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Peripheral Nerve Injuries in the Upper Extremity

Bookman, Jared; Hacquebord, Jacques
Major peripheral nerve injuries are devastating and represent a very challenging clinical problem. Despite many years of advancement in peripheral nerve research, results so far have been fair at best, with only 50% of patients regaining useful function. Advancement of techniques in imaging, better understanding of the physiology of nerve recovery, improved repair and grafting options, and secondary reconstructive techniques, including tendon and nerve transfers, have helped facilitate a degree of more effective treatment. This article presents current concepts regarding the principles of management, expected outcomes, and new advancements in major upper extremity peripheral nerve injuries.
PMID: 33704032
ISSN: 2328-5273
CID: 5103462

Postsurgical Rehabilitation of Flexor Tendon Injuries

Klifto, Christopher S; Bookman, Jared; Paksima, Nader
Rehabilitation after surgical repair of flexor injuries is a controversial topic. Motion at the repair site decreases risk for adhesions but increases risk for rupture. We review the current concepts behind various rehabilitation protocols based on zone of injury and the evidence behind each.
PMID: 31113704
ISSN: 1531-6564
CID: 3920532

Posterior Shoulder Instability After Infraclavicular Block for Outpatient Hand Surgery

Kanakamedala, Ajay C; Bookman, Jared S; Furgiuele, David L; Hacquebord, Jacques H
Regional blocks are being increasingly utilized for anesthesia for various orthopedic procedures. Several studies have shown that regional anesthesia has fewer side effects and improved postoperative pain relief compared to general anesthesia, but regional blocks are not without risks. We present case reports of 2 patients who experienced posterior shoulder instability, one of whom had a posterior shoulder dislocation, immediately in the postanesthesia care unit after undergoing hand surgery with regional anesthesia. This paper highlights the importance of being aware that patients might be at increased risk of shoulder instability after upper extremity regional anesthesia, and appropriate perioperative precautions should be taken.
PMID: 34963364
ISSN: 1558-9455
CID: 5108162

The Utility and Cost Effectiveness of Immediate Postoperative Laboratory Studies in Hip and Knee Arthroplasty

Bookman, Jared S; Romanelli, Filippo; Hutzler, Lorraine; Bosco, Joseph A; Lajam, Claudette
BACKGROUND:Routine immediate postoperative laboratory studies, including metabolic panels and hematologic profiles, are commonly ordered after arthroplasty procedures. However, their values only occasionally influence management. This study investigated the clinical utility and value of these tests. METHODS:A large retrospective cohort study of 18,935 patients spanning a 6-year period from 2008 to 2013 from a single high-volume institution was evaluated. Only immediate postoperative labs drawn on postoperative day 0 in the recovery room were included in the study. Complete blood counts (CBC) and basic metabolic panels (BMP) were reviewed, and ranges of abnormal were set for each lab test based on values significant enough to impact patient management. Cost effectiveness calculations were made based on current cost of the laboratory tests. RESULTS:Actionably low hemoglobin values ( < 8 g/dL) were found in 1.44% of the overall cohort. Unilateral primary total knee arthroplasty was associated with the fewest hemoglobin abnormalities at 0.59%. Primary unilateral total hip arthroplasty was associated with abnormal hemoglobin values in 1.81% of cases. Significant electrolyte abnormalities were far less common, with hyperkalemia (> 6.5 mEq/L) in 0.19%, hyponatremia ( < 120 mEq/L) in 0.01% and elevated creatinine (> 2.0 mg/dL) was found in 0.25%. Hemoglobin values were calculated at a cost of $1,710 to detect a single significantly abnormal result. The cost to detect a single actionably abnormal BMP value was $1,000. CONCLUSIONS:Routine immediate postoperative laboratory tests represent a high institutional cost and are seldom abnormal enough to warrant a change in patient management. The routine use of these tests can likely be safely eliminated in uncomplicated primary unilateral arthroplasty procedures.
PMID: 31128583
ISSN: 2328-5273
CID: 3921182

Up to 18-Year Follow-Up Wear Analysis of a First-Generation Highly Cross-Linked Polyethylene in Primary Total Hip Arthroplasty

Feng, James E; Novikov, David; Chen, Kevin; Kim, Kelvin; Bookman, Jared; Anoushiravani, Afshin A; Hamula, Matthew; Snir, Nimrod; Schwarzkopf, Ran
BACKGROUND:The advent of highly cross-linked polyethylene (HCLPE) has significantly improved total hip arthroplasty survivorship. HCLPE has been shown to improve wear properties in midterm outcomes when compared to traditional polyethylene liners; however, there is a paucity of studies evaluating long-term outcomes. In addition, there is concern that wear rates may accelerate as the implant ages. Thus, the aims of this study are to report on the longest-to-date follow-up of a specific first-generation HCLPE liner and to determine whether there is a change in the annual wear rate over time. METHODS:Forty hips in 38 patients which were previously reported on in a midterm study were included in this long-term follow-up study. Patients in this cohort all received total hip arthroplasty between March 1999 and August 2004 using the Crossfire HCLPE liner. Annual wear rates (mm/y) were calculated for this cohort. Patients were contacted and asked about complications or revision procedures they may have had since the index procedure. RESULTS:Clinical follow-up averaged 12.9 years with a range of 7-18 years. The average follow-up duration was 12.5 years with a range of 10-17 years. Linear wear was found to be 0.056 ± 0.036 mm/y. Osteolysis was not observed in any of the patients with greater than 10-year radiographic follow-up. Furthermore, only 1 patient required revision surgery following a mechanical fall. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Our study demonstrates the long-term wear rates associated with HCLPE liners continue to match rates published in midterm studies. Previously, we have reported that this cohort had an average annual wear rate of 0.05 mm/y over 10 years. This most recent report demonstrates a similar wear rate with up to 18-year follow-up.
PMID: 30041989
ISSN: 1532-8406
CID: 3216412

