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Comparable Clinical and Functional Outcomes Between Osteochondral Allograft Transplantation and Autologous Chondrocyte Implantation for Articular Cartilage Lesions in the Patellofemoral Joint at a Mean Follow-up of 5 Years

Triana, Jairo; Hughes, Andrew J; Rao, Naina; Li, Zachary; Moore, Michael R; Garra, Sharif; Strauss, Eric J; Jazrawi, Laith M; Campbell, Kirk A; Gonzalez-Lomas, Guillem
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:To assess clinical outcomes and return to sport (RTS) rates among patients that undergo osteochondral allograft (OCA) transplantation and autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) or matrix-induced autologous chondrocyte implantation (MACI), for patellofemoral articular cartilage defects. METHODS:A retrospective review of patients who underwent an OCA or ACI/MACI from 2010-2020 was conducted. Patient-reported outcomes (PROs) collected included: Visual Analog Scale for pain/satisfaction, Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS), and RTS. The percentage of patients that met the Patient Acceptable Symptom State (PASS) for KOOS was recorded. Logistic regression was used to identify predictors of worse outcomes. RESULTS:A total of 95 patients were included (78% follow-up) with ACI or MACI performed in 55 cases (57.9%) and OCA in 40 (42.1%). A tibial tubercle osteotomy was the most common concomitant procedure for OCA (66%) and ACI/MACI (98%). Overall, KOOS pain was significantly poorer in OCA than ACI/MACI (74.7, 95% CI [68.1, 81.1] vs 83.6, 95% CI [81.3, 88.4], p= 0.012), while the remaining KOOS subscores were non-significantly different (all p>0.05). Overall, RTS rate was 54%, with no significant difference in return between OCA or ACI/MACI (52% vs 58%, p= 0.738). There were 26 (27%) reoperations and 5 (5%) graft failures in the entire group. Increasing age was associated with lower satisfaction in OCA and poorer outcomes in ACI/MACI, while larger lesion area was associated with lower satisfaction and poorer outcomes in ACI/MACI. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Clinical and functional outcomes were similar in patients that underwent OCA or ACI/MACI for patellofemoral articular cartilage defects at a mean follow-up of 5 years. Patients who received OCA had a higher proportion of degenerative cartilage lesions and, among those with trochlear lesions, reported higher pain at final follow-up than their ACI/MACI counterparts. Overall, increasing age and a larger lesion size were associated with worse patient-reported outcomes.
PMID: 38844011
ISSN: 1526-3231
CID: 5665682

Matrix-Induced Autologous Chondrocyte Implantation Versus Autologous Chondrocyte Implantation of the Knee A Retrospective Comparison

Manjunath, Amit K; Fried, Jordan W; Alaia, Erin F; Lin, Charles C; Hurley, Eoghan T; Meislin, Robert J; Jazrawi, Laith M; Strauss, Eric J
OBJECTIVE:The purpose of this study was to compare the short-term clinical outcomes of matrix-induced autologous chondrocyte implantation (MACI) to those seen following traditional autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) in the management of symptomatic cartilage lesions of the knee. METHODS:This was a retrospective cohort study of patients who underwent either ACI or MACI from January 2011 to March 2018. Patients with a minimum postoperative follow-up of 18 months were contacted. Demographic information, intraoperative findings, and patient-reported functional outcomes scores were collected. Comparisons were made between the two cell-based cartilage repair techniques. RESULTS:Fifty-six patients were included in the study (39 ACI, 17 MACI). Visual analog scale (VAS) for pain scores improved significantly in both groups, with MACI patients demonstrating significantly lower postoperative pain scores compared to those treated with ACI. In the ACI group, there was a decrease in the Tegner Activity score compared to the preoperative baseline, while no significant difference was seen between pre- and postoperative activity levels in the MACI group. Patients were generally satisfied with the outcome of their procedures, and there was no significant difference in satisfaction between groups. No patients re-quired additional surgery during the follow-up period. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Both ACI and MACI demonstrated good short-term postoperative clinical results with improved pain and activity levels compared to the preoperative baseline. Patients treated with the MACI technique demonstrated greater reductions in pain scores compared to ACI, and while ACI resulted in a decrease in levels of postoperative activity, activity levels for MACI remained stable.
PMID: 38739659
ISSN: 2328-5273
CID: 5658572

Superior Pain Reduction with Anteromedialization Tibial Tubercle Osteotomy Versus Non-Operative Management for Patellofemoral Osteoarthritis

