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Management of Enlarging Tracheoesophageal Fistula with Voice Prosthesis in Laryngectomized Patients

Saeedi, Arman; Strum, David P; Mir, Ghayoour; Chow, Michael S; Bhatt, Nupur; Jacobson, Adam S
UNLABELLED:Management of Enlarging tracheoesophageal fistula (TEF) with Voice Prosthesis in Laryngectomized Head and Neck Cancer Patients. OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:An enlarging TEF following voice prosthesis placement impacts patient quality of life, risks airway compromise, and can lead to aspiration pneumonia. Pharyngoesophageal strictures have previously been reported to be associated with TEF enlargement and leakage. We describe a series of patients with enlarging TEFs after Tracheoesophageal puncture (TEP) for voice prosthesis who required pharyngoesophageal reconstruction. METHODS:Retrospective case series of laryngectomized H&N cancer patients with primary or secondary TEP who underwent surgical management for enlarging TEF site between 6/2016-11/2022. RESULTS:Eight patients were included. The mean age was 62.8 years old. Seven patients had a history of hypothyroidism. Of seven with prior H&N radiation history, two had both historical and adjuvant radiation. Two of the eight TEPs were placed secondarily. Mean time from TEP to enlarging TEF diagnosis was 891.3 days. Radial forearm-free flaps were used in five patients. Six had stenosis proximal to the TEF whereas one had distal stenosis and one had no evidence of stenosis. Mean length of stay was 12.3 days. Mean follow-up was 400.4 days. Two required a second free flap for persistent fistula. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Surgical reconstruction of enlarging TEFs due to TEP/VP placement is effective in combination with addressing underlying pharyngeal/esophageal stenosis contributing to TEF enlargement and leakage. Radial forearm-free flaps have the additional benefit of a long vascular pedicle to access more distant and less-irradiated recipient vessels. Many fistulae are resolved after the first flap reconstruction, but some may require subsequent reconstruction in case of failure. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE/METHODS:Level IV Laryngoscope, 2023.
PMID: 37366287
ISSN: 1531-4995
CID: 5540172

Surgical Treatment in Very Advanced (T4b) Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Head and Neck

Papazian, Michael R; Chow, Michael; Oliver, Jamie; Gordon, Alex J; Jacobson, Adam; Vaezi, Alec; Tam, Moses; Givi, Babak
OBJECTIVE:To compare treatment outcomes for T4b head and neck adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC). STUDY DESIGN/METHODS:Historical cohort study. SETTING/METHODS:National Cancer Database (NCDB). METHODS:Identified all T4b ACC of head and neck origin diagnosed 2004 to 2019 in the NCDB. Demographics, clinical characteristics, treatment details, and survival were analyzed. Treatment outcomes were analyzed using univariable and multivariable Cox regression. RESULTS:We identified 606 cases of T4b ACC. Less than half (284, 47.0%) underwent curative-intent treatment. Among these, most were treated with primary surgery: surgery + radiotherapy (RT) (122, 43.0%) or surgery + chemoradiotherapy (CRT) (42, 14.8%). The positive margin rate was 78.7%, and 90-day postoperative mortality was zero. Nonsurgical patients were treated with definitive RT (60, 21.1%) or definitive CRT (60, 21.1%). The median follow-up was 51.5 months. Overall survival was 77.8% at 3 years. Three-year survival was higher for patients treated with surgery compared to those treated nonsurgically (84% vs 70%; p = .005). Surgical treatment remained associated with higher survival on multivariable analysis (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.47, p = .005). This effect was most pronounced for oral cavity tumors (HR: 0.17, p = .01). Among matched cohorts of surgically treated patients, there was no difference in 3-year survival between clinical T4a and T4b tumors (83.3% vs 83.0%, p = .99). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Long-term survival for T4b ACC of the head and neck could be expected. Primary surgical treatments can be performed safely and are associated with longer survival. A carefully selected subset of patients with very advanced ACC might benefit from the consideration of surgical treatments.
PMID: 36892056
ISSN: 1097-6817
CID: 5432862

Role of transoral robotic surgery in surgical treatment of early-stage supraglottic larynx carcinoma

