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ACR Appropriateness Criteria® Pulsatile Abdominal Mass, Suspected Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm: 2023 Update

,; Wang, David S; Shen, Jody; Majdalany, Bill S; Khaja, Minhaj S; Bhatti, Salman; Ferencik, Maros; Ganguli, Suvranu; Gunn, Andrew J; Heitner, John F; Johri, Amer M; Obara, Piotr; Ohle, Robert; Sadeghi, Mehran M; Schermerhorn, Marc; Siracuse, Jeffrey J; Steenburg, Scott D; Sutphin, Patrick D; Vijay, Kanupriya; Waite, Kathleen; Steigner, Michael L
Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is defined as abnormal dilation of the infrarenal abdominal aortic diameter to 3.0 cm or greater. The natural history of AAA consists of progressive expansion and potential rupture. Although most AAAs are clinically silent, a pulsatile abdominal mass identified on physical examination may indicate the presence of an AAA. When an AAA is suspected, an imaging study is essential to confirm the diagnosis. This document reviews the relative appropriateness of various imaging procedures for the initial evaluation of suspected AAA. The American College of Radiology Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed annually by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and revision process support the systematic analysis of the medical literature from peer reviewed journals. Established methodology principles such as Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation or GRADE are adapted to evaluate the evidence. The RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method User Manual provides the methodology to determine the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures for specific clinical scenarios. In those instances where peer reviewed literature is lacking or equivocal, experts may be the primary evidentiary source available to formulate a recommendation.
PMID: 38040468
ISSN: 1558-349x
CID: 5590522

Sex-Specific Stress Perfusion Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Suspected Ischemic Heart Disease: Insights From SPINS Retrospective Registry

Heydari, Bobak; Ge, Yin; Antiochos, Panagiotis; Islam, Sabeeh; Steel, Kevin; Bingham, Scott; Abdullah, Shuaib; Mikolich, J Ronald; Arai, Andrew E; Bandettini, W Patricia; Patel, Amit R; Shanbhag, Sujata M; Farzaneh-Far, Afshin; Heitner, John F; Shenoy, Chetan; Leung, Steve W; Gonzalez, Jorge A; Raman, Subha V; Ferrari, Victor A; Shah, Dipan J; Schulz-Menger, Jeanette; Stuber, Matthias; Simonetti, Orlando P; Kwong, Raymond Y
BACKGROUND:Cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains the leading cause of mortality in women, but current noninvasive cardiac imaging techniques have sex-specific limitations. OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:In this study, the authors sought to investigate the effect of sex on the prognostic utility and downstream invasive revascularization and costs of stress perfusion cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) for suspected CVD. METHODS:Sex-specific prognostic performance was evaluated in a 2,349-patient multicenter SPINS (Stress CMR Perfusion Imaging in the United States [SPINS] Study) Registry. The primary outcome measure was a composite of cardiovascular death and nonfatal myocardial infarction; secondary outcomes were hospitalization for unstable angina or heart failure, and late unplanned coronary artery bypass grafting. RESULTS:SPINS included 1,104 women (47% of cohort); women had higher prevalence of chest pain (62% vs 50%; P < 0.0001) but lower use of medical therapies. At the 5.4-year median follow-up, women with normal stress CMR had a low annualized rate of primary composite outcome similar to men (0.54%/y vs 0.75%/y, respectively; P = NS). In contrast, women with abnormal CMR were at higher risk for both primary (3.74%/y vs 0.54%/y; P < 0.0001) and secondary (9.8%/y vs 1.6%/y; P < 0.0001) outcomes compared with women with normal CMR. Abnormal stress CMR was an independent predictor for the primary (HR: 2.64 [95% CI: 1.20-5.90]; P = 0.02) and secondary (HR: 2.09 [95% CI: 1.43-3.08]; P < 0.0001) outcome measures. There was no effect modification for sex. Women had lower rates of invasive coronary angiography (3.6% vs 7.3%; P = 0.0001) and downstream costs ($114 vs $171; P = 0.001) at 90 days following CMR. There was no effect of sex on diagnostic image quality. CONCLUSIONS:Stress CMR demonstrated excellent prognostic performance with lower rates of invasive coronary angiography referral in women. Stress CMR should be considered as a first-line noninvasive imaging tool for the evaluation of women. (Stress CMR Perfusion Imaging in the United States [SPINS] Study [SPINS]; NCT03192891).
PMID: 36764892
ISSN: 1876-7591
CID: 5502272