Manjunath, Amit K; Gotlin, Matthew; Bloom, David A; Hurley, Eoghan T; Alaia, Michael J; Jazrawi, Laith M; Strauss, Eric J
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:The purpose of this study was to compare the clinical outcomes of patients with patellofemoral osteoar-thritis (PFOA) treated non-operatively with those treated operatively with an unloading anteromedialization tibial tubercle osteotomy (TTO). METHODS:A retrospective chart review was performed to identify patients with isolated PFOA who were either managed non-operatively or surgically with a TTO and who had a minimum follow-up of 2 years. Patients were surveyed with the visual analog scale (VAS) for pain, Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score for Joint Replacement (KOOS-JR), Anterior Knee Pain scale (Kujala), and Tegner Activity scale. Statistical analysis included two-sample t-testing, one-way ANOVA, and bivariate analysis. RESULTS:The clinical outcomes of 49 non-operatively managed patients (mean age: 52.7 ± 11.3 years; mean follow-up: 1.7 ± 1.0 years) and 35 operatively managed patients (mean age: 31.8 ± 9.4 years; mean follow-up: 3.5 ± 1.7 years) were assessed. The mean VAS improved sig-nificantly in both groups [6.12 to 4.22 (non-operative), p < 0.0001; 6.94 to 2.45 (TTO); p < 0.0001], with operatively treated patients having significantly lower postoperative pain than non-operatively managed patients at the time of final follow-up [2.45 (TTO) vs. 4.22 (non-operative), p < 0.001]. The mean KOOS-JR score was significantly greater in the operative group at time of final follow-up [78.7 ± 11.6 (TTO) vs. 71.7 ± 17.8 (non-operative), p = 0.035]. There was no significant difference in Kujala or Tegner scores between the treatment groups. Additionally, there was no sig-nificant relationship between the number of intra-articular injections, duration of NSAID use, and number of physical therapy sessions on clinical outcomes in the non-operatively treated group (p > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS:An unloading anteromedialization TTO provides significantly better pain relief and restoration of function compared to non-operative management in the treatment of symptomatic PFOA.
PMID: 38739657
ISSN: 2328-5273
CID: 5658552

Trends in Elbow Ulnar Collateral Ligament Repairs and Reconstructions and an Analysis Between Low- and High-Volume Surgical Centers: A 10-Year Study in New York State

Bi, Andrew S; Lin, Charles C; Anil, Utkarsh; Rokito, Andrew S; Jazrawi, Laith M; Erickson, Brandon J
BACKGROUND/UNASSIGNED:Elbow ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) reconstruction (UCLR) is the gold standard for operative treatment of UCL tears, with renewed interest in UCL repairs. PURPOSE/UNASSIGNED:To (1) assess trends in rates of UCLR and UCL repair and (2) identify predictors of complications by demographic, socioeconomic, or surgical center volume factors. STUDY DESIGN/UNASSIGNED:Descriptive epidemiology study. METHODS/UNASSIGNED:Patients who underwent UCLR or UCL repair at New York State health care facilities between 2010 and 2019 were retrospectively identified; concomitant ulnar nerve procedures among the cohort were also identified. Surgical center volumes were classified as low (<99th percentile) or high (≥99th percentile). Patient information, neighborhood socioeconomic status quantified using the Area Deprivation Index, and complications within 90 days were recorded. Poisson regression analysis was used to compare trends in UCLR versus UCL repair. Multivariable regression was used to determine whether center volume, demographic, or socioeconomic variables were independent predictors of complications. RESULTS/UNASSIGNED:= .011). CONCLUSION/UNASSIGNED:A rising incidence of UCL repair compared with UCLR was found in New York State, especially among female patients, older patients, and nonprivate payers. There were no differences in 3-month complication rates between high- and low-volume centers, and Medicaid insurance status was a predictor for overall complications within 90 days of operation.
PMID: 38799547
ISSN: 2325-9671
CID: 5663252

Patient-reported allergies are associated with increased rate of postoperative stiffness after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair

Morgan, Allison M; Li, Zachary I; Garra, Sharif; Bi, Andrew S; Gonzalez-Lomas, Guillem; Jazrawi, Laith M; Campbell, Kirk A
BACKGROUND:Several risk factors have been identified for the development of postoperative shoulder stiffness, and there has been increasing interest in orthopedic literature regarding patient-reported allergy (PRA) as an identifiable risk factor for adverse outcomes. The purpose of this study is to determine whether PRAs are associated with subsequent rates of diagnosis of adhesive capsulitis (AC) or return to the operating room for postoperative shoulder stiffness within 2 years after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair (ARCR). METHODS:Current Procedural Terminology surgical billing codes were used to retrospectively identify patients who underwent ARCR at a single urban academic institution from January 2012 to December 2020 with minimum 2-year follow-up. Lysis of adhesions (LOA), manipulation under anesthesia (MUA), and AC of the shoulder were further queried within 2 years postoperatively for the ipsilateral shoulder. Patients were excluded if they had undergone ipsilateral MUA/LOA or received a diagnosis of AC before the index procedure. Demographic characteristics and medical comorbidities (hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and hypothyroidism) were extracted from electronic medical records. Baseline characteristics were compared between patients with and without PRAs. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to determine the association of the presence of PRAs overall, as well as the presence of 1, 2, or 3 or more PRAs, with subsequent MUA/LOA or diagnosis of AC within 2 years postoperatively. RESULTS:Of 7057 patients identified in the study period, 6583 were eligible for the final analysis. The mean age was 56.6 ± 11.7 years, and the mean body mass index was 29.1 ± 5.6. Overall, 19.3% of patients (n = 1271) reported at least 1 allergy, and 7.1% (n = 469) had >1 PRA. A total of 44 patients (0.7%) underwent subsequent ipsilateral MUA/LOA within 2 years postoperatively, whereas 93 patients (1.4%) received a diagnosis of ipsilateral AC in the same time frame. PRAs were significantly associated with subsequent diagnosis of AC (odds ratio [OR]: 2.39; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.45-3.92; P < .001), but not MUA/LOA (OR: 1.97, 95% CI: 1.26-3.61; P = .133). Patients with 2 PRAs had greater odds of being diagnosed with AC than patients with 1 PRA (OR: 2.74; 95% CI: 1.14-5.99; P = .012). Although this association was nonsignificant for MUA/LOA, patients with 2 PRAs (OR: 2.67; 95% CI: 0.96-8.80; P = .059) demonstrated a similar statistical trend. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:PRAs are associated with increased odds of receiving a diagnosis of AC within 2 years after ARCR but were not found to be associated with return to the operating room for postoperative stiffness.
PMID: 37839628
ISSN: 1532-6500
CID: 5620412

Patients With Segond Fracture Demonstrate Similar Rates of Return to Sport and Psychological Readiness After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction: A Matched Cohort Study at Minimum 2-Year Follow-up

Garra, Sharif; Li, Zachary I; Eskenazi, Jordan; Jazrawi, Taylor; Rao, Naina; Campbell, Kirk A; Alaia, Michael J; Strauss, Eric J; Jazrawi, Laith M
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:To compare clinical outcomes, rate of return to sports, and psychological readiness among patients undergoing anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) with and without concomitant Segond fracture. METHODS:We retrospectively identified patients who underwent primary ACLR from January 2012 to December 2020 with minimum 2-year follow-up. Exclusion criteria were additional ligamentous injury, age <16 years, or a concomitant lateral augmentation procedure. Preoperative knee radiographs were reviewed to identify Segond fractures. Identified patients were matched 1:2 to controls by age/sex/body mass index/graft type. Charts were reviewed for pre- and postoperative knee stability. Surveys administered included preinjury sport participation and return status, Lysholm score, Tegner activity scale, and ACL-Return to Sport Index (ACL-RSI), a metric of psychological sport readiness. Multivariable logistic regression was conducted to identify predictors of return to sport. RESULTS:There were 120 patients who were included in the final analysis (40 Segond, 80 controls) at a mean follow-up of 5.7 ± 2.4 years. A total of 52.5% of patients received bone-patellar tendon-bone autograft. The overall rate of return to sport was 79.5% in the Segond group compared with an 83.8% rate of return in the control group (P = .569). In total, 48.7% of the Segond group and 56.8% of the control group returned to their preinjury level of sport (P = .415). Lysholm (89.6 ± 10.3 vs 85.4 ± 16.7, P = .296), Tegner (5.7 ± 1.8 vs 6.1 ± 2.2, P = .723), and ACL-RSI (62.2 ± 25.4 vs 56.6 ± 25.4, P = .578) scores were similar between Segond and control groups. There was a single graft failure in the Segond group 5 years' postoperatively. Increasing ACL-RSI score was significantly predictive of return to sport (P < .001). CONCLUSIONS:Patients who had an ACL tear and a concomitant Segond fracture who underwent isolated ACLR without lateral augmentation procedures had similar clinical outcomes and rates of return sport compared with a matched isolated ACLR control group at minimum 2-year follow-up. There was no significant difference in psychological readiness between groups as measured by the ACL-RSI. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE/METHODS:Level III, retrospective cohort study.
PMID: 37716633
ISSN: 1526-3231
CID: 5593392