Papazian, Michael R; Chow, Michael S; Jacobson, Adam S; Tran, Theresa; Persky, Mark S; Persky, Michael J
BACKGROUND:There are several options for primary surgical treatment of early-stage supraglottic squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), including transoral robotic surgery (TORS). The purpose of this study was to compare outcomes of TORS to open partial laryngectomy and transoral laser microsurgery (TLM). METHODS:Patients with clinical classification T1-2 supraglottic SCC diagnosed 2010-2019, treated with TORS, open partial laryngectomy, or TLM in the National Cancer Database were selected. RESULTS:One thousand six hundred three patients were included: 17% TORS, 26.5% TLM, 56.5% open. TORS patients had the lowest rates of adjuvant treatment (28.4% vs. TLM: 45.0%, open: 38.5%, p < 0.001), and lower positive margin rates than TLM (16.9% vs. 30.5%, p < 0.001). Thirty-day and ninety-day post-operative mortality did not differ between the approaches. Five-year survival was higher following TORS compared to open surgery (77.8% vs. 66.1%, p = 0.01); this difference persisted following matched-pair analysis. CONCLUSIONS:TORS may be a safe and effective surgical approach for early-stage supraglottic SCC in appropriate patients.
PMID: 36825894
ISSN: 1097-0347
CID: 5434052

Case Report: Giant Thyroid Angiolipoma-Challenging Clinical Diagnosis and Novel Genetic Alterations

Wilkins, Reid; Zan, Elcin; Leonardi, Olga; Patel, Kepal N; Jacobson, Adam S; Jour, George; Liu, Cheng Z; Zhou, Fang
BACKGROUND:A 64-year-old man presented with a 7.8 cm lipomatous thyroid mass discovered on magnetic resonance imaging. METHODS:After two non-diagnostic fine needle aspirations (FNAs) were performed, computed tomography (CT) revealed features concerning for malignancy including central necrosis and infiltrative borders. A third FNA was still non-diagnostic. Total thyroidectomy was performed. RESULTS:Upon pathologic examination, the final diagnosis was primary thyroid angiolipoma. The lesion contained central fat necrosis with ischemic features, attributable to the FNAs. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Ours is the third published case report of this rare entity. To date, no lipomatous thyroid tumor has undergone extensive genomic testing. Next-generation sequencing of our case revealed multiple genetic alterations, supporting the concept of angiolipomas being true neoplasms. Whereas the two previously reported cases in the literature were radiographically much smaller and appeared indolent, the large tumor in our case exhibited radiographic features concerning for liposarcoma, which belied the benign final pathologic diagnosis. Our case demonstrates that conservative surgical management (partial thyroidectomy) may be considered for lipomatous thyroid tumors, with further interventions to be determined only after final pathologic diagnosis.
PMID: 36255668
ISSN: 1936-0568
CID: 5360392

Adoption of adjuvant chemotherapy in high-risk salivary gland malignancies

Gordon, Alex J; Chow, Michael S; Patel, Aneek; Hu, Kenneth S; Li, Zujun; Jacobson, Adam S; Vaezi, Alec E; Tam, Moses M; Givi, Babak
BACKGROUND:The present study characterizes national trends in the utilization of adjuvant chemotherapy to treat salivary gland malignancies. METHODS:The National Cancer Database was queried for salivary gland malignancies treated by surgery with radiation in 2004-2019. Proportions of patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy over the study period were analyzed by linear regression. The impact of chemotherapy on overall survival was assessed using Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazards analyses. RESULTS:Among 15 965 patients meeting inclusion criteria, 2355 (14.8%) received adjuvant chemotherapy. Chemotherapy utilization significantly increased from 4.9% to 16.5% over the study period (p < 0.001). No survival benefit was observed with adjuvant chemotherapy on propensity score-matched Kaplan-Meier analysis (HR: 0.98; 95% CI: 0.86-1.11; p = 0.72) or multivariable Cox regression (HR: 0.92; 95% CI: 0.78-1.09; p = 0.34). CONCLUSIONS:Adjuvant chemotherapy has been increasingly utilized to treat salivary gland malignancies in recent years. Our findings highlight the importance of obtaining high-quality prospective data regarding the benefit of chemotherapy.
PMID: 36245302
ISSN: 1097-0347
CID: 5360072

Free Fibula Flap for the Treatment of Agnathia in a 10-Year-Old With Severe Agnathia-Otocephaly Complex