A randomized controlled trial of mobile health intervention in patients with heart failure and diabetes

Felker, G Michael; Sharma, Abhinav; Mentz, Robert J; She, Lilin; Green, Cynthia L; Granger, Bradi B; Heitner, John F; Cooper, Lauren; Teuteberg, Jeff; Grodin, Justin L; Rosenfield, Kenneth; Hudson, Lori; Kwee, Lydia Coulter; Ilkayeva, Olga; Shah, Svati H
BACKGROUND:Mobile health (mHealth) platforms can affect health behaviors but have not been rigorously tested in randomized trials. OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:We sought to evaluate the effectiveness of a pragmatic mHealth intervention in patients with HF and DM Methods: We conducted a multicenter randomized trial in 187 patients with both HF and DM to assessing a mHealth intervention to improve physical activity and medication adherence compared to usual care. The primary endpoint was change in mean daily step count from baseline through 3 months. Other outcomes included medication adherence, health related quality of life, and metabolomic profiling. RESULTS:The mHealth group had an increase in daily step count of 151 steps/day at 3 months whereas the usual care group had a decline of 162 steps/day (LS-mean between-group difference = 313 steps/day; 95% CI: 8, 619, p = 0.044). Medication adherence measured using the Voils Adherence Questionnaire did not change from baseline to 3 months (LS-mean change -0.08 in mHealth vs. -0.15 in usual care, p = 0.47). The mHealth group had an improvement in Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire Overall Summary Score (KCCQ-OSS) compared to the usual care group (LS-mean difference = 5.5 points, 95% CI: 1.4, 9.6, p = 0.009). Thirteen metabolites, primarily medium- and long-chain acylcarnitines, changed differently between treatment groups from baseline to 3 months (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS:In patients with HF and DM, a 3-month mHealth intervention significantly improved daily physical activity, health related quality of life and metabolomic markers of cardiovascular health, but not medication adherence. CLINICALTRIALS/RESULTS:gov Identifier: NCT02918175 Condensed Abstract: Heart failure (HF) and diabetes (DM) have overlapping biologic and behavioral risk factors. We conducted a multicenter randomized, clinical trial in 187 patients with both HF (regardless of ejection fraction) and DM to assess whether a mHealth intervention could improve physical activity and medication adherence. The mHealth group had an increase in mean daily step count and quality of life but not medication adherence. Medium- and long-chain acylcarnitines changed differently between treatment groups from baseline to 3 months (p < 0.05). These data have important implications for designing effective lifestyle interventions in HF and DM.
PMID: 35882260
ISSN: 1532-8414
CID: 5276422

Analysis of clinical risk models vs. clinician's assessment for prediction of coronary artery disease among predominantly female population

Havistin, Ruby; Ivanov, Alexander; Patel, Pavan; Crenesse-Cozien, Natalia; Ho, Jean; Khan, Saadat; Brener, Sorin J; Sacchi, Terrence J; Heitner, John F
INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND:Multiple risk models are used to predict the presence of obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) in patients with chest pain. We aimed to compare the performance of these models to an experienced cardiologist's assessment utilizing coronary angiography (CA) as a reference. MATERIALS AND METHODS/METHODS:We prospectively enrolled patients without known CAD referred for elective CA. We assessed pretest probability of CAD using the following risk models: Diamond-Forrester (original and updated), Duke Clinical score, ACC/AHA, CAD consortium (basic and clinical) and PROMISE minimal risk tool. All patients completed self-administrative Rose angina questionnaire. Independently, an experienced cardiologist assessed the patients to provide a binary prediction of obstructive CAD prior to CA. Obstructive CAD was defined as >80% stenosis in epicardial coronary arteries by visual assessment, or fractional flow reserve <0.80 in intermediate lesions (30-80%). RESULTS:A total of 150 patients were recruited (100 women, 50 men). Mean age was 58 (32-78) years. Obstructive CAD was found in 31 patients (21%). The area under the curve (AUC) for all the clinical risk prediction models (except the Duke Clinical Score, AUC 0.73, P = 0.07) was significantly lower compared with the clinician's assessment (AUC 0.51-0.65 vs. 0.81, respectively, P < 0.01). The clinician's assessment had sensitivity comparable to the Duke Clinical score, which was higher than all other clinical models. There was no difference in prediction performance on the basis of sex in this predominantly female population. DISCUSSION/CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:In stable patients with chest pain and suspected CAD, current clinical risk models which are universally based upon the characteristics of the chest pain, show suboptimal performance in predicting obstructive CAD. These findings have important clinical implications, as current appropriateness criteria for recommending CA are on the basis of these risk models.
PMID: 34380955
ISSN: 1473-5830
CID: 5200042

