Predicting Delayed Shock in Multisystem Inflammatory Disease in Children: A Multicenter Analysis From the New York City Tri-State Region
OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:Patients with multisystem inflammatory disease in children (MIS-C) are at risk of developing shock. Our objectives were to determine independent predictors associated with development of delayed shock (≥3 hours from emergency department [ED] arrival) in patients with MIS-C and to derive a model predicting those at low risk for delayed shock. METHODS:We conducted a retrospective cross-sectional study of 22 pediatric EDs in the New York City tri-state area. We included patients meeting World Health Organization criteria for MIS-C and presented April 1 to June 30, 2020. Our main outcomes were to determine the association between clinical and laboratory factors to the development of delayed shock and to derive a laboratory-based prediction model based on identified independent predictors. RESULTS:Of 248 children with MIS-C, 87 (35%) had shock and 58 (66%) had delayed shock. A C-reactive protein (CRP) level greater than 20 mg/dL (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 5.3; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.4-12.1), lymphocyte percent less than 11% (aOR, 3.8; 95% CI, 1.7-8.6), and platelet count less than 220,000/uL (aOR, 4.2; 95% CI, 1.8-9.8) were independently associated with delayed shock. A prediction model including a CRP level less than 6 mg/dL, lymphocyte percent more than 20%, and platelet count more than 260,000/uL, categorized patients with MIS-C at low risk of developing delayed shock (sensitivity 93% [95% CI, 66-100], specificity 38% [95% CI, 22-55]). CONCLUSIONS:Serum CRP, lymphocyte percent, and platelet count differentiated children at higher and lower risk for developing delayed shock. Use of these data can stratify the risk of progression to shock in patients with MIS-C, providing situational awareness and helping guide their level of care.
Enhancing the reliability and accuracy of AI-enabled diagnosis via complementarity-driven deferral to clinicians
Predictive artificial intelligence (AI) systems based on deep learning have been shown to achieve expert-level identification of diseases in multiple medical imaging settings, but can make errors in cases accurately diagnosed by clinicians and vice versa. We developed Complementarity-Driven Deferral to Clinical Workflow (CoDoC), a system that can learn to decide between the opinion of a predictive AI model and a clinical workflow. CoDoC enhances accuracy relative to clinician-only or AI-only baselines in clinical workflows that screen for breast cancer or tuberculosis (TB). For breast cancer screening, compared to double reading with arbitration in a screening program in the UK, CoDoC reduced false positives by 25% at the same false-negative rate, while achieving a 66% reduction in clinician workload. For TB triaging, compared to standalone AI and clinical workflows, CoDoC achieved a 5-15% reduction in false positives at the same false-negative rate for three of five commercially available predictive AI systems. To facilitate the deployment of CoDoC in novel futuristic clinical settings, we present results showing that CoDoC's performance gains are sustained across several axes of variation (imaging modality, clinical setting and predictive AI system) and discuss the limitations of our evaluation and where further validation would be needed. We provide an open-source implementation to encourage further research and application.
Novel Use of Prostate Urethral Lift for a Patient With Bladder Outlet Obstruction: NYU Case of the Month, August 2019
Management of Obstructive Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia With a >200 mL Gland
Regular use of Metformin vs. Sulfonylureas Associated with Lower Cancer Incidence in a National Cohort of Veterans [Meeting Abstract]
Evaluating patients' symptoms of overactive bladder by questionnaire: the role of urgency in urinary frequency
OBJECTIVE: To explain what role urinary urgency has on urinary frequency in patients with overactive bladder (OAB). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We prospectively enrolled 102 patients with OAB over a 6-week period. Patients were assessed with the OAB-q and a pilot questionnaire to identify which urinary symptoms were most bothersome and what underlying cause subjects attributed urinary frequency to. Associations between epidemiologic characteristics, OAB-q scores, and subject responses to the pilot questionnaire, were examined for statistical significance with the Pearson chi square test. RESULTS: The study population comprised 85% women and 15% men, with mean age 67.4 years and mean OAB-q score 54. Subjects reported their most bothersome symptom was: frequency 24.5%, urgency or urgency incontinence 48.0%, nocturia 27.5%. Of the patients most bothered by frequency, 64% identified the International Continence Society definition of urgency or "fear of leakage" as the underlying reason for their frequency. Overall, 82.4% and 48.0% of patients reported urgency or urgency incontinence as a symptom and most bothersome symptom respectively. However, when patients were specifically asked what drives their urinary frequency, these percentages increased to 89.2% and 63.7%. CONCLUSION: This pilot study confirms that urgency is a large factor underlying the drive to void frequently in OAB, even when patients do not admit to urgency as the most bothersome symptom.
Artificial urinary sphincter revision: the role of ultrasound
OBJECTIVE: To assess the accuracy of office-based ultrasound (US) to identify the fluid status of the AMS 800 artificial urinary sphincter (AUS) pressure-regulating balloon (PRB). METHODS: Patients who underwent AUS revision surgery (removal/replacement) from January 4, 2007, to January 4, 2010, were identified. US were done preoperatively to assess the system fluid status. Intraoperative findings were recorded. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated comparing US results with intra-/postoperative findings. When the PRB was underfilled, the location of the device fluid leak was determined, and the device was removed/replaced. In cases of a full PRB, patients had a cuff downsizing or total removal/replacement. RESULTS: A total of 27 patients were identified. Reasons for not obtaining US included: advanced device age (4), cuff erosion (2), volume determination by other modality (2), cuff site pain (1), isolated pump malfunctions (1), and other (3). Fourteen patients underwent an US before the removal/replacement. By US, PRB was full (21-23 mL) in 43% of the patients and empty/underfilled (0-6 mL) in 57%. US was 100% sensitive and specific determining fluid status. When PRB was full, management consisted of cuff downsizing (3), transcorporal cuff placement (1), and total removal/replacement (2). In all cases of device leak, an entire removal/replacement was performed. The cuff was identified as the site of leak in 50% of cases. CONCLUSION: US is an effective and accurate way of determining the fluid status of the AMS 800 AUS. Given the accuracy of this modality, the system can be filled with saline solution without losing the ability to determine fluid status.
