Do varsity college athletes have a greater likelihood of risky alcohol and cannabis use than non-athletes? Results from a National Survey in Brazil
OBJECTIVE:We examined the prevalence of risky alcohol and cannabis use among Brazilian varsity college athletes and whether this group had a greater likelihood of risky use than non-athletes. METHODS:In 2009, Brazilian college students (n=12,711) were recruited for a national stratified random survey. Their sociodemographic characteristics, mental health, substance use, and participation in varsity sports were assessed. Binary logistic regression models were used to examine the association between varsity athlete status and moderate to high-risk alcohol and cannabis use. RESULTS:Among varsity athletes, 67.6 and 10.7% reported risky alcohol and cannabis use, respectively. Varsity athletes had greater odds of risky alcohol consumption than non-athletes (aOR = 2.02, 95%CI 1.08-3.78). Varsity athletes also had greater odds of risky cannabis use than non-athletes in unadjusted analyses (OR = 2.57, 95%CI 1.05-6.28), although this relationship was attenuated after covariate adjustment. CONCLUSIONS:Among college students in Brazil, varsity athletes had a higher prevalence of risky alcohol and cannabis use than non-athletes. The rates were considerably higher than those observed among samples of U.S. college athletes. Future research should examine the use of these substances among varsity college athletes in other middle-income countries since these findings will likely guide prevention and treatment efforts.
Athlete mental health: future directions [Editorial]
Sexual violence in sport: American Medical Society for Sports Medicine Position Statement
The American Medical Society for Sports Medicine (AMSSM) convened a group of experts to develop a Position Statement addressing the problem of sexual violence in sport. The AMSSM Sexual Violence in Sport Task Force held a series of meetings over 7 months, beginning in July 2019. Following a literature review, the Task Force used an iterative process and expert consensus to finalise the Position Statement. The objective of this Position Statement is to raise awareness of this critical issue among sports medicine physicians and to declare a commitment to engage in collaborative, multidisciplinary solutions to reduce sexual violence in sport.
International Olympic Committee (IOC) Sport Mental Health Assessment Tool 1 (SMHAT-1) and Sport Mental Health Recognition Tool 1 (SMHRT-1): towards better support of athletes' mental health
OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:To develop an assessment and recognition tool to identify elite athletes at risk for mental health symptoms and disorders. METHODS:We conducted narrative and systematic reviews about mental health symptoms and disorders in active and former elite athletes. The views of active and former elite athletes (N=360) on mental health symptoms in elite sports were retrieved through an electronic questionnaire. Our group identified the objective(s), target group(s) and approach of the mental health tools. For the assessment tool, we undertook a modified Delphi consensus process and used existing validated screening instruments. Both tools were compiled during two 2-day meeting. We also explored the appropriateness and preliminary reliability and validity of the assessment tool. SPORT MENTAL HEALTH ASSESSMENT TOOL 1 AND SPORT MENTAL HEALTH RECOGNITION TOOL 1: The International Olympic Committee Sport Mental Health Assessment Tool 1 (SMHAT-1) was developed for sports medicine physicians and other licensed/registered health professionals to assess elite athletes (defined as professional, Olympic, Paralympic or collegiate level; aged 16 years and older) potentially at risk for or already experiencing mental health symptoms and disorders. The SMHAT-1 consists of: (i) triage with an athlete-specific screening tool, (ii) six subsequent disorder-specific screening tools and (iii) a clinical assessment (and related management) by a sports medicine physician or licensed/registered mental health professional (eg, psychiatrist and psychologist). The International Olympic Committee Sport Mental Health Recognition Tool 1 (SMHRT-1) was developed for athletes and their entourage (eg, friends, fellow athletes, family and coaches). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:The SMHAT-1 and SMHRT-1 enable that mental health symptoms and disorders in elite athletes are recognised earlier than they otherwise would. These tools should facilitate the timely referral of those athletes in need for appropriate support and treatment.
Tennis-specific extension of the International Olympic Committee consensus statement: methods for recording and reporting of epidemiological data on injury and illness in sport 2020
The IOC has proposed standard methods for recording and reporting of data for injury and illness in sport. The IOC consensus statement authors anticipated that sport-specific statements would provide further recommendations. This statement is the tennis-specific extension of the partner IOC statement. The International Tennis Federation Sport Science and Medicine Committee, in collaboration with selected external experts, met in June 2019 to consider athlete health monitoring issues specific to tennis. Once the IOC consensus statement was finalised, the tennis-specific consensus was drafted and agreed on by the members over three iterations. Compared with the IOC consensus statement, the tennis consensus contains tennis-specific information on injury mechanism, mode of onset, injury classification, injury duration, capturing and reporting exposure, reporting risk and study population. Our recommendations apply to able-bodied as well as wheelchair tennis players. Where applicable, specific recommendations are made for wheelchair tennis.