Descending Aortic Distensibility and Cardiovascular Outcomes: A Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study

Sood, Michael R; Abdelmoneim, Sahar S; Dontineni, Nripen; Ivanov, Alexander; Lee, Ernest; Rubin, Michael; Vittoria, Michael; Meykler, Marcella; Ramachandran, Vidhya; Sacchi, Terrence; Brener, Sorin; Klem, Igor; Heitner, John F
Background/UNASSIGNED:Aortic distensibility (AD) is an important determinant of cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality. There is scant data on the association between AD measured within the descending thoracic aorta and CV outcomes. Objective/UNASSIGNED:) with the primary outcome of all-cause mortality, myocardial infarction (MI), stroke or coronary revascularization in patients referred for a cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) study. Methods/UNASSIGNED:was measured at the cross-section of the descending thoracic aorta in the 4-chamber view (via steady-state free precession [SSFP] cine sequences) and was grouped into quintiles (with the 1st quintile corresponding to the least AD, i.e., the stiffest aorta). Cox proportional-hazards regression analysis were performed for the primary outcome. Results/UNASSIGNED:≤ median was not an independent predictor of the primary endpoint after multivariable adjustment in the overall population [adjusted HR 1.09 (95% CI:0.82-1.45), p = 0.518] or in the subgroup analysis of patients with or without prior CVD. Conclusion/UNASSIGNED:is not an independent predictor of CV outcomes.
PMID: 36065283
ISSN: 1178-2048
CID: 5332382

Reply: Is New-Onset Postoperative AF a First Presentation of Paroxysmal AF?: The Answer Is Still Unclear [Comment]

Abdelmoneim, Sahar S; Heitner, John F
PMID: 34794666
ISSN: 2405-5018
CID: 5244652

The Incidence and Natural Progression of New-Onset Postoperative Atrial Fibrillation

Abdelmoneim, Sahar S; Rosenberg, Emelie; Meykler, Marcella; Patel, Bimal; Reddy, Bharath; Ho, Jean; Klem, Igor; Singh, Jaspal; Worku, Berhane; Tranbaugh, Robert F; Sacchi, Terrence J; Heitner, John F
OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:This study aimed to characterize the natural progression and recurrence of new-onset postoperative atrial fibrillation (POAF) during an intermediate-term follow-up post cardiac surgery by using continuous event monitoring. BACKGROUND:New-onset POAF is a common complication after cardiac surgery and is associated with an increased risk for stroke and all-cause mortality. Long-term data on new POAF recurrence and anticoagulation remain sparse. METHODS:This is a single-center, prospective observational study evaluating 42 patients undergoing cardiac surgery and diagnosed during indexed admission with new-onset, transient, POAF between May 2015 and December 2019. Before discharge, all patients received implantable loop recorders for continuous monitoring. Study outcomes were the presence and timing of atrial fibrillation (AF) recurrence (first, second, and more than 2 AF recurrences), all-cause mortality, and cerebrovascular accidents. A "per-month interval" analysis of proportion of patients with any AF recurrence was assessed and reported per period of follow-up time. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to calculate the time to first AF recurrence and report the first AF recurrence rates. RESULTS:VASc 3.5 ± 1.5) were evaluated during a mean follow-up of 1.7 ± 1.2 years. AF recurrence after discharge occurred in 30 patients (71%) and of those, 59% had AF episodes equal to or longer than 5 minutes (median AF duration at 1 month was 32 minutes [interquartile range 5.5-106], whereas median AF duration beyond 1 month was 15 minutes [interquartile range 6.3-49]). Twenty-four (80%) of the 30 patients had their first AF recurrence within the first month. During months 1 to 12 follow-up, 76% of patients had any AF recurrences (10% had their first AF recurrence, 43% had their second AF recurrence, and 23% had more than 2 AF recurrences). Beyond 1 year of follow-up, 30% of patients had any AF recurrences (10% had their first AF recurrence, 7% had their second AF recurrence, and 13% had more than 2 AF recurrences). Using Kaplan-Meier analysis, the median time to first AF recurrence was 0.83 months (95% confidence interval: 0.37 to 6) and the detection of first AF recurrence rate at 1, 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months was 57.1%, 59.5%, 64.3%, 64.3%, 67.3%, and 73.2%, respectively. During follow-up, there was 1 death ([-] AF recurrence) and 2 cerebrovascular accidents ([+] AF recurrence). CONCLUSIONS:In this study of continuous monitoring with implantable loop recorders, the recurrence of AF in patients who develop transient POAF is common in the first month postoperatively. Of the patients who developed postoperative AF, 76% had any recurrence in months 1 to 12, and 30% had any recurrence beyond 1-year follow-up. Current guidelines recommend anticoagulation for POAF for 30 days. The results of this study warrant further investigation into continued monitoring and longer-term anticoagulation in this population within the context of our findings that AF duration was less than 30 minutes beyond 1 month.
PMID: 33933413
ISSN: 2405-5018
CID: 4865802