Functional homotopic changes in multiple sclerosis with resting-state functional MR imaging
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: CC is extensively involved in MS with interhemispheric dysfunction. The purpose of this study was to determine whether interhemispheric correlation is altered in MS by use of a recently developed RS-fMRI homotopy technique and whether these homotopic changes correlate with CC pathology. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-four patients with relapsing-remitting MS and 24 age-matched healthy volunteers were studied with RS-fMRI and DTI acquired at 3T. The Pearson correlation of each pair of symmetric interhemispheric voxels of RS-fMRI time-series data was performed to compute VMHC, and z-transformed for subsequent group-level analysis. In addition, 5 CC segments in the midsagittal area and DTI-derived FA were measured to quantify interhemispheric microstructural changes and correlate with global and regional VMHC in MS. RESULTS: Relative to control participants, patients with MS exhibited an abnormal homotopic pattern with decreased VMHC in the primary visual, somatosensory, and motor cortices and increased VMHC in several regions associated with sensory processing and motor control including the insula, thalamus, pallidum, and cerebellum. The global VMHC correlates moderately with the average FA of the entire CC for all participants in both groups (r = 0.3; P = .03). CONCLUSIONS: Our data provide preliminary evidence of the potential usefulness of VMHC analyses for the detection of abnormalities of interhemispheric coordination in MS. We demonstrated that the whole-brain homotopic RS-fMRI pattern was altered in patients with MS, which was partially associated with the underlying structural degenerative changes of CC measured with FA.
Comparison of urodynamic findings in women with anatomical versus functional bladder outlet obstruction
OBJECTIVES: To characterize the symptoms and urodynamic findings of anatomical bladder outlet obstruction (AO) and functional bladder outlet obstruction (FO) in women and to determine if future endeavors at defining bladder outlet obstruction in women can group these entities together. METHODS: Retrospective review of all videourodynamic studies was performed on women from March 2003 to July 2009. Women with diagnosis of obstruction were categorized based on the cause of obstruction into 2 groups: AO and FO. Demographic data, symptoms, and urodynamic findings were compared between the 2 groups. RESULTS: One hundred fifty-seven women were identified of which 86 (54.8%) were classified as having AO and 71 (45.2%) were classified as having FO. There were no differences in symptoms between the 2 groups. There was no difference (P=0.5789) in the mean detrusor pressure at maximum flow rate Qmax between AO (38.9 cm H20) and FO (41.0 cm H20). There was a difference in the Qmax between AO and FO (10.6 [0-41.7] and 7.4 [0-35.7] mL/s, respectively; P=0.0044), but there was considerable overlap between the values in these 2 groups. CONCLUSIONS: Anatomical bladder outlet obstruction and FO have similar urodynamic voiding pressure findings, but Qmax was statistically significantly lower in AO. However, there is a large overlap in the Qmax values between the 2 groups. Therefore, future studies that attempt to characterize bladder outlet obstruction in women need not exclude either group.
Urodynamic differences between dysfunctional voiding and primary bladder neck obstruction in women
OBJECTIVE: To determine the clinical and urodynamic differences in the presentation and the value of simultaneous fluoroscopy in dysfunctional voiding (DV) and primary bladder neck obstruction (PBNO); the 2 most common causes of non-neurogenic "functional" bladder outlet obstruction in women. METHODS: A review of our urodynamic study database (March 2003 to August 2009) was conducted. DV was diagnosed when increased external sphincter activity was found during voluntary voiding on electromyography (EMG) or fluoroscopy. PBNO was diagnosed when a failure of bladder neck opening was noted on fluoroscopy during voiding. The demographics, symptoms, and urodynamic study parameters were collected. Comparisons were done using chi-square and 2-tailed t-tests. RESULTS: DV was diagnosed in 34 women and PBNO in 16. The patients with DV were younger than those with PBNO (40.9 vs 59.2 years, P < .001). Women with DV showed a clinical trend toward having more storage symptoms than those with PBNO and fewer voiding symptoms. Patients with DV had a greater mean maximal flow rate (12 vs 7 mL/s, P = .027) and lower mean postvoid residual urine volume (125 vs 400 mL, P = .012). No significant differences were found in maximal detrusor pressure, detrusor pressure at maximal flow rate, or detrusor overactivity. EMG showed increased activity during voiding in 79.4% of those with DV and 14.3% of those with PBNO (P < .001). CONCLUSION: Clinically, women with DV and PBNO had similar presentations, although those with PBNO had poorer emptying. The flow rates and patterns seemed to differ between those with DV and PBNO, although the voiding pressures were similar. EMG alone would have given the wrong diagnosis in 20.6% of those with DV (false negative) and 14.3% of those with PBNO (false positive). When fluoroscopy is used to define these entities, the accuracy of EMG to differentiate them is questionable.