion is lower following mRNA-based immunization than following natural SARS-CoV-2 infection. Importantly, seroconversion does not correlate with self-reported IA disease flare risk, further supporting the encouragement of mRNA-based COVID-19 immunization in the IA population.
Cardiovascular and Venous Thromboembolic Risk With Janus Kinase Inhibitors in Immune-Mediated Inflammatory Diseases: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Trials
OBJECTIVE:Janus kinase (JAK) inhibition effectively treats immune-mediated inflammatory diseases (IMIDs); however, concern over the risk of major adverse cardiac events (MACE) and venous thromboembolism (VTE) remains. We aimed to evaluate the safety (VTE and MACE outcomes) of JAK inhibitors in the treatment of IMIDs. METHODS:A search in PubMed, Embase, and ClinicalTrials.gov databases was conducted for randomized clinical trials (RCTs) of JAK inhibitors across IMIDs. Primary outcomes were VTE and MACE with JAK inhibitors compared with placebo and active comparator arms stratified by follow-up time. RESULTS:â€‰=â€‰0.01). No increased risk of VTE was seen when comparing JAK inhibitors with placebo arms. For the outcome of MACE, the results were largely similar but did not reach statistical significance (OR 1.19; 95% CI: 0.86-1.64). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:JAK inhibitors when compared with active comparator arms increased the risk of VTE, which was dependent on duration of exposure. Future clinical trials with extended follow-up are needed to clarify the safety profiles of JAK inhibitors.
COVID-19 outcomes in patients with psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis: A prospective cohort study
Breakthrough SARS-CoV-2 infections, morbidity, and seroreactivity following initial COVID-19 vaccination series and additional dose in patients with SLE in New York City
Methotrexate and TNF inhibitors affect long-term immunogenicity to COVID-19 vaccination in patients with immune-mediated inflammatory disease
Evaluation of Immune Response and Disease Status in SLE Patients Following SARS-CoV-2 Vaccination
OBJECTIVE:To evaluate seroreactivity and disease flares after COVID-19 vaccination in a multi-ethnic/racial cohort of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). METHODS:90 SLE patients and 20 healthy controls receiving a complete COVID-19 vaccine regimen were included. IgG seroreactivity to the SARS-CoV-2 spike receptor-binding domain (RBD) and SARS-CoV-2 microneutralization were used to evaluate B cell responses; IFN-Î³ production to assess T cell responses was measured by ELISpot. Disease activity was measured by the hybrid SLE disease activity index (SLEDAI) and flares were assigned by the SELENA/SLEDAI flare index. RESULTS:Overall, fully vaccinated SLE patients produced significantly lower IgG antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 spike RBD than controls. Twenty-six SLE patients (28.8%) generated an IgG response below that of the lowest control (<100 units/ml). In logistic regression analyses, the use of any immunosuppressant or prednisone and a normal anti-dsDNA level prior to vaccination associated with decreased vaccine responses. IgG seroreactivity to the SARS-CoV-2 Spike RBD strongly correlated with the SARS-CoV-2 microneutralization titers and antigen-specific IFN-Î³ production determined by ELISpot. In a subset of patients with poor antibody responses, IFN-Î³ production was likewise diminished. Pre-/post-vaccination SLEDAI scores were similar. Only 11.4% of patients had a post-vaccination flare; 1.3% were severe. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:In a multi-ethnic/racial study of SLE patients 29% had a low response to the COVID-19 vaccine which was associated with being on immunosuppression. Reassuringly, disease flares were rare. While minimal protective levels remain unknown, these data suggest protocol development is needed to assess efficacy of booster vaccination.
Methotrexate hampers immunogenicity to BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine in immune-mediated inflammatory disease
Defining the disease characteristics of concurrent inflammatory bowel disease and psoriasis or psoriatic arthritis [Meeting Abstract]
Introduction: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), psoriasis (PsO), and psoriatic arthritis (PsA) are immune-mediated inflammatory diseases characterized by dysregulation of the immune system. Evidence suggests that they share a common genetic and pathophysiologic pathway and that the presence of one increases the risk of developing others. While rates of PsO and PsA are increased in patients with IBD, data is lacking regarding whether phenotypic differences exist in patients with concurrent disease. In this study, we describe the disease characteristics of patients with IBD and PsO/PsA overlap.
Method(s): We performed a single-center case-control observational study. Eighty-five patients with IBD and PsO and/or PsA were identified and matched with a control group of patients with IBD alone in a 1:2 fashion based on age, sex and IBD type (n=190). Patient demographics, IBD phenotype and history, treatment patterns, and family history were collected.
