Time to diagnosis of acute complications after cardiovascular implantable electronic device insertion and optimal timing of discharge within the first 24 hours
BACKGROUND:More than 3 million cardiovascular implantable electronic devices (CIEDs) are implanted annually. There are minimal data regarding the timing of diagnosis of acute complications after implantation. It remains unclear whether patients can be safely discharged less than 24 hours postimplantation. OBJECTIVE:The purpose of this study was to determine the precise timing of acute complication diagnosis after CIED implantation and optimal timing for same-day discharge. METHODS:A retrospective cohort analysis of adults 18 years or older who underwent CIED implantation at a large urban quaternary care medical center between June 1, 2015, and March 30, 2020, was performed. Standard of care included overnight observation and chest radiography 6 and 24 hours postprocedure. Medical records were reviewed for the timing of diagnosis of acute complications. Acute complications included pneumothorax, hemothorax, pericardial effusion, lead dislodgment, and implant site hematoma requiring surgical intervention. RESULTS:A total of 2421 patients underwent implantation. Pericardial effusion or cardiac tamponade was diagnosed in 13 patients (0.53%), pneumothorax or hemothorax in 19 patients (0.78%), lead dislodgment in 11 patients (0.45%), and hematomas requiring surgical intervention in 5 patients (0.2%). Of the 48 acute complications, 43 (90%) occurred either within 6 hours or more than 24 hours after the procedure. Only 3 acute complications identified between 6 and 24 hours required intervention during the index hospitalization (0.12% of all cases). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Most acute complications are diagnosed either within the first 6 hours or more than 24 hours after implantation. With rare exception, patients can be considered for discharge after 6 hours of appropriate monitoring.
ICD shocks and complications in patients with inherited arrhythmia syndromes
Background/UNASSIGNED:There is limited information on the long-term outcomes of ICDs in patients with inherited arrhythmia syndromes. Methods/UNASSIGNED:Prospective registry study of inherited arrhythmia patients with an ICD. Incidence of therapies and complications were measured as 5-year cumulative incidence proportions and analyzed with the Kaplan-Meier method. Incidence was compared by device indication, diagnosis type and device type. Cox-regression analysis was used to identify predictors of appropriate shock and device complication. Results/UNASSIGNED:123 patients with a mean follow up of 6.4Â Â±Â 4.8Â years were included. The incidence of first appropriate shock was 56.52% vs 24.44%, pÂ <Â 0.05 for cardiomyopathy and channelopathy patients, despite similar ejection fraction (61% vs 60%, pÂ =Â 0.6). The incidence of first inappropriate shock was 13.46% vs 56.25%, pÂ <Â 0.01 for single vs. multi-lead devices. The incidence of first lead complication was higher for multi-lead vs. single lead devices, 43.75% vs. 17.31%, pÂ =Â 0.04. Patients with an ICD for secondary prevention were more likely to receive an appropriate shock than those with primary prevention indication (HR 2.21, CI 1.07-4.56, pÂ =Â 0.03). Multi-lead devices were associated with higher risk of inappropriate shock (HR 3.99, CI 1.27-12.52, pÂ =Â 0.02), with similar appropriate shock risk compared to single lead devices. In 26.5% of patients with dual chamber devices, atrial sensing or pacing was not utilized. Conclusion/UNASSIGNED:The rate of appropriate therapies and ICD complications in patients with inherited arrhythmia is high, particularly in cardiomyopathies with multi-lead devices. Risk-benefit ratio should be carefully considered when assessing the indication and type of device in this population.