Musculoskeletal Injuries in Yoga

Klifto, Christopher S; Bookman, Jared S; Kaplan, Daniel J; Dold, Andrew P; Jazrawi, Laith M; Sapienza, Anthony
While yoga has been widely studied for its benefits to many health conditions, little research has been performed on the nature of musculoskeletal injuries occurring during yoga practice. Yoga is considered to be generally safe, however, injury can occur in nearly any part of the body-especially the neck, shoulders, lumbar spine, hamstrings, and knees. As broad interest in yoga grows, so will the number of patients presenting with yoga-related injuries. In this literature review, the prevalence, types of injuries, forms of yoga related with injury, specific poses (asanas) associated with injury, and preventive measures are discussed in order to familiarize practitioners with yoga-related injuries.
PMID: 31513523
ISSN: 2328-5273
CID: 4088332

Obesity: The Modifiable Risk Factor in Total Joint Arthroplasty

Bookman, Jared S; Schwarzkopf, Ran; Rathod, Parthiv; Iorio, Richard; Deshmukh, Ajit J
Obesity is an epidemic in the health care system. Obesity poses several challenges and raises unique issues for the arthroplasty surgeon. Obese patients are at higher risk for infection and dislocation. Additionally, obese patients have poorer implant survivorship and functional scores postoperatively. Obesity is a modifiable risk factor and weight loss preoperatively should be strongly considered. Obese patients must be counseled so that they have realistic expectations after total joint arthroplasty.
PMID: 29929710
ISSN: 1558-1373
CID: 3157702

10-Year Follow-Up Wear Analysis of Marathon Highly Cross-Linked Polyethylene in Primary Total Hip Arthroplasty

Bookman, Jared S; Kaye, Ian D; Chen, Kevin K; Jaffe, Fredrick F; Schwarzkopf, Ran
BACKGROUND: Short-term and intermediate-term wear rates for highly cross-linked polyethylene (HCLPE) liners in total hip arthroplasty (THA) are significantly lower than published rates for traditional polyethylene liners. The aim of this study was to report the longest-to-date follow-up of a specific HCLPE liner. METHODS: A series of 35 THAs using a specific HCLPE liner were reviewed. Anteroposterior radiographs were reviewed for femoral head penetration, the presence of femoral and/or acetabular osteolysis, long-term survival, total wear, and wear rates in all patients. RESULTS: The average patient age at time of surgery was 70 years with an average follow-up of 10 years (118 months; range, 7.2-13.4 years). The mean wear rate in our cohort was 0.07 mm/y. Total wear was 0.71 mm over the study period. No hips showed evidence of osteolysis in any zones. Survivorship at latest follow-up was 100% with all-cause revision as an end point. CONCLUSION: The wear rate of HCLPE liners continues to be lower than published wear rates for traditional polyethylene and continues to reaffirm the acceptably low wear rates using HCLPE acetabular liner in primary THA.
PMID: 28438454
ISSN: 1532-8406
CID: 2653622

The Etiology of Improved Outcomes at High Volume Centers Learning Theory and the Case of Implant Flashing

Bookman, Jared; Duffey, Romney; Hutzler, Lorraine; Slover, James; Iorio, Richard; Bosco, Joseph
Increased volume has been shown to be associated with improved outcomes for many orthopaedic procedures. For individual surgeons, the concepts of learning curves and volume effects have been well established in the literature. For institutions, high-volume hospitals have also been shown to have better outcomes for orthopaedic procedures such as total joint replacements. However, exactly how hospital volume mediates this improvement is not well understood. Learning theory states that learning occurs as a result of accumulated experience, not based on time. We compared our institution's curve representing our implant flashing rates to other institutional data sets that exhibit learning and continuous quality improvement, including airline near misses, coal mining accidents, and others. Development of expertise is based on volume and rate of errors, and therefore higher volume is conducive to faster learning.
PMID: 27281321
ISSN: 2328-5273
CID: 2169972

Principles of Antibiotic Prophylaxis in Total Joint Arthroplasty: Current Concepts

Bosco, Joseph; Bookman, Jared; Slover, James; Edusei, Emmanuel; Levine, Brett
Infection is a rare, serious complication after total joint arthroplasty and constitutes a considerable emotional and financial burden for patients, surgeons, and healthcare systems. Prevention of surgical site and periprosthetic joint infections is crucial. This requires knowledge of the microorganisms that commonly cause these infections, including Staphylococcus species. Selection of the appropriate antibiotic regimen to treat infection remains controversial, but cefazolin and cefuroxime are the most commonly recommended antibiotics for prophylaxis. Appropriate timing of administration before surgery, with redosing performed as needed, can help to ensure optimal antibiotic concentration during surgery. Given the increasing evidence that S aureus colonization is a risk factor for periprosthetic joint infection, an exploration of the potential benefits of preoperative S aureus carrier screening and decolonization protocols is warranted. The use of antibiotic-loaded bone cement in primary total joint arthroplasty and antibiotic powder at wound closure are other controversial topics that require additional research.
PMID: 27049212
ISSN: 0065-6895
CID: 2065632