Clinical and Functional Outcomes of Documented Knee Dislocation Versus Multiligamentous Knee Injury: A Comparison of KD3 Injuries at Mean 6.5 Years Follow-up

Hughes, Andrew J; Li, Zachary I; Garra, Sharif; Green, Joshua S; Chalem, Isabel; Triana, Jairo; Jazrawi, Laith M; Medvecky, Michael J; Alaia, Michael J
BACKGROUND/UNASSIGNED:Previous research has found that the incidence of neurovascular injury is greatest among multiligamentous knee injuries (MLKIs) with documented knee dislocation (KD). However, it is unknown whether there is a comparative difference in functional recovery based on evidence of a true dislocation. PURPOSE/UNASSIGNED:To determine whether the knee dislocation-3 (KD3) injury pattern of MLKI with documented tibiofemoral dislocation represents a more severe injury than KD3 MLKI without documented dislocation, as manifested by poorer clinical outcomes at long-term follow-up. STUDY DESIGN/UNASSIGNED:Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. METHODS/UNASSIGNED:A multicenter retrospective cohort study was performed of patients who underwent surgical treatment for KD3 MLKI between May 2012 and February 2021. Outcomes were assessed using the International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) score, Lysholm score, Tegner activity scale, and visual analog scale (VAS) for pain. Documented dislocation was defined as a radiographically confirmed tibiofemoral disarticulation, the equivalent radiology report from outside transfer, or emergency department documentation of a knee reduction maneuver. Subgroup analysis was performed comparing lateral (KD3-L) versus medial (KD3-M) injuries. Multivariable linear regression was conducted to determine whether documented dislocation was predictive of outcomes. RESULTS/UNASSIGNED:= .007) scores. CONCLUSION/UNASSIGNED:Patients undergoing surgical management of KD3 injuries with true, documented KD had significantly worse clinical and functional outcomes than those with nondislocated joints at a mean 6.5-year follow-up. The current MLKI classification based solely on ligament involvement may be obscuring outcome research by not accounting for true dislocation.
PMID: 38400667
ISSN: 1552-3365
CID: 5634642

Bone Marrow Stimulation for Arthroscopic Rotator Cuff Repair: A Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

Hurley, Eoghan T; Crook, Bryan S; Danilkowicz, Richard M; Jazrawi, Laith M; Mirzayan, Raffy; Dickens, Jonathan F; Anakwenze, Oke; Klifto, Christopher S
BACKGROUND/UNASSIGNED:Bone marrow stimulation (BMS) has been proposed to augment healing at the time of arthroscopic rotator cuff repair (ARCR) by creating several bone marrow vents in the footprint of the rotator cuff, allowing mesenchymal stem cells, platelets, and growth factors to cover the area as a "crimson duvet." PURPOSE/UNASSIGNED:To perform a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to compare the outcomes after BMS and a control for those undergoing ARCR. STUDY DESIGN/UNASSIGNED:Meta-analysis; Level of evidence, 1. METHODS/UNASSIGNED:value <.05 was considered to be statistically significant. RESULTS/UNASSIGNED: CONCLUSION/UNASSIGNED:The level 1 evidence in the literature did not support BMS as a modality to improve retear rates or clinical outcomes after ARCR.
PMID: 38328818
ISSN: 1552-3365
CID: 5632362

Psychological Readiness to Return to Sport (RTS) and RTS Rates Are Similar in Patients After Either Bilateral or Unilateral Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