Cohen, Oriana; Morrison, Kerry A; Jacobson, Adam; Levine, Jamie; Staffenberg, David A
Agnathia-otocephaly complex (AOC), a first branchial arch defect, is characterized by mandibular hypoplasia or aplasia, ear abnormalities, microstomia, and macroglossia and is a rare and often fatal diagnosis. Herein, the technical considerations and details of mandibular reconstruction using virtual surgical planning (VSP) and a vascularized free fibula flap for further mandibular reconstruction in a 10-year-old boy are presented. The patient's preoperative examination was consistent with agnathia (absence of mandibular symphysis, bilateral mandibular bodies, condyles, coronoids, rami, and temporomandibular joint), severe microstomia, and a Tessier # 30 cleft (maintained to allow oral access until later in treatment). Virtual surgical planning was utilized to plan a 3-segment fibula for the reconstruction of the mandibular symphysis and bilateral body segments, and bilateral costochondral grafts were planned for the rami. To the authors' knowledge, this represents the first application of virtual surgical planning for mandibular reconstruction with a vascularized free fibula flap in a pediatric patient with severe agnathia-otocephaly complex.
PMID: 36217223
ISSN: 1536-3732
CID: 5360872

Repeat re-irradiation with interstitial HDR-brachytherapy for an in-field isolated nodal recurrence in a patient with HPV-positive squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck [Case Report]

Kim, Joseph K; Hardy-Abeloos, Camille; Purswani, Juhi M; Kamen, Emily; Concert, Catherine M; Duckworth, Tamara; Tam, Moses; Haas, Jonathan; Rybstein, Marissa; Vaezi, Alec; Jacobson, Adam; Hu, Kenneth S
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:Locoregionally recurrent head and neck cancer is a complex clinical scenario that often requires multimodality treatment. These patients have often previously received definitive treatment with a combination of surgery, radiation therapy, and systemic therapy, which can make further management difficult. A second isolated locoregional failure is rare and clinicians are faced with a challenge to optimize disease control while minimizing treatment-related toxicity. METHODS AND MATERIALS/METHODS:In this report, we present the diagnosis, management, and outcomes of a patient with an isolated locoregional recurrence who was previously treated with two courses of radiation. The patient was treated with a second course of reirradiation using interstitial brachytherapy as well as a discussion regarding patient selection and optimal management for recurrent head and neck cancer. RESULTS:Repeat reirradiation using interstitial HDR-brachytherapy with the use of an alloderm spacer was successfully delivered to the patient for an in-field right neck nodal recurrence. He received a total EQD2/BED dose of 127.70/153.24 Gy. At 1-year followup, the patient was without evidence of recurrent disease or new significant side effects. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Recurrent head and neck cancer should be managed with a multidisciplinary approach given the complex clinical scenario. Reirradiation is a commonly used salvage measure for recurrent head and neck cancer that requires careful planning and patient selection due to prior treatment-related effects and dose constraints. We reported a case of a second course of reirradiation using interstitial HDR-brachytherapy for locoregionally recurrent head and neck cancer and showed no recurrence of disease or worsening long term side effects at 1 year.
PMID: 36593130
ISSN: 1873-1449
CID: 5409832

American Thyroid Association Guidelines and National Trends in Management of Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma

Gordon, Alex J; Dublin, Jared C; Patel, Evan; Papazian, Michael; Chow, Michael S; Persky, Michael J; Jacobson, Adam S; Patel, Kepal N; Suh, Insoo; Morris, Luc G T; Givi, Babak
Importance/UNASSIGNED:Over time, the American Thyroid Association (ATA) guidelines have increasingly promoted more limited treatments for well-differentiated thyroid cancers. Objective/UNASSIGNED:To determine whether the 2009 and 2015 ATA guidelines were associated with changes in the management of low-risk papillary thyroid carcinomas on a national scale. Design, Setting, and Participants/UNASSIGNED:This historical cohort study used the National Cancer Database. All papillary thyroid carcinomas diagnosed from 2004 to 2019 in the National Cancer Database were selected. Patients with tumors of greater than 4 cm, metastases, or clinical evidence of nodal disease were excluded. Data were analyzed from August 1, 2021, to September 1, 2022. Main Outcomes and Measures/UNASSIGNED:The primary aim was to tabulate changes in the rates of thyroid lobectomy (TL), total thyroidectomy (TT), and TT plus radioactive iodine (RAI) therapy after the 2009 and 2015 ATA guidelines. The secondary aim was to determine in which settings (eg, academic vs community) the practice patterns changed the most. Results/UNASSIGNED:A total of 194 254 patients (155 796 [80.2%] female patients; median [range] age at diagnosis, 51 [18-90] years) who underwent treatment during the study period were identified. Among patients who underwent surgery, rates of TL decreased from 15.1% to 13.7% after the 2009 guidelines but subsequently increased to 22.9% after the 2015 changes. Among patients undergoing TT, rates of adjuvant RAI decreased from 48.7% to 37.1% after 2009 and to 19.3% after the 2015 guidelines. Trends were similar for subgroups based on sex and race and ethnicity. However, academic institutions saw larger increases in TL rates (14.9% to 25.7%) than community hospitals (16.3% to 19.5%). Additionally, greater increases in TL rates were observed for tumors 1 to 2 cm (6.8% to 18.9%) and 2 to 4 cm (6.6% to 16.0%) than tumors less than 1 cm (22.8% to 29.2%). Conclusions and Relevance/UNASSIGNED:In this cohort study among patients with papillary thyroid carcinomas up to 4 cm, ATA guideline changes corresponded with increased TL and reduced adjuvant RAI. These changes were primarily seen in academic institutions, suggesting an opportunity to expand guideline-based care in the community setting.
PMID: 36326739
ISSN: 2168-619x
CID: 5358712

