How to Read, Write, and Review the Imaging Literature
Everyone at all levels in academic radiology is supposed to know how to read an original research article or a review article and to evaluate it critically, to participate in writing such manuscripts, and, as one becomes more senior, to participate in the peer review process, yet there is little formal teaching in our experience as to how to do these inter-related activities throughout radiology training. The purpose of this review article is therefore to provide our perspective - from the junior trainee to the senior radiology attending - as to how one should be reading, reviewing, and writing the imaging literature, and also providing guidance from other thought leaders in this area, and from the literature itself. We hope to inspire radiology trainees and radiologists at all levels, particularly those in academic careers, to more fully participate in peer review and in radiology publication.
Prostatic Artery Embolization and Sexual Function: Literature Review and Comparison to Other Urologic Interventions
Many interventions to treat men with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) associated lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) are associated with sexual side effects or complications, such as hematospermia, erectile dysfunction, or ejaculatory dysfunction. As loss of sexual function can significantly impact quality of life, an optimal treatment for BPH associated LUTS would be one without any sexual dysfunction side effects. Prostatic artery embolization is a minimally invasive treatment for men with BPH associated LUTS. The aim of this paper is to review the effects of prostatic artery embolization on sexual function and compare the sexual side effect profile to the other available BPH procedures.
Preserving Radiology Resident Education During the COVID-19 Pandemic: The Simulated Daily Readout
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:The educational value of the daily resident readout, a vital component of resident training, has been markedly diminished due to a significant decrease in imaging volume and case mix diversity. The goal of this study was to create a "simulated" daily readout (SDR) to restore the educational value of the daily readout. MATERIALS AND METHODS/METHODS:To create the SDR the following tasks were performed; selection of cases for a daily worklist for each resident rotation, comprising a combination of normal and abnormal cases; determination of the correct number of cases and the appropriate mix of imaging modalities for each worklist; development of an "educational" environment consisting of separate "instances" of both our Picture Archive Communication System and reporting systems; and the anonymization of all of the cases on the worklists. Surveys of both residents and faculty involved in the SDR were performed to assess its effectiveness. RESULTS:Thirty-two residents participated in the SDR. The daily worklists for the first 20 days of the SDR included 3682 cases. An average of 480 cases per day was dictated by the residents. Surveys of the residents and the faculty involved in the SDR demonstrated that both agreed that the SDR effectively mimics a resident's daily work on rotations and preserves resident education during the Coronavirus Disease 2019 crisis. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:The development of the SDR provided an effective method of preserving the educational value of the daily readout experience of radiology residents, despite severe decreases in imaging exam volume and case mix diversity during the Coronavirus Disease 2019 pandemic.
Assessing the Status of Mentorship Programs in Interventional Radiology Residency Training: Results of a 2018 Survey
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:To assess the prevalence and structure of mentorship programs in interventional radiology (IR) residency programs. MATERIALS AND METHODS/METHODS:A 12-question anonymous survey was distributed via email to all 78 program directors (PDs) of United States IR residency programs. The survey included information about the presence or absence of a formal mentorship program at their institution, how the program functions, potential barriers to implementation, and future plans for mentorship. RESULTS:Twenty-three of 78 integrated IR residency PDs completed the survey (response rate 29.5%). Thirteen of 23 reports that they currently have a formal mentorship program in place and 11 of 13 report no direct departmental support for mentorship. Of those that do not have a mentorship program in place, 5 of 10 report that implementation is underway. These programs report that the absence of a mentorship program is due to a lack of dedicated time and financial support. While 8 of 23 PDs were unaware of the Society of Interventional Radiology Mentor Match program, 6of 23 were registered as mentors through it. Nearly all PDs reported interest in receiving mentoring resources from SIR with the most popular choices being a dedicated mentorship educational course at the SIR annual meeting and regular mentorship articles and practical tips in publications such as IR quarterly. CONCLUSIONS:Despite involvement of many IR PDs in mentorship, numerous residency programs lack a formal mentorship program. Of those with a program, most don't receive direct departmental support and those without a program cite lack of time and financial support as barriers to effective implementation.