Elevated Left Atrial Volume Index Predicts Incident Atrial Fibrillation After Typical Right Atrial Flutter Ablation
Purpose/UNASSIGNED:Incident atrial fibrillation (AF) is common after cavotricuspid isthmus (CTI) dependent atrial flutter (AFL) ablation. Risk factors for the development of AF post ablation are not well understood. The purpose of this study was to identify patients undergoing CTI ablation for AFL most likely to develop AF. Methods/UNASSIGNED:Retrospective chart review identified 114 consecutive patients without a history of AF or prior cardiac surgery who underwent typical CTI dependent AFL ablation between December 2013 to November 2018, who also had a complete preoperative transthoracic echocardiogram, and at least 1 year of follow-up at our medical center. We evaluated baseline characteristics, electrophysiology study (EPS) data and echocardiographic data for incidence of AF within 3 years. Results/UNASSIGNED:(66% vs 27%, p=0.004). Risk of incident AF in patients with LAVI > 40 mL/m2 was similar to that of LAVI 30-40 ml/m2 (67% vs 63%, respectively, p=0.97). In multivariable analysis LAVI remained the sole independent predictor of incidence AF after CTI AFL ablation. Conclusions/UNASSIGNED:is associated with significantly increased risk of incident AF following CTI ablation for typical AFL. HATCH <2 was notably not an independent predictor of AF after AFL ablation.
Lesion Sequence and Catheter Spatial Stability Affect Lesion Quality Markers in Atrial Fibrillation Ablation
OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:This study sought to analyze high-frequency catheter excursion in relation to lesion quality markers in 20 consecutive patients undergoing first-time radiofrequency (RF) ablation for paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (AF). BACKGROUND:Ablation therapy for AF requires the delivery of durable lesions. The extent to which lesion sequence, catheter spatial stability, and anatomic location influence lesion formation during RF ablation of AF is not well understood. METHODS:Three-dimensional spatial excursion of the ablation catheter sampled at 60Â Hz during pre-specified pairs of RF lesions was extracted from the CARTO3 System (Biosense Webster Inc., Irvine, California) and analyzed by using custom-developed MATLAB software (MathWorks, Natick, Massachusetts) to define precise catheter spatial stability during RF ablation. Ablation parameters including bipolar electrogram amplitude reduction, impedance decline and transmurality-associated unipolar electrogram (TUE) as evidence of lesion transmurality during lesion placement were recorded and analyzed. RESULTS:We collected 437,760 position data points during lesion placement. Ablation catheter spatial stability and lesion formation parameters varied considerably by anatomic location. Lesions placed immediately had similar bipolar electrogram amplitude reduction, smaller impedance decline, but higher likelihood of achieving TUE compared to delayed lesions. Greater catheter spatial stability correlated with lesser impedance decline. CONCLUSIONS:Lesion sequence, ablation catheter spatial stability, and anatomic location are important modifiers of RF lesion formation. Lesions placed immediately are more likely to exhibit TUE. Greater ablation catheter stability is associated with lesser impedance decline but greater likelihood of TUE.
Elimination of Incessant Ventricular Tachycardia in Ischemic Cardiomyopathy with High-density Grid Technology
Electrocardiographic Risk Stratification in COVID-19 Patients
Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in worldwide morbidity at unprecedented scale. Troponin elevation is a frequent laboratory finding in hospitalized patients with the disease, and may reflect direct vascular injury or non-specific supply-demand imbalance. In this work, we assessed the correlation between different ranges of Troponin elevation, Electrocardiographic (ECG) abnormalities, and mortality. Methods: We retrospectively studied 204 consecutive patients hospitalized at NYU Langone Health with COVID-19. Serial ECG tracings were evaluated in conjunction with laboratory data including Troponin. Mortality was analyzed in respect to the degree of Troponin elevation and the presence of ECG changes including ST elevation, ST depression or T wave inversion. Results: Mortality increased in parallel with increase in Troponin elevation groups and reached 60% when Troponin was >1 ng/ml. In patients with mild Troponin rise (0.05-1.00 ng/ml) the presence of ECG abnormality and particularly T wave inversions resulted in significantly greater mortality. Conclusion: ECG repolarization abnormalities may represent a marker of clinical severity in patients with mild elevation in Troponin values. This finding can be used to enhance risk stratification in patients hospitalized with COVID-19.