Early-onset osteoradionecrosis following adjuvant volumetric-modulated arc therapy to an osteocutaneous free fibula flap with customized titanium plate [Case Report]

Daar, David A; Byun, David J; Spuhler, Karl; Anzai, Lavinia; Witek, Lukasz; Barbee, David; Hu, Kenneth S; Levine, Jamie P; Jacobson, Adam S
BACKGROUND:Computerized surgical planning (CSP) in osseous reconstruction of head and neck cancer defects has become a mainstay of treatment. However, the consequences of CSP-designed titanium plating systems on planning adjuvant radiation remains unclear. METHODS:Two patients underwent head and neck cancer resection and maxillomandibular free fibula flap reconstruction with CSP-designed plates and immediate placement of osseointegrated dental implants. Surgical treatment was followed by adjuvant intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). RESULTS:Both patients developed osteoradionecrosis (ORN), and one patient had local recurrence. The locations of disease occurred at the areas of highest titanium plate burden, possibly attributed to IMRT dosing inaccuracy caused by the CSP-designed plating system. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Despite proven benefits of CSP-designed plates in osseous free flap reconstruction, there may be an underreported risk to adjuvant IMRT treatment planning leading to ORN and/or local recurrence. Future study should investigate alternative plating methods and materials to mitigate this debilitating outcome.
PMID: 34906727
ISSN: 2468-7855
CID: 5109702

Non-Squamous Cell Malignancies of the Larynx

Rotsides, Janine M; Patel, Evan; Oliver, Jamie R; Moses, Lindsey E; Jacobson, Adam S; Hu, Kenneth S; Vaezi, Alec; Tam, Moses; Givi, Babak
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVE:Non-squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) malignancies are rare, but well described laryngeal pathologies. However, the epidemiology and clinical behavior of these tumors is not well studied. STUDY DESIGN/METHODS:Retrospective cohort study. METHODS:Patients diagnosed with non-squamous cell larynx cancer from 2004 to 2017 in the National Cancer Database were selected. Demographic, clinicopathologic factors, treatments, and survival were analyzed. Univariable and multivariable cox regression were performed. Survival was compared with a propensity score-matched (PSM) population of laryngeal SCC patients. RESULTS:A total of 136,235 cases of larynx cancer were identified. After excluding SCC variants, 2,172 (1.6%) patients met inclusion criteria. The most common histology was chondrosarcoma (374, 17.2%), followed by small cell (345, 15.9%), and spindle cell carcinoma (268, 12.3%). The most common treatment was surgery (683, 31.4%) followed by chemoradiation (409, 18.8%) and surgery and adjuvant radiation (288, 13.3%). Overall, 3- and 5-year survival was 67.9% and 59.4%, respectively. In multivariate analysis controlling for age, stage, comorbidity, histology, and treatment modality; chondrosarcoma had the best survival (hazard ratio [HR] 0.11, confidence interval [CI] 0.07-0.19, P < .001). In a PSM population, matched for age, stage, comorbidity, and treatments; non-SCC patients had significantly lower survival (51.5% vs. 59.9%, P < .001). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:A diverse range of non-squamous cell malignancies occur in the larynx. In general, these tumors have poor survival, with few exceptions such as chondrosarcoma. While the majority of these histologies undergo surgical-based treatments in other sites, only 53% of patients underwent surgical-based treatment in the larynx. These data could guide clinicians in determining the outcome of treatment in these patients. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE/METHODS:4 Laryngoscope, 2022.
PMID: 34994977
ISSN: 1531-4995
CID: 5107502