Prognostic Value of Feature-Tracking Right Ventricular Longitudinal Strain in Severe Functional Tricuspid Regurgitation: A Multicenter Study

Romano, Simone; Dell'atti, Davide; Judd, Robert M; Kim, Raymond J; Weinsaft, Jonathan W; Kim, Jiwon; Heitner, John F; Hahn, Rebecca T; Farzaneh-Far, Afshin
OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:This study sought to evaluate the prognostic value of cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) feature-tracking-derived right ventricular (RV) free wall longitudinal strain (RVFWLS) in a large multicenter population of patients with severe functional tricuspid regurgitation. BACKGROUND:Tricuspid regurgitation imposes a volume overload on the RV that can lead to progressive RV dilation and dysfunction. Overt RV dysfunction is associated with poor prognosis and increased operative risk. Abnormalities of myocardial strain may provide the earliest evidence of ventricular dysfunction. CMR feature-tracking techniques now allow assessment of strain from routine cine images, without specialized pulse sequences. Whether abnormalities of RV strain measured using CMR feature tracking have prognostic value in patients with tricuspid regurgitation is unknown. METHODS:Consecutive patients with severe functional tricuspid regurgitation undergoing CMR at 4 U.S. medical centers were included in this study. Feature-tracking RVFWLS was calculated from 4-chamber cine views. The primary endpoint was all-cause death. Cox proportional hazards regression modeling was used to examine the independent association between RVFWLS and death. The incremental prognostic value of RVFWLS was assessed in nested models. RESULTS:Of the 544 patients in this study, 128 died during a median follow-up of 6 years. By Kaplan-Meier analysis, patients with RVFWLS ≥median (-16%) had significantly reduced event-free survival compared with those with RVFWLS <median (log-rank p < 0.001). By Cox multivariable regression modeling, RVFWLS was associated with increased risk-of-death after adjustment for clinical and imaging risk factors, including RV size and ejection fraction (hazard ratio: 1.14 per %; p < 0.001). Addition of RVFWLS in this model resulted in significant improvement in the global chi-square (31 to 78; p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS:CMR feature-tracking-derived RVFWLS is an independent predictor of mortality in patients with severe functional tricuspid regurgitation, incremental to common clinical and imaging risk factors.
PMID: 33865769
ISSN: 1876-7591
CID: 4846542

Progression of Myocardial Fibrosis in Nonischemic DCM and Association with Mortality and Heart Failure Outcomes