Multiple Procedure Outcomes for Non-Paroxysmal Atrial Fibrillation: Left Atrial Posterior Wall Isolation versus Stepwise Ablation
OBJECTIVE:To compare multiple-procedure catheter ablation outcomes of a stepwise approach versus left atrial posterior wall isolation (LA PWI) in patients undergoing non-paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (NPAF) ablation. BACKGROUND:Unfavorable outcomes for stepwise ablation of NPAF in large clinical trials may be attributable to pro-arrhythmic effects of incomplete ablation lines. It is unknown if a more extensive initial ablation strategy results in improved outcomes following multiple ablation procedures. METHODS:222 consecutive patients with NPAF underwent first-time ablation using a contact-force sensing ablation catheter utilizing either a stepwise (Group 1, n=111) or LA PWI (Group 2, n=111) approach. The duration of follow-up was 36 months. The primary endpoint was freedom from atrial arrhythmia >30s. Secondary endpoints were freedom from persistent arrhythmia, repeat ablation, and recurrent arrhythmia after repeat ablation. RESULTS:There was similar freedom from atrial arrhythmias after index ablation for both stepwise and LA PWI groups at 36 months (60% vs. 69%, p=0.1). The stepwise group was more likely to present with persistent recurrent arrhythmia (29% vs 14%, p=0.005) and more likely to undergo second catheter ablation (32% vs. 12%, p<0.001) compared to LA PWI patients. Recurrent arrhythmia after repeat ablation was more likely in the stepwise group compared to the LA PWI group (15% vs 4%, p=0.003). CONCLUSIONS:Compared to a stepwise approach, LA PWI for patients with NPAF resulted in a similar incidence of any atrial arrhythmia, lower incidence of persistent arrhythmia, and fewer repeat ablations. Results for repeat ablation were not improved with a more extensive initial approach. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Response to: Do not yet abandon cephalic vein access for multiple leads in ICD implantation [Letter]
Reply: Electrical Weapons and Electrophysiology
Ablation in Atrial Fibrillation with Ventricular Pacing Results in Similar Spatial Catheter Stability as Compared to Ablation in Sinus Rhythm with Atrial Pacing
Background/UNASSIGNED:Improved catheter stability is associated with decreased arrhythmia recurrence after atrial fibrillation (AF) ablation. Recently, atrial voltage mapping in AF was demonstrated to correlate better with scar as compared to mapping in sinus rhythm (SR). However, it is unknown whether ablation of persistent AF in sinus rhythm with atrial pacing or in atrial fibrillation with ventricular pacing results in differences in catheter stability or arrhythmia recurrence. Methods/UNASSIGNED:We analyzed 53 consecutive patients undergoing first-time persistent AF ablation with pulmonary vein and posterior wall isolation: 27 were cardioverted, mapped, and ablated in sinus rhythm with atrial pacing, and 26 were mapped and ablated in AF with ventricular pacing. Ablation data was extracted from the mapping system and analyzed using custom MATLAB software to determine high-frequency (60Hz) catheter excursion as a novel metric for catheter spatial stability. Results/UNASSIGNED:There was no difference in catheter stability as assessed by maximal catheter excursion, mean catheter excursion, or contact force variability between the atrial-paced and ventricular-paced patients. Ventricular-paced patients had significantly greater mean contact force as compared to atrial-paced patients. Contact-force variability demonstrated poor correlation with catheter excursion. One year arrhythmia-free survival was similar between the atrial paced and ventricular paced patients. Conclusions/UNASSIGNED:For patients with persistent AF, ablation in AF with ventricular pacing results in similar catheter stability and arrhythmia recurrence as compared to cardioversion and ablation in sinus rhythm with atrial pacing. Given the improved fidelity of mapping in AF, mapping and ablating during AF with ventricular pacing may be preferred.