The Emerging Integrated IR Residency: Analysis Based on 2017 and 2018 Medical Student Surveys [Letter]
Characteristics of musculoskeletal radiology job postings to guide radiology trainees
OBJECTIVE:To review current musculoskeletal (MSK) job market postings to define the listed requirements for practice in order to provide insight to guide residents pursuing fellowship training in MSK radiology to best meet the needs of potential future employers. METHODS:Utilizing the ACR (American College of Radiology) Career Center, a review of the ACR job postings began 6/1/2018 focusing on jobs labeled as musculoskeletal (MSK) subspecialty. E-mail notifications from the career center were reviewed, and jobs were tracked prospectively for 1Â year. Data was collected regarding the number of positions, the location, the practice type, and required skills both within musculoskeletal radiology and within the remainder of the radiology subspecialties. RESULTS:456 postings met the inclusion criteria. Approximately 19% were for a dedicated MSK radiologist, 25% sought a combination of MSK and a general skill set, and 56% were specifically for a general radiologist position. Approximately 29% of jobs require some combination of mammography and/or light interventional radiology (IR). DISCUSSION/CONCLUSIONS:Our results indicate that majority of job postings for musculoskeletal radiology require a practice that is not specifically limited to MSK, mirroring trends in other radiology subspecialties. Radiology trainees and program directors should be aware of the needs being demanded by the job market to help guide trainees to individualize their training to best meet the needs of their future employment.
Use of a steerable microcatheter during superselective angiography: impact on radiation exposure and procedural efficiency
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:To study steerable microcatheter (SM) use in moderate and highly difficult vessel selection compared to conventional pre-shaped microcatheter (CM) use. MATERIAL AND METHODS/METHODS:An IRB approved, single institution analysis of 40 complex angiographic procedures with and without superselective microcatheter use during an eight-month period in 2017 was performed. Target vessels were deemed moderate or highly difficult to select based on vessel size, tortuosity, and/or angulation during non-selective initial angiography. Data collected included type of microcatheter used (SM or CM), number of microcatheters and microwires used, procedure time, radiation exposure index (dose area product/DAP), target vessel location, and time to target vessel selection (TTVS; time from device placement to vessel selection). Comparison between the SM and CM groups was performed using Wilcoxon test. RESULTS:) were 12 vs. 462.5â€‰s (pâ€‰<â€‰0.0001), 0 vs. 2 (pâ€‰<â€‰0.001), and 26,948 vs. 30,904 (pâ€‰=â€‰0.15) in the SM vs. CM groups, respectively. When adjusted for body mass index (BMI) using a linear model for radiation exposure, patients in the SM group had lower radiation exposure than those in the CM group (pâ€‰=â€‰0.05). CONCLUSIONS:Utilization of a steerable microcatheter, without or with a guidewire, leads to easier and faster target vessel selection with shorter procedure times in complex vessel anatomy.
Prostatic Artery Embolization Obviates the Need for Androgen Deprivation Therapy prior to Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy in Prostate Cancer [Letter]
Extreme recurrent massive hemoptysis in a cystic fibrosis patient requiring 22 separate embolization procedures prior to lung transplantation: A case report [Case Report]
While bronchial artery embolization is an established, safe, and effective treatment for massive hemoptysis from a variety of causes including cystic fibrosis, patients rarely require more than 2 angiography and embolization treatments during their lifetime. We present a rare case of massive, recurrent hemoptysis requiring a total of 22 angiography and embolization procedures over a period of 8 years, prior to the patient receiving a double lung transplant.
Evaluating the frequency and severity of ovarian venous congestion on adult computed tomography
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:While pelvic congestion syndrome and chronic pelvic pain are relatively common in women, no large- or medium-sized studies have been conducted to our knowledge to evaluate the frequency and severity of ovarian vein dilatation (OVD) on computed tomography (CT). The purpose of our study was therefore to analyze a large number of consecutive abdominal and pelvic CT scans in adult women to determine OVD frequency and severity. METHODS:An IRB-approved, single-institution retrospective analysis of 1042 consecutive abdominal and pelvic CT scans in women ages 25-65 was performed. Scans were evaluated for the presence and severity of OVD and association with "nutcracker anatomy." A gradation scheme was developed based on quartile analysis. RESULTS:143 of the CT scans had OVD (13.7%). Of the positive scans, 96 were bilateral, 29 were left-side only, 18 were right-side only, and 18 had nutcracker-type compression of the left renal vein (14.4% of scans with left or bilateral OVD). In positive scans, the mean and median left OVD were 7.5 and 7Â mm, respectively, and right-side were 7.2 and 7Â mm, respectively. Based on quartile analysis, OVD grading was mild (<Â 6Â mm), moderate (6-8Â mm), or severe (>Â 8Â mm), with moderate including the middle 50% of patients. CONCLUSIONS:OVD was found on 13.7% of 1042 consecutive female abdominal and pelvic CT scans, with "nutcracker anatomy" present in 14.4% of the scans with left OVD. Moderate dilatation was defined as an OVD of 6-8Â mm at the iliac crests.