Result(s): We identified 85 patients with IBD and PsO +/-PsA, matched with 190 controls. IBD 1 PsO/PsA patients were less frequently White (85% vs. 94%) and more frequently Asian (7% vs. 3%), compared with IBD only patients (P, 0.01, Table 1). There were no differences in extent of ulcerative colitis (UC) or distribution of Crohn's disease (CD), but patients with IBD alone were more likely to have penetrating Crohn's disease (48% vs. 7%; P, 0.01), prior hospitalizations (48% vs. 28%; P, 0.01), and prior surgeries (35% vs. 17%; P=0.02), compared to patients with overlap PsO +/-PsA. Rates of exposure to various biologic therapies were similar between the two groups, with the exception of decreased vedolizumab use in the IBD 1 PsO/PsA group (12% vs. 31% respectively; P, 0.01, Table 2). IBD only patients were more likely to have first-degree relatives (FDR) with IBD (35% vs. 23%; P=0.02) and numerically less likely to have a FDR with PsO or PsA (14% vs. 20%; P=0.21) than patients with PsO/PsA overlap (Table 1).
Conclusion(s): In this study, we report for the first time disease characteristics of patients with IBD and overlap PsO or PsA. Our results suggests that patients with IBD and PsO/PsA may have a less severe disease phenotype than patients with IBD alone, and that genetic risks may differ between these two groups. Further prospective studies are needed to confirm these findings
Editorial: Rheumatology at the center of coronavirus disease 2019: pathogenesis, treatment, and clinical care [Editorial]
Methotrexate hampers immunogenicity to BNT162B2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine in immune-mediated inflammatory disease [Meeting Abstract]
Background/Purpose: Patients with immune mediated inflammatory disorders (IMIDs) have an inherently heightened susceptibility to infection and may be considered high risk for developing COVID-19. While data regarding the COVID-19 vaccine's immunogenicity in an immunocompetent adult population is rapidly emerging, the ability of IMID patients to adequately respond to these vaccines is not known. Here, we investigate the humoral and cellular immune response to mRNA COVID-19 vaccines in patients with IMIDs on immunomodulatory treatment Methods: Patients with immune mediated inflammatory disorders (IMIDs) have an inherently heightened susceptibility to infection and may be considered high risk for developing COVID-19. While data regarding the COVID-19 vaccine's immunogenicity in an immunocompetent adult population is rapidly emerging, the ability of IMID patients to adequately respond to these vaccines is not known. Here, we investigate the humoral and cellular immune response to mRNA COVID-19 vaccines in patients with IMIDs on immunomodulatory treatment.
Result(s): The NY cohort baseline characteristics are found in Table 1. The Erlangen cohort consisted of 182 healthy subjects, 11 subjects with IMID receiving TNFi monotherapy, and 20 subjects with IMID on MTX monotherapy. In both cohorts, healthy individuals and those with IMID not on MTX were similar in age, while those IMID patients receiving MTX were generally older. In the NY cohort, of the healthy participants, 96.3% demonstrated adequate humoral immune response. Patients with IMID not on MTX achieved a similar rate of high antibody response rate (91.8%), while those on MTX had a lower rate of adequate humoral response (75.0%) (Figure 1A). This remains true even after the exclusion of patients who had evidence of prior COVID-19 infection (P= 0.014). Of note, 3 out of the 4 IMID patients receiving rituximab did not produce an adequate response. Similarly, in the Erlangen validation cohort, 98.3% of healthy controls, 90.9% of patients with IMID receiving TNFi monotherapy, and 50.0% receiving MTX monotherapy achieved adequate immunogenicity (Figure 1B). These differences remain significant when combining the cohorts, using a stricter definition of adequate response, and in a subgroup analysis by age. Cellular response was also analyzed in a subgroup of the NY cohort before and after second vaccination. Activated CD8+ T cells (CD8+ T cells expressing Ki67 and CD38) and the granzyme B-producing subset of these activated CD8+ T cells, were induced in immunocompetent adults and those with IMID not on MTX, but not induced in patients receiving MTX (Figure 2).
Conclusion(s): In two independent cohorts of IMID patients, MTX, a widely used immunomodulator for the treatment of several IMIDs, adversely affected humoral and cellular immune response to COVID-19 mRNA vaccines. Although precise cut offs for immunogenicity that correlate with vaccine efficacy are yet to be established, our findings suggest that different strategies may need to be explored in patients with IMID taking MTX to increase the chances of immunization efficacy against SARS-CoV-2, as has been demonstrated for other viral vaccines