Participating in Two Video Concussion Education Programs Sequentially Improves Concussion-Reporting Intention
Undiagnosed concussions increase the risk of additional concussion and persistent symptoms from concussion. Because there are no reliable objective markers of concussion, self-reporting of subjective and non-visible symptoms are critical to ensuring proper concussion management. For this reason, educational interventions target concussion reporting, but the majority of studies have examined the efficacy of single educational interventions or compared interventions to one another. This randomized crossover study sought to identify whether there was benefit to administering multiple concussion education programs in tandem, back to back. The study randomized 313 male high school football players to first receive CrashCourse concussion education (CC) or Centers for Disease Control and Prevention video concussion education (CDC) followed by crossover with the other education. Athlete concussion-reporting intention, attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, and enjoyment of education were assessed at baseline and after each intervention. There were statistically significant improvements across all measures, both after single intervention and crossover (all pâ€‰<â€‰0.001). Secondary analyses examining differences between education found that athletes reported higher enjoyment of concussion education immediately after participating in CC, as compared to CDC (pâ€‰<â€‰0.001). These findings demonstrate an additive benefit to implementing CC and CDC education in tandem, without decrement in enjoyment of concussion education after experiencing dual educations; in fact, enjoyment of concussion education improved after receiving education programs back to back. These educational programs appear to complement one another, and the results support the use of multi-modal concussion education to differentially target and maximize concussion reporting.
Improving concussion education: consensus from the NCAA-Department of Defense Mind Matters Research & Education Grand Challenge
Early disclosure of possible concussive symptoms has the potential to improve concussion-related clinical outcomes. The objective of the present consensus process was to provide useful and feasible recommendations for collegiate athletic departments and military service academy leaders about how to increase concussion symptom disclosure in their setting. Consensus was obtained using a modified Delphi process. Participants in the consensus process were grant awardees from the National Collegiate Athletic Association and Department of Defense Mind Matters Research & Education Grand Challenge and a multidisciplinary group of stakeholders from collegiate athletics and military service academies. The process included a combination of in-person meetings and anonymous online voting on iteratively modified recommendations for approaches to improve concussion symptom disclosure. Recommendations were rated in terms of their utility and feasibility in collegiate athletic and military service academy settings with a priori thresholds for retaining, discarding and revising statements. A total of 17 recommendations met thresholds for utility and feasibility and are grouped for discussion in five domains: (1) content of concussion education for athletes and military service academy cadets, (2) dissemination and implementation of concussion education for athletes and military service academy cadets, (3) other stakeholder concussion education, (4) team and unit-level processes and (5) organisational processes. Collectively, these recommendations provide a path forward for athletics departments and military service academies in terms of the behavioural health supports and institutional processes that are needed to increase early and honest disclosure of concussion symptoms and ultimately to improve clinical care outcomes.
Mental health management of elite athletes during COVID-19: a narrative review and recommendations
Elite athletes suffer many mental health symptoms and disorders at rates equivalent to or exceeding those of the general population. COVID-19 has created new strains on elite athletes, thus potentially increasing their vulnerability to mental health symptoms. This manuscript serves as a narrative review of the impact of the pandemic on management of those symptoms in elite athletes and ensuing recommendations to guide that management. It specifically addresses psychotherapy, pharmacotherapy and higher levels of care. Within the realm of psychotherapy, crisis counselling might be indicated. Individual, couple/family and group psychotherapy modalities all may be helpful during the pandemic, with novel content and means of delivery. Regarding pharmacotherapy for mental health symptoms and disorders, some important aspects of management have changed during the pandemic, particularly for certain classes of medication including stimulants, medications for bipolar and psychotic disorders, antidepressants and medications for substance use disorders. Providers must consider when in-person management (eg, for physical examination, laboratory testing) or higher levels of care (eg, for crisis stabilisation) is necessary, despite potential risk of viral exposure during the pandemic. Management ultimately should continue to follow general principles of quality health care with some flexibility. Finally, the current pandemic provides an important opportunity for research on new methods of providing mental health care for athletes, and consideration for whether these new methods should extend beyond the pandemic.
Infographic. Sleep disorders in athletes
Preventing catastrophic injury and death in collegiate athletes: interassociation recommendations endorsed by 13 medical and sports medicine organisations
The Second Safety in College Football Summit resulted in interassociation consensus recommendations for three paramount safety issues in collegiate athletics: (1) independent medical care for collegiate athletes; (2) diagnosis and management of sport-related concussion; and (3) year-round football practice contact for collegiate athletes. This document, the fourth arising from the 2016 event, addresses the prevention of catastrophic injury, including traumatic and non-traumatic death, in collegiate athletes. The final recommendations in this document are the result of presentations and discussions on key items that occurred at the summit. After those presentations and discussions, endorsing organisation representatives agreed on 18 foundational statements that became the basis for this consensus paper that has been subsequently reviewed by relevant stakeholders and endorsing organisations. This is the final endorsed document for preventing catastrophic injury and death in collegiate athletes. This document is divided into the following components. (1) Background-this section provides an overview of catastrophic injury and death in collegiate athletes. (2) Interassociation recommendations: preventing catastrophic injury and death in collegiate athletes-this section provides the final recommendations of the medical organisations for preventing catastrophic injuries in collegiate athletes. (3) Interassociation recommendations: checklist-this section provides a checklist for each member school. The checklist statements stem from foundational statements voted on by representatives of medical organisations during the summit, and they serve as the primary vehicle for each member school to implement the prevention recommendations. (4) References-this section provides the relevant references for this document. (5) Appendices-this section lists the foundational statements, agenda, summit attendees and medical organisations that endorsed this document.