Buldo-Licciardi, Michael; Rynecki, Nicole D.; Rao, Naina; Eskenazi, Jordan; Montgomery, Samuel R.; Li, Zachary I.; Moore, Michael; Alaia, Michael J.; Strauss, Eric J.; Jazrawi, Laith M.; Campbell, Kirk A.
Purpose: To compare psychological readiness to return to sport (RTS), RTS rate, level of return, and time to return between patients who underwent bilateral anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) and those who underwent unilateral ACLR. Methods: The electronic medical record at a single academic medical center was queried for patients who underwent ACLR from January 2012 to May 2020. The inclusion criteria were skeletally mature patients who underwent either single or sequential bilateral ACLR and who had undergone either the primary ACLR or second contralateral ACLR at least 2 years earlier. Bilateral ACLRs were matched 1:3 to unilateral reconstructions based on age, sex, and body mass index. Psychological readiness to RTS was assessed using the validated ACL Return to Sport After Injury (ACL-RSI) scale. This, along with time to return and level of RTS, was compared between the 2 cohorts. Results: In total, 170 patients were included, of whom 44 underwent bilateral ACLR and 132 underwent unilateral ACLR. At the time of the first surgical procedure, patients in the unilateral cohort were aged 28.8 ± 9.4 years and those in the bilateral cohort were aged 25.7 ± 9.8 years (P = .06). The average time difference between the first and second surgical procedures was 28.4 ± 22.3 months. There was no difference in psychological readiness to RTS (50.5 in bilateral cohort vs 48.1 in unilateral cohort, P = .66), RTS rate (78.0% in unilateral cohort vs 65.9% in bilateral cohort, P = .16), percentage of return to preinjury sport level (61.2% in unilateral cohort vs 69.0% in bilateral cohort, P = .21), or time to return (41.2 ± 29.3 weeks in unilateral cohort vs 35.2 ± 23.7 weeks in bilateral cohort, P = .31) between the 2 cohorts. Conclusions: Compared with patients who undergo unilateral ACLR, patients who undergo bilateral ACLR are equally as psychologically ready to RTS, showing equal rates of RTS, time to return, and level of return. Level of Evidence: Level III, retrospective cohort study.
ISSN: 2666-061x
CID: 5620732

Patients who undergo tibial tubercle anteromedialization with medial patellofemoral ligament reconstruction demonstrate similar rates of return to sport compared to isolated MPFL reconstruction

Li, Zachary I; Garra, Sharif; Eskenazi, Jordan; Montgomery, Samuel R; Triana, Jairo; Hughes, Andrew J; Alaia, Michael J; Strauss, Eric J; Jazrawi, Laith M; Campbell, Kirk A
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:To investigate the rate of return to sports and sport psychological readiness between patients who underwent isolated MPFLR (iMPFLR) compared to a matched cohort of patients who underwent MPFLR with anteromedializing tibial tubercle osteotomy (MPFLR/TTO). METHODS:Patients who underwent primary MPFLR with or without TTO for recurrent patellar instability were retrospectively reviewed from 2012 to 2020 at a single institution. Preinjury sport and work information, Kujala, Tegner, Visual Analogue Score for pain, satisfaction and MPFL-Return to Sport after Injury (MPFL-RSI) score were collected. Two readers independently measured the tibial tuberosity-trochlear groove distance, Caton-Deschamps index and Dejour classification for trochlear dysplasia. Patients in iMPFLR and MPFLR/TTO groups were matched 1:1 on age, sex, body mass index and follow-up length. Multivariate regression analysis was performed to determine whether the MPFL-RSI was associated with a return to sport. RESULTS:This study included 74 patients at mean follow-up of 52.5 months (range: 24-117). These groups returned to sport at similar rates (iMPFLR: 67.6%, MPFLR/TTO: 73.0%, not significant [ns]), though iMPFLR patients returned more quickly (8.4 vs. 12.8 months, p = 0.019). Rates of return to preinjury sport level were also similar (45.9% vs. 40.5%, ns). Patients with Dejour B/C took more time to return to sport compared to patients with mild/no trochlear pathology (13.8 vs. 7.9 months, p = 0.003). Increasing MPFL-RSI score was significantly predictive of the overall return to sport (odds ratio [OR]: 1.08, 95% confidence interval [CI] [1.03, 1.13], p < 0.001) and return to preinjury level (OR: 1.07, 95% CI [1.04, 1.13], p < 0.001). Most patients in iMPFLR and MPFLR/TTO groups resumed work (95.7% vs. 88.5%, ns), though iMPFLR patients who returned to preinjury work levels did so more quickly (1.7 vs. 4.6 months, p = 0.005). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Patients who underwent MPFLR with anteromedializing TTO demonstrated similar rates of return to sport and psychological readiness compared to an isolated MPFLR matched comparison group, though iMPFLRs returned more quickly. Patients with more severe trochlear pathology required more time to return to sports. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE/METHODS:Level III.
PMID: 38270287
ISSN: 1433-7347
CID: 5625202