Mandawat, Aditya; Chattranukulchai, Pairoj; Mandawat, Anant; Blood, Alexander J; Ambati, Sindhoor; Hayes, Brenda; Rehwald, Wolfgang; Kim, Han W; Heitner, John F; Shah, Dipan J; Klem, Igor
OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:The purpose of this study was to assess whether the presence and extent of fibrosis changes over time in patients with nonischemic, dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) receiving optimal medical therapy and the implications of any such changes on left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and clinical outcomes. BACKGROUND:Myocardial fibrosis on cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging has emerged as important risk marker in patients with DCM. METHODS:In total, 85 patients (age 56 ± 15 years, 45% women) with DCM underwent serial CMR (median interval 1.5 years) for assessment of LVEF and fibrosis. The primary outcome was all-cause mortality; the secondary outcome was a composite of heart failure hospitalization, aborted sudden cardiac death, left ventricular (LV) assist device implantation, or heart transplant. RESULTS:On CMR-1, fibrosis (median 0.0 [interquartile range: 0% to 2.6%]) of LV mass was noted in 34 (40%) patients. On CMR-2, regression of fibrosis was not seen in any patient. Fibrosis findings were stable in 70 (82%) patients. Fibrosis progression (increase >1.8% of LV mass or new fibrosis) was seen in 15 patients (18%); 46% of these patients had no fibrosis on CMR-1. Although fibrosis progression was on aggregate associated with adverse LV remodeling and decreasing LVEF (40 ± 7% to 34 ± 10%; p < 0.01), in 60% of these cases the change in LVEF was minimal (<5%). Fibrosis progression was associated with increased hazards for all-cause mortality (hazard ratio: 3.4 [95% confidence interval: 1.5 to 7.9]; p < 0.01) and heart failure-related complications (hazard ratio: 3.5 [95% confidence interval: 1.5 to 8.1]; p < 0.01) after adjustment for clinical covariates including LVEF. CONCLUSIONS:Once myocardial replacement fibrosis in DCM is present on CMR, it does not regress in size or resolve over time. Progressive fibrosis is often associated with minimal change in LVEF and identifies a high-risk cohort.
PMID: 33454264
ISSN: 1876-7591
CID: 4777962

Stress CMR in patients with obesity: insights from the Stress CMR Perfusion Imaging in the United States (SPINS) registry

Ge, Yin; Steel, Kevin; Antiochos, Panagiotis; Bingham, Scott; Abdullah, Shuaib; Mikolich, J Ronald; Arai, Andrew E; Bandettini, W Patricia; Shanbhag, Sujata M; Patel, Amit R; Farzaneh-Far, Afshin; Heitner, John F; Shenoy, Chetan; Leung, Steve W; Gonzalez, Jorge A; Shah, Dipan J; Raman, Subha V; Nawaz, Haseeb; Ferrari, Victor A; Schulz-Menger, Jeanette; Stuber, Matthias; Simonetti, Orlando P; Kwong, Raymond Y
AIMS/OBJECTIVE:Non-invasive assessment and risk stratification of coronary artery disease in patients with large body habitus is challenging. We aim to examine whether body mass index (BMI) modifies the prognostic value and diagnostic utility of stress cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) in a multicentre registry. METHODS AND RESULTS/RESULTS:The SPINS Registry enrolled consecutive intermediate-risk patients who presented with a clinical indication for stress CMR in the USA between 2008 and 2013. Baseline demographic data including BMI, CMR indices, and ratings of study quality were collected. Primary outcome was defined by a composite of cardiovascular death and non-fatal myocardial infarction. Of the 2345 patients with available BMI included in the SPINS cohort, 1177 (50%) met criteria for obesity (BMI ≥ 30) with 531 (23%) at or above Class 2 obesity (BMI ≥ 35). In all BMI categories, >95% of studies were of diagnostic quality for cine, perfusion, and late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) sequences. At a median follow-up of 5.4 years, those without ischaemia and LGE experienced a low annual rate of hard events (<1%), across all BMI strata. In patients with obesity, both ischaemia [hazard ratio (HR): 2.14; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.30-3.50; P = 0.003] and LGE (HR: 3.09; 95% CI: 1.83-5.22; P < 0.001) maintained strong adjusted association with the primary outcome in a multivariable Cox regression model. Downstream referral rates to coronary angiography, revascularization, and cost of care spent on ischaemia testing did not significantly differ within the BMI categories. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:In this large multicentre registry, elevated BMI did not negatively impact the diagnostic quality and the effectiveness of risk stratification of patients referred for stress CMR.
PMID: 33166994
ISSN: 2047-2412
